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Tirutakkatevar was a Tamil Jain poet who wrote Cīvaka Cintāmaṇi , one of The Five Great Epics of Tamil Literature. [1] [2] He, as a local king, also supported Kambar, one of the most famous poets of Tamil literature.

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<span class="mw-page-title-main">Tamil literature</span> South-Indian Literature by language

Tamil literature has a rich and long literary tradition spanning more than two thousand years. The oldest extant works show signs of maturity indicating an even longer period of evolution. Contributors to the Tamil literature are mainly from Tamil people from South India, including the land now comprising Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Eelam Tamils from Sri Lanka, as well as the Tamil diaspora.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Thiruvalluvar</span> Tamil poet and philosopher

Thiruvalluvar, commonly known as Valluvar, was a celebrated Tamil poet and philosopher. He is best known as the author of the Tirukkuṟaḷ, a collection of couplets on ethics, political and economical matters, and love. The text is considered an exceptional and widely cherished work of Tamil literature.

Indian epic poetry is the epic poetry written in the Indian subcontinent, traditionally called Kavya. The Ramayana and the Mahabharata, which were originally composed in Sanskrit and later translated into many other Indian languages, and the Five Great Epics of Tamil literature and Sangam literature are some of the oldest surviving epic poems ever written.

Indian literature refers to the literature produced on the Indian subcontinent until 1947 and in the Republic of India thereafter. The Republic of India has 22 officially recognised languages.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Tamil Jain</span> Tamils who practice Jainism

Tamil Jains are ethnic-Tamils from the Indian state of Tamil Nadu, who practice Jainism, chiefly the Digambara school. The Tamil Jain is a microcommunity of around 85,000, including both Tamil Jains and north Indian Jains settled in Tamil Nadu. They are predominantly scattered in northern Tamil Nadu, largely in the districts of Tiruvannamalai, Kanchipuram, Vellore, Villupuram, Ranipet and Kallakurichi. Early Tamil-Brahmi inscriptions in Tamil Nadu date to the third century BCE and describe the livelihoods of Tamil Jains. Samaṇar wrote much Tamil literature, including the important Sangam literature, such as the Nālaṭiyār, the Silappatikaram, the Valayapathi and the Seevaka Sinthamaṇi. Three of the five great epics of Tamil literature are attributed to Jains.

<i>Cīvaka Cintāmaṇi</i> One of the five great Tamil epics

Civaka Cintamani, also spelled as Jivaka Chintamani, is one of the five great Tamil epics. Authored by a Madurai-based Jain ascetic Tiruttakkatēvar in the early 10th century, the epic is a story of a prince who is the perfect master of all arts, perfect warrior and perfect lover with numerous wives. The Civaka Cintamani is also called the Mana Nool. The epic is organized into 13 cantos and contains 3,145 quatrains in viruttam poetic meter. Its Jain author is credited with 2,700 of these quatrains, the rest by his guru and another anonymous author.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Sambandar</span> Shaiva poet-saint of Tamil Nadu

Sambandar, also referred to as Tirugnana Sambandar, Tirujnanasambanda, Campantar or Jñāṉacampantar, was a Shaiva poet-saint of Tamil Nadu who lived sometime in the 7th century CE. He was a child prodigy who lived just 16 years. According to the Tamil Shaiva tradition, he composed an oeuvre of 16,000 hymns in complex meters, of which 383 (384) hymns with 4,181 stanzas have survived. These narrate an intense loving devotion (bhakti) to the Hindu god Shiva. The surviving compositions of Sambandar are preserved in the first three volumes of the Tirumurai, and provide a part of the philosophical foundation of Shaiva Siddhanta.

<i>Tirumurai</i> Tamil Hindu Shaivite text

Tirumurai is a twelve-volume compendium of songs or hymns in praise of Shiva in the Tamil language from the 6th to the 11th century CE by various poets in Tamil Nadu. Nambiyandar Nambi compiled the first seven volumes by Appar, Sambandar, and Sundarar as Tevaram during the 12th century. During the course of time, a strong necessity was felt by scholars to compile Shaiva literature to accommodate other works. Tiruvasakam and Tirukovayar by Manickavasagar are included as the eighth, nine parts are compiled as the ninth Tirumurai out of which most are unknown, and the tenth as Tirumandiram by Tirumular, the famous Siddhar. The eleventh is compiled by Karaikal Ammaiyar, Cheraman Perumal and others. The contemporary Chola king was impressed by the work of Nambi and included Nambi's work in the eleventh Tirumurai. Sekkilar's Periya Puranam, composed a century later, contains the life depiction of all the 63 Nayanmars. The response for the work was so tremendous among Shaiva scholars and Kulothunga Chola II that it was included as the 12th Tirumurai. Tirumurai along with Vedas and Shaiva agamas form the basis of Shaiva Siddantha philosophy in South India and Sri Lanka.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Nayanars</span> Group of Hindu saints devoted to Shiva

The Nayanars were a group of 63 Tamil Hindu saints living during the 6th to 8th centuries CE who were devoted to the Hindu god Shiva. Along with the Alvars, their contemporaries who were devoted to Vishnu, they influenced the Bhakti movement in early medieval South India. The names of the Nayanars were first compiled by Sundarar. The list was expanded by Nambiyandar Nambi during his compilation of material by the poets for the Tirumurai collection, and would include Sundarar himself and Sundarar's parents.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Appar</span> Seventh-century Tamil Śaiva poet-saint

Appar, also referred to as Tirunāvukkarasar or Navukkarasar, was a seventh-century Tamil Śaiva poet-saint. Born in a peasant Śaiva family, raised as an orphan by his sister, he lived about 80 years and is generally placed sometime between 570 and 650 CE. Appar composed 4,900 devotional hymns to the god Shiva, out of which 313 have survived and are now canonized as the 4th to 6th volumes of Tirumurai. One of the most prominent of the sixty-three revered Nayanars, he was an older contemporary of Thirugnana Sambandar.

The Nālaṭiyār is a Tamil poetic work of didactic nature belonging to the Eighteen Lesser Texts (Patiṉeṇkīḻkaṇakku) anthology of Tamil literature. This belongs to the post Sangam period corresponding to between 100 and 500 CE. Nālaṭiyār contains 400 poems, each containing four lines. Every poem deals with morals and ethics, extolling righteous behaviour.

Ciṟupañcamūlam (Siruppanchamulam) is a Tamil poetic work of didactic nature belonging to the Eighteen Lesser Texts (Pathinenkilkanakku) anthology of Tamil literature. This belongs to the 'post Sangam period' corresponding to between 100 – 500 CE. Siruppanchamulam contains 100 poems written by the poet Kariyaasaan. He was probably a Jain by religious persuasion. This and the fact that he was a student of one Makkayanaar is known from the introductory poem of this book. The poems of Siruppanchamulam are written in the Venpa meter.

Pazhamozhi Nanuru is a Tamil poetic work of didactic nature belonging to the Eighteen Lesser Texts (Pathinenkilkanakku) anthology of Tamil literature. This belongs to the 'post Sangam period' corresponding to between 100 and 500 CE. Pazhamozhi Nanuru contains 400 poems written by the poet Munrurai Araiyanaar, a Jain. The poems of Pazhamozhi Nanuru are written in the Venpa meter.

<i>Tevaram</i> Tamil Hindu text

The Tevaram, also spelled Thevaram, denotes the first seven volumes of the twelve-volume collection Tirumurai, a Śaiva narrative of epic and Puranic heroes, as well as a hagiographic account of early Saiva saints set in devotional poetry. The Tevaram volumes contain the works of the three most prominent Saiva Tamil poets of the 7th and 8th centuries: Sambandar, Appar, and Sundarar. The three poets were not only involved in portraying their personal devotion to Shiva, but also engaged a community of believers through their songs. Their work is an important source for understanding the Śaiva Bhakti movement in the early medieval South India.

Kundalakesi, also called Kuntalakeciviruttam, is a Tamil Buddhist epic written by Nathakuthanaar, likely sometime in the 10th-century. The epic is a story about love, marriage, getting tired with the married partner, murder and then discovering religion.

L. Gundappa M.A. (1903-1986) was a distinguished professor of Kannada literature at Bangalore University and played a pivotal role in the revival of Kannada literature. Inspired by his mentor, B. M. Srikantaiah, Gundappa made significant contributions to the field, particularly in the areas of translation and promoting world literature to Kannada readers.

Valaiyapadhi, also spelled Valayapathi, is one of the five great Tamil epics, but one that is almost entirely lost. It is a story of a father who has two wives, abandons one who gives birth to their son, and the son grows up and seeks his real father. The dominant emotion of this epic is love, and its predominant object is the inculcation of Jain principles and doctrines.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Jainism in Tamil Nadu</span>

Jainism has an extensive history in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu, although practiced by a minority of Tamils in contemporary times. According to the 2011 India Census, Jains represent 0.12% of the total population of Tamil Nadu, and are of the Digambara sect. Tamil Jains are primarily concentrated in northern Tamil Nadu, in the districts of Madurai, Viluppuram, Kanchipuram, Vellore, Tiruvannamalai, Cuddalore and Thanjavur.

Akam is one of two genres of Classical Tamil poetry that concerns with the subject of love, the other (puṟam) concerns the subject of war. It can also be translated as love and heroism. It is further subdivided into the five thinai. The type of love was divided into seven ranging from unrequited love to mismatched love.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Vijayamangalam Jain temple</span> Jain temples in the state of Tamil Nadu

Vijayamangalam Jain temple also known as Chandrapraba Tirtankarar Temple is a Jain temple in the town of Vijayamangalam in Erode district, Tamil Nadu.


  1. "Tamizh Amudham". Boston University. Archived from the original on 13 July 2008. Retrieved 2 February 2012.
  2. Krishnamachari, Suganthy (12 October 2017). "On how Kongu Nadu was a Jain bastion". The Hindu. ISSN   0971-751X . Retrieved 8 September 2019.