Titadyn 30 AG (often referred to as Titadine) is a type of compressed dynamite used in mining and manufactured in southern France by Titanite S.A. The explosive comes in the form of salmon-coloured tubes of a range of diameters, from 50 to 120 mm. Titadine is very powerful and fast-burning, with an energy rating of 4650 J/g and a speed of detonation of over 6,000 m/s.
In recent years, it has been used in bomb attacks by the separatist group ETA in Spain. In September 1999 a combined group of ETA members and Breton separatists raided a factory at Plevin, Brittany, stealing over eight tonnes of Titadyn (some of which was subsequently sold to the Islamist resistance group Hamas, according to Spain's El Mundo newspaper.Another raid took place in March 2001 when an explosives factory near Grenoble in France was targeted and 1.6 tonnes of Titadyn was stolen. Much of it was later recovered by Spanish police in raids, or was used by ETA in car bomb attacks in Spanish cities.
Dynamite is an explosive made of nitroglycerin, sorbents and stabilizers. It was invented by the Swedish chemist and engineer Alfred Nobel in Geesthacht, Northern Germany and patented in 1867. It rapidly gained wide-scale use as a more powerful alternative to black powder.
ETA, an acronym for Euskadi Ta Askatasuna, was an armed leftist Basque nationalist and separatist organization in the Basque Country. The group was founded in 1959 and later evolved from a group promoting traditional Basque culture to a paramilitary group engaged in a violent campaign of bombing, assassinations and kidnappings in the Southern Basque Country and throughout Spanish territory. Its goal was gaining independence for the Basque Country. ETA was the main group within the Basque National Liberation Movement and was the most important Basque participant in the Basque conflict.
A car bomb, lorry bomb, or truck bomb, also known as a vehicle-borne improvised explosive device (VBIED), is an improvised explosive device designed to be detonated in an automobile or other vehicles.
Gelignite, also known as blasting gelatin or simply jelly, is an explosive material consisting of collodion-cotton dissolved in either nitroglycerine or nitroglycol and mixed with wood pulp and saltpetre.
The 2004 Madrid train bombings were nearly simultaneous, coordinated bombings against the Cercanías commuter train system of Madrid, Spain, on the morning of 11 March 2004 – three days before Spain's general elections. The explosions killed 193 people and injured around 2,000. The bombings constituted the deadliest terrorist attack carried out in the history of Spain and the deadliest in Europe since the 1988 bombing of Pan Am Flight 103 over Lockerbie, Scotland. The official investigation by the Spanish judiciary found that the attacks were directed by an al-Qaeda terrorist cell, although no direct al-Qaeda participation has been established. Although they had no role in the planning or implementation, the Spanish miners who sold the explosives to the terrorists were also arrested.
Ammonal is an explosive made up of ammonium nitrate and aluminium powder, not to be confused with T-ammonal which contains trinitrotoluene as well to increase properties such as brisance.
The Breton Revolutionary Army is an illegal armed organization that is part of the Breton nationalism movement in the Brittany region of France.
José Miguel Beñaran Ordeñana was a Basque militant and a key figure in the political evolution of the Basque separatist organization Euskadi ta Askatasuna (ETA). Often known by his nom de guerreArgala (Slim), he took part in the so called Operation Ogre, which consisted in the assassination of Luis Carrero Blanco, Spain's Prime Minister, in 1973. Five years later, he was in turn assassinated by a car bomb in Anglet, French Basque Country by a group directed by far right members inside the Spanish Navy. This group reportedly received assistance from people such as former OAS member Jean Pierre Cherid, former Triple A Argentine member José María Boccardo and Italian neofascist Mario Ricci, member of Avanguardia Nazionale.
The history of terrorism is a history of well-known and historically significant individuals, entities, and incidents associated, whether rightly or wrongly, with terrorism. Scholars agree that terrorism is a disputed term, and very few of those labeled terrorists describe themselves as such. It is common for opponents in a violent conflict to describe the other side as terrorists or as practicing terrorism.
The Southampton Blitz was the heavy bombing of Southampton by the Nazi German Luftwaffe during World War II. Southampton was a strategic bombing target for the Luftwaffe as it contained both busy docks with associated business premises and factories and the Supermarine factory building Spitfires in Woolston. Being a large port city on the south coast it was within easy reach of German airfields in France, as was the neighbouring city of Portsmouth.
The controversy regarding the handling and representation of the Madrid train bombings by the government arose with Spain's two main political parties, Spanish Socialist Workers' Party (PSOE) and Partido Popular (PP), accusing each other of concealing or distorting evidence for electoral reasons.
Operación Ogro is a 1979 Spanish and Italian drama film written and directed by Gillo Pontecorvo.
José Antonio Urrutikoetxea Bengoetxea, also known as Josu Ternera and Josu Urrutikoetxea Bengoetxea, is a former member of the Basque separatist organization ETA. In separate trials over a number of years, he was convicted for his involvement in the 1986 Plaza República Dominicana bombing and the 1987 Zaragoza barracks bombing, which together killed 23 people, including five children.
Francisco Javier López Peña alias Thierry was a member of Basque separatist group ETA. He headed its political leadership. On 20 May 2008, López Peña was arrested in Bordeaux, France during a joint operation between French and Spanish police officials.
The Vic bombing was an attack carried out by the Basque separatist group ETA which occurred on 29 May 1991 when a car bomb carrying more than 200 kg of explosive went off outside a Civil Guard barracks in the Catalan city of Vic, Spain. The bombing killed 10 people, including five children, and injured 44 people.
The Basque conflict, also known as the Spain–ETA conflict, was an armed and political conflict from 1959 to 2011 between Spain and the Basque National Liberation Movement, a group of social and political Basque organizations which sought independence from Spain and France. The movement was built around the separatist organization ETA, which had launched a campaign of attacks against Spanish administrations since 1959. ETA had been proscribed as a terrorist organization by the Spanish, British, French and American authorities at different moments. The conflict took place mostly on Spanish soil, although to a smaller degree it was also present in France, which was primarily used as a safe haven by ETA members. It was the longest running violent conflict in modern Western Europe. It has been sometimes referred to as "Europe's longest war".
The Madrid bombings were car bomb attacks carried out by the armed Basque separatist group ETA in Madrid, Spain on 21 June 1993, which killed 7 people and injured a further 29. The target was an army vehicle transporting members of the army. The dead included four Lieutenant colonels, a Commander, a Sergeant and the civilian driver of the vehicle. This was ETA's deadliest attack of 1993.
María Soledad Iparraguirre Guenechea, known as "Marisol" until 1994 and "Anboto" thereafter, is a senior figure in the Basque separatist group ETA and the second woman, after Dolores González Cataráin, to be a member of ETA's executive. Arrested in October 2004, in December 2010 she was sentenced by French courts to 20 years in prison.
The Madrid attack was a car bombing carried out by the armed Basque separatist group ETA in Madrid, Spain on 6 February 1992, which killed 5 people and injured a further 7. The target was a military vehicle transporting members of the army. The dead included three captains, a soldier driving the vehicle and a civilian working for the armed forces. This was ETA's deadliest attack of 1992.