|Location||Nablus Governorate, Palestinian Territories|
|Area||180 dunam |
|Periods||Bronze Age, Iron Age|
Tirzah (Hebrew : תִּרְצָה) was a town in the Samarian highlands northeast of Shechem; it is generally identified with the site of Tell el-Far'ah (North), northeast of modern city of Nablus, in the immediate vicinity of the Palestinian village of Wadi al-Far'a and the Far'a refugee camp, although Conder and Kitchener suggested that the ancient city may have actually been where Tayasir is now located, based on its phonemes. Conversely, biblical researchers, Robinson and Guérin, suggested identifying the town with Talluza.
The size of the archaeological site is 180 dunams (44 acres) and is located in the hills of Samaria, northeast of Nablus, in what is currently known as the West Bank. The archaeological site is called Tell el-Far'ah (North) in order to distinguish it from Tell el-Far'ah (South), an archaeological site south of Gaza.
Excavations were undertaken at Tell el-Far'ah between 1946 and 1960 for nine seasons by École Biblique under the direction of Roland de Vaux.
The site was occupied in the Neolithic and Chalcolithic eras, and became progressively more populated.Finds from the earliest levels of settlement excavated by Dorothy Garrod in 1928 were suggested to date to the Pre-Pottery Neolithic B (PPNB) period.
During the Early Bronze Age, Tell el-Far'ah had ramparts and domestic housing units.The earliest pottery oven of its kind was excavated here; it had two chambers that allowed separation between the vessels being fired and the open flame. This type of pottery oven continued to be used in the region until the Roman period. A temple and an olive press were also uncovered. Town planning is clearly evident at the site. The western gate in the town wall was rebuilt several times during this period. The excavations indicate developing urbanization and the presence of new populations. However, the town was abandoned in the middle of the third millennium BCE, and remained so for approximately 600 years.
In the Middle Bronze Age II, there was a small settlement on the site that used the remnants of the older town walls for protection. In the 1700s the population expanded and a new wall was built, but it enclosed a smaller area than the older city. The Late Bronze Age remains indicate that there was no major urban development during this period.
Tell el-Far'ah was an important town in the early Iron Age, the center of a network of villages, one of five such networks that make up the Israelite settlement, starting around 1200 BCE, in the highlands between Jerusalem and the Jezreel Valley. Excavations from the Iron Age levels have produced numerous artifacts, including various figurines, arrowheads, spindle whorls, a model sanctuary, and Four room houses. The figurines include cow heads, cows nursing calves, horses, tambourine players, and figurines representing Asherah.[ citation needed ]
The town of Tirzah is first mentioned in the Bible in the Book of Joshua, as having had a king whom the Israelites defeated.it is not mentioned again until after the period of the United Monarchy.
During the time of King Jeroboam, Tirzah is mentioned as the place where Abijah, son of Jeroboam, died as a result of illness.Later Tirzah is described as a capital of the northern kingdom of Israel during the reigns of Baasha, Elah, Zimri and Omri. The royal palace at Tirzah was set on fire by Zimri when he was faced with having to surrender to Omri. Omri reigned from Tirzah for six years after which he moved Israel's capital to Samaria.
Tirzah is mentioned in when Menahem left it to Samaria, assassinated King Shallum and became King of Israel.
Tirzah is mentioned in Song of Songs, where the lover compares his beloved's beauty to that of Tirzah. If the authorship of Song of Songs can be attributed to Solomon, then this is a reference to the city during the United Monarchy. However, Song of Songs provides no definite historical context to allow it to be dated on that basis.
Robinson suggested that Talluza might be ancient Tirzah (Latin form: Thersa), one of 31 Canaanite cities the Bible lists as having been conquered by Joshua; the modern Arabic name being a derivation of the ancient name by way of its Hebrew form, or possibly its original Canaanite form, whereby the r sound was replaced with a l.French explorer Victor Guérin also argued that Talluza was the site of ancient Thirza. Later, Conder & Kitchener suggested that Tayasir was a more likely candidate, however, today Tell el-Farah (North), northeast of modern Nablus is generally accepted as the site of Tirzah.
The Kingdom of Israel, or the Kingdom of Samaria, was an Israelite kingdom in the Southern Levant during the Iron Age. The kingdom controlled the areas of Samaria, Galilee and parts of Transjordan. Its capital, for the most part, was Samaria. The other Israelite polity, the Kingdom of Judah, lay to the south of the Kingdom of Israel.
Omri was, according to the Hebrew Bible, the sixth king of Israel. He was a successful military campaigner who extended the northern kingdom of Israel. Other monarchs from the House of Omri are Ahab, Ahaziah, Joram, and Athaliah. Like his predecessor, king Zimri, who ruled for only seven days, Omri is the second king mentioned in the Bible without a statement of his tribal origin. One possibility, though unproven, is that he was of the tribe of Issachar.
Samaria is the historic and biblical name used for the central region of Palestine, bordered by Judea to the south and Galilee to the north. The first-century historian Josephus set the Mediterranean Sea as its limit to the west, and the Jordan River as its limit to the east. Its territory largely corresponds to the biblical allotments of the tribe of Ephraim and the western half of Manasseh. After the death of Solomon the Kingdom of Israel split into the southern Kingdom of Judah and the northern Kingdom of Israel (Samaria). The border between Samaria and Judea is set at the latitude of Ramallah.
Gibeah is the name of three places mentioned in the Hebrew Bible, in the tribes of Benjamin, Judah, and Ephraim respectively.
Azekah was an ancient town in the Shfela guarding the upper reaches of the Valley of Elah, about 26 km (16 mi) northwest of Hebron.
Immatain is a Palestinian village located in the northwestern West Bank, in the Qalqilya Governorate of the State of Palestine, about seventeen kilometers southwest of Nablus. The current mayor of Immatain is Haythem Sawan.
Hajjah is a Palestinian village in the northern West Bank, located eighteen kilometers west of Nablus in the Qalqilya Governorate of the State of Palestine. According to the Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics, the town had a population of approximately 2,500 inhabitants in mid-year 2006.
Sebastia is a Palestinian village of over 4,500 inhabitants, located in the Nablus Governorate of the State of Palestine, some 12 kilometers northwest of the city of Nablus.
Tayasir is a Palestinian village in the Tubas Governorate in the northern West Bank. It is located 3 kilometers northeast of Tubas and 22 kilometers northeast of Nablus. Nearby localities include al-Aqabah to the east, al-Bikai'a to the northeast, Salhab to the north, 'Aqqaba to the west and ath-Thaghra to the southwest. According to the Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics (PCBS), Tayasir had a population of 2,489 in 2007.
Beit Furik is a Palestinian town located nine kilometers southeast of Nablus, in the Nablus Governorate of the State of Palestine, in the northern West Bank. According to the Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics, the town had a population of 10,339 inhabitants in 2007.
Al-Muzayri'a was a Palestinian village in the Ramle Subdistrict. It was depopulated in 1948. In 1998 the new Israeli city of El'ad was built over the ruins.
Zimri, was the fifth king of Israel. His reign lasted only seven days. William F. Albright has dated his reign to 876 BCE, while E. R. Thiele offers the date 885 BCE. His story is told in 1 Kings, Chapter 16.
Asira ash-Shamaliya is a Palestinian town in the Nablus Governorate, located 3.5 kilometers north of Nablus in the northern West Bank. According to the Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics, the town had a population of approximately 7,556 inhabitants in 2007.
Duma is Palestinian town in the Nablus Governorate in the northern West Bank, located 25 kilometers southeast of Nablus. According to the Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics, the town had a population of 2,220 inhabitants in mid-year 2006. Duma's total land area consists of 17,351 dunams, about 200 of which are designated as built-up area.
Salim is a Palestinian town in the northern West Bank, located six kilometers east of Nablus and is a part of the Nablus Governorate. According to the Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics (PCBS), Salim had a population of approximately 5,100 inhabitants in 2006.
Qaryout is a Palestinian village of nearly 2,500 in the Nablus Governorate in the northern West Bank, located 28 kilometers (17 mi) southeast of Nablus.
Talluza is a Palestinian village in the Nablus Governorate in the northern West Bank, located northeast of Nablus. According to the Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics (PCBS) census, it had a population of 2,375 in 2007.
As-Sawiya is a Palestinian town in the Nablus Governorate of the State of Palestine, in the northern West Bank, located 18 kilometers south of Nablus. According to the Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics (PCBS), the town had a population of 2,301 inhabitants in mid-year 2006.
Tell es-Safi was an Arab Palestinian village, located on the southern banks of Wadi 'Ajjur, 35 kilometers (22 mi) northwest of Hebron which had its Arab population expelled during the 1948 Arab-Israeli war on orders of Shimon Avidan, commander of the Givati Brigade.
1 Kings 16 is the sixteenth chapter of the Books of Kings in the Hebrew Bible or the First Book of Kings in the Old Testament of the Christian Bible. The book is a compilation of various annals recording the acts of the kings of Israel and Judah by a Deuteronomic compiler in the seventh century BCE, with a supplement added in the sixth century BCE. This chapter belongs to the section comprising 1 Kings 12:1 to 16:14 which documents the consolidation of the kingdoms of northern Israel and Judah. The focus of this chapter is the reigns Baasha, Elah, Zimri, Omri and Ahab in the northern kingdom during the reign of Asa in the southern kingdom.