Titanium(II) oxide

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Titanium(II) oxide
Titanium(II)-oxide-3D-vdW.png
Names
IUPAC name
Titanium(II) oxide
Other names
Titanium monoxide
Identifiers
3D model (JSmol)
ECHA InfoCard 100.032.020 OOjs UI icon edit-ltr-progressive.svg
PubChem CID
  • InChI=1S/O.Ti
  • O=[Ti]
Properties
TiO
Molar mass 63.866 g/mol
Appearancebronze crystals
Density 4.95 g/cm3
Melting point 1,750 °C (3,180 °F; 2,020 K)
Structure
cubic
Hazards
Flash point Non-flammable
Related compounds
Related titanium oxides
Titanium(III) oxide
Titanium(III,IV) oxide
Titanium(IV) oxide
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
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Titanium(II) oxide (Ti O) is an inorganic chemical compound of titanium and oxygen. It can be prepared from titanium dioxide and titanium metal at 1500 °C. [1] It is non-stoichiometric in a range TiO0.7 to TiO1.3 and this is caused by vacancies of either Ti or O in the defect rock salt structure. [1] In pure TiO 15% of both Ti and O sites are vacant, [1] as the vacancies allow metal-metal bonding between adjacent Ti centres. Careful annealing can cause ordering of the vacancies producing a monoclinic form which has 5 TiO units in the primitive cell that exhibits lower resistivity. [2] A high temperature form with titanium atoms with trigonal prismatic coordination is also known. [3] Acid solutions of TiO are stable for a short time then decompose to give hydrogen: [1]

2 Ti2+(aq) + 2 H+(aq) → 2 Ti3+(aq) + H2(g)

Gas-phase TiO shows strong bands in the optical spectra of cool (M-type) stars. [4] [5] In 2017, TiO was claimed to be detected in an exoplanet atmosphere for the first time; a result which is still debated in the literature. [6] [7] Additionally, evidence has been obtained for the presence of the diatomic molecule TiO in the interstellar medium. [8]

Related Research Articles

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In chemistry, the oxidation state, or oxidation number, is the hypothetical charge of an atom if all of its bonds to other atoms were fully ionic. It describes the degree of oxidation of an atom in a chemical compound. Conceptually, the oxidation state may be positive, negative or zero. While fully ionic bonds are not found in nature, many bonds exhibit strong ionicity, making oxidation state a useful predictor of charge.

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<span class="mw-page-title-main">Titanium dioxide</span> Chemical compound often used as a white pigment, Including in food and paints.

Titanium dioxide, also known as titanium(IV) oxide or titania, is the inorganic compound with the chemical formula TiO
2
. When used as a pigment, it is called titanium white, Pigment White 6 (PW6), or CI 77891. It is a white solid that is insoluble in water, although mineral forms can appear black. As a pigment, it has a wide range of applications, including paint, sunscreen, and food coloring. When used as a food coloring, it has E number E171. World production in 2014 exceeded 9 million tonnes. It has been estimated that titanium dioxide is used in two-thirds of all pigments, and pigments based on the oxide have been valued at a price of $13.2 billion.

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<span class="mw-page-title-main">Titanium oxide</span> Index of chemical compounds with the same name

Titanium oxide may refer to:

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Chromium(II) oxide</span> Chemical compound

Chromium(II) oxide (CrO) is an inorganic compound composed of chromium and oxygen. It is a black powder that crystallises in the rock salt structure. Hypophosphites may reduce chromium(III) oxide to chromium(II) oxide:

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<span class="mw-page-title-main">Gold compounds</span>

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<span class="mw-page-title-main">Titanium(IV) nitrate</span> Chemical compound

Titanium nitrate is the inorganic compound with formula Ti(NO3)4. It is a colorless, diamagnetic solid that sublimes readily. It is an unusual example of a volatile binary transition metal nitrate. Ill defined species called titanium nitrate are produced upon dissolution of titanium or its oxides in nitric acid.

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<span class="mw-page-title-main">WASP-121b</span> Hot Jupiter exoplanet orbiting WASP-121

WASP-121b, formally named Tylos, is an exoplanet orbiting the star WASP-121. WASP-121b is the first exoplanet found to contain water in an extrasolar planetary stratosphere. WASP-121b is in the constellation Puppis, and is about 858 light-years from Earth.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">WASP-31b</span> Hot Jupiter orbiting the star WASP-31

WASP-31b is a low-density (puffy) "hot Jupiter" extrasolar planet orbiting the metal-poor dwarf star WASP-31. The exoplanet was discovered in 2010 by the WASP project. WASP-31b is in the constellation of Crater, and is about 1305 light-years from Earth.

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References

  1. 1 2 3 4 Holleman, Arnold Frederik; Wiberg, Egon (2001), Wiberg, Nils (ed.), Inorganic Chemistry, translated by Eagleson, Mary; Brewer, William, San Diego/Berlin: Academic Press/De Gruyter, ISBN   0-12-352651-5
  2. Banus, M. D.; Reed, T. B.; Strauss, A. J. (1972-04-15). "Electrical and Magnetic Properties of TiO and VO". Physical Review B. American Physical Society (APS). 5 (8): 2775–2784. Bibcode:1972PhRvB...5.2775B. doi:10.1103/physrevb.5.2775. ISSN   0556-2805.
  3. Greenwood, Norman N.; Earnshaw, Alan (1997). Chemistry of the Elements (2nd ed.). Butterworth-Heinemann. ISBN   978-0-08-037941-8.
  4. Jorgensen, Uffe G. (April 1994). "Effects of TiO in stellar atmospheres". Astronomy and Astrophysics. 284 (1): 179–186. Bibcode:1994A&A...284..179J.
  5. "Spectral classification of late-type dwarfs".
  6. Sedaghati, Elyar; Boffin, Henri M.J.; MacDonald, Ryan J.; Gandhi, Siddharth; Madhusudhan, Nikku; Gibson, Neale P.; Oshagh, Mahmoudreza; Claret, Antonio; Rauer, Heike (14 September 2017). "Detection of titanium oxide in the atmosphere of a hot Jupiter". Nature . 549 (7671): 238–241. arXiv: 1709.04118 . Bibcode:2017Natur.549..238S. doi:10.1038/nature23651. PMID   28905896. S2CID   205259502.
  7. Espinoza, Nestor; et al. (January 2019). "ACCESS: A featureless optical transmission spectrum for WASP-19b from Magellan/IMACS". MNRAS . 482 (2): 2065–2087. arXiv: 1807.10652 . Bibcode:2019MNRAS.482.2065E. doi:10.1093/mnras/sty2691.
  8. Dyck, H. M.; Nordgren, Tyler E. (2002). "The Effect of TiO Absorption on Optical and Infrared Angular Diameters of Cool Stars". The Astronomical Journal. American Astronomical Society. 124 (1): 541–545. Bibcode:2002AJ....124..541D. doi: 10.1086/341039 . ISSN   0004-6256. S2CID   117642107.