Tirumantiram

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The Tirumantiram (Tamil : திருமந்திரம்) or Thirumantiram is a Tamil poetic work, written either in the 6th century CE or post 10th century CE by Tirumular. It is the tenth of the twelve volumes of the Tirumurai, the key texts of Shaiva Siddhanta and the first known Tamil work to use the term. The Tirumantiram is the earliest known exposition of the Shaiva Agamas in Tamil. It consists of over three thousand verses dealing with various aspects of spirituality, ethics and praise of Shiva. But it is more spiritual than religious and one can see the difference between Vedanta and Siddhanta from Tirumular's interpretation of the Mahavakyas. [1] [2] According to historian Venkatraman, the work covers almost every feature of the siddhar of the Tamils. According to another historian, Madhavan, the work stresses on the fundamentals of Siddha medicine and its healing powers. [3] It deals with a wide array of subjects including astronomy and physical culture. [4]

Contents

Etymology

Tirumantiram's literal meaning is "sacred mantra" or "holy incantation." [5]

Content

Om symbol Hinduism symbol.png
Om symbol
Tirumurai
Om symbol in Tamil Tamil Om.svg
Om symbol in Tamil
The twelve volumes of Tamil Śaiva hymns of the sixty-three Nayanars
PartsNameAuthor
1,2,3Thirukadaikkappu Sambandar
4,5,6 Thevaram Thirunavukkarasar
7Thirupaatu Sundarar
8 Thiruvasakam &
Thirukkovaiyar
Manickavasagar
9 Thiruvisaippa &
Tiruppallaandu
Various
10 Thirumandhiram Thirumular
11Various
12 Periya Puranam Sekkizhar
Paadal Petra Sthalam
Paadal Petra Sthalam
Rajaraja I
Nambiyandar Nambi

The Tirumantiram is divided into nine chapters, 9 tantras (tantirams):

The poems have a unique metrical structure, each line consisting of 11 or 12 syllables depending on the initial syllable. Tirumular discusses the four steps of spiritual progress; Charya, Kriya , Yoga and Gnana, the Shaiva Siddhanta concept of Pati, Pasu and Pasa where Pati stands for Shiva, Pasu stands for the humankind and Pasa stands for Maya (the desire), sadhana, Vedanta , the Upanishadic Tat tvam asi and other Vedantic concepts, the transcendental reality as emptiness (Sunya) devoid of any attribute and Tantrasastra (Shakti worship), chakras , magic spells and their accessories.[ citation needed ]

The section on Yoga, called "Shiva yoga", offers details not found in the Sanskrit text of Patanjali. The Tirumantiram describes means of attaining an immortal body (kaya siddhi), advocating a theory of preserving the body so that the soul would continue its existence (Udambai valarthen uyir valarthenae).[ citation needed ]

Tirumular is not only one of the 63 Nayanmars (Nayanars) but also a significant one among the 18 Siddhars. Tirumular has been referred to as "Nampiran" (meaning: nam-Our, piran-God, thus thirumular has been called as a leader or god to all the remaining Nayanars) by Sundarar in his thiru thondar thogai (the earliest song which mentions the names of 63 Nayanars). Tirumular as a moral philosopher teaches the ethics of non-violence (ahimsa), abstinence from slaughtering, meat and alcohol. He condemns coveting another man's wife. He declares that "love is God", proclaims the unity of mankind and God and stresses the acquisition of knowledge.[ citation needed ]

The final section of the Tirumantiram, named Sunya Sambhashana ("Colloquy on the Void"), is full of metaphorical sayings communicating mystical and speculative thoughts, for example;

See also

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References

  1. The Encyclopaedia Of Indian Literature (Volume Two) (Devraj To Jyoti), Volume 2, page 1625
  2. Saivism in Philosophical Perspective, page 31
  3. A Short Introduction: The Tamil Siddhas and the Siddha Medicine of Tamil Nadu, page 7
  4. A dictionary of Indian literature, Volume 1, page 393
  5. "tirumantiram".

Sources