Titanium carbide

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Titanium carbide
IUPAC name
titanium carbide
Other names
titanium(IV) carbide
3D model (JSmol)
ECHA InfoCard 100.031.916 OOjs UI icon edit-ltr-progressive.svg
PubChem CID
  • InChI=1S/C.Ti/q-1;+1
  • [Ti+]#[C-]
Molar mass 59.89 g/mol
Appearanceblack powder
Density 4.93 g/cm3
Melting point 3,160 °C (5,720 °F; 3,430 K)
Boiling point 4,820 °C (8,710 °F; 5,090 K)
insoluble in water
+8.0·10−6 cm3/mol
Cubic, cF8
Fm3m, No. 225
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
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Titanium carbide, Ti C, is an extremely hard (Mohs 9–9.5) refractory ceramic material, similar to tungsten carbide. It has the appearance of black powder with the sodium chloride (face-centered cubic) crystal structure.


It occurs in nature as a form of the very rare mineral khamrabaevite (Russian : Хамрабаевит) - (Ti,V,Fe)C. It was discovered in 1984 on Mount Arashan in the Chatkal District, [1] USSR (modern Kyrgyzstan), near the Uzbek border. The mineral was named after Ibragim Khamrabaevich Khamrabaev, director of Geology and Geophysics of Tashkent, Uzbekistan. Its crystals as found in nature range in size from 0.1 to 0.3 mm.

Physical properties

Titanium carbide has an elastic modulus of approximately 400 GPa and a shear modulus of 188 GPa. [2]

Manufacturing and machining

Tool bits without tungsten content can be made of titanium carbide in nickel-cobalt matrix cermet, enhancing the cutting speed, precision, and smoothness of the workpiece.[ citation needed ]

The resistance to wear, corrosion, and oxidation of a tungsten carbidecobalt material can be increased by adding 6–30% of titanium carbide to tungsten carbide. This forms a solid solution that is more brittle and susceptible to breakage.[ clarification needed ]

Titanium carbide can be etched with reactive-ion etching.


Titanium carbide is used in preparation of cermets, which are frequently used to machine steel materials at high cutting speed. It is also used as an abrasion-resistant surface coating on metal parts, such as tool bits and watch mechanisms. [3] Titanium carbide is also used as a heat shield coating for atmospheric reentry of spacecraft. [4]

7075 aluminium alloy (AA7075) is almost as strong as steel, but weighs one third as much. Using thin AA7075 rods with TiC nanoparticles allows larger alloys pieces to be welded without phase-segregation induced cracks. [5]

See also

Related Research Articles

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<span class="mw-page-title-main">Tungsten carbide</span> Hard, dense and stiff chemical compound

Tungsten carbide is a chemical compound containing equal parts of tungsten and carbon atoms. In its most basic form, tungsten carbide is a fine gray powder, but it can be pressed and formed into shapes through sintering for use in industrial machinery, cutting tools, chisels, abrasives, armor-piercing shells and jewelry.

A cermet is a composite material composed of ceramic and metal materials.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Titanium diboride</span> Chemical compound

Titanium diboride (TiB2) is an extremely hard ceramic which has excellent heat conductivity, oxidation stability and wear resistance. TiB2 is also a reasonable electrical conductor, so it can be used as a cathode material in aluminium smelting and can be shaped by electrical discharge machining.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Superhard material</span> Material with Vickers hardness exceeding 40 gigapascals

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<span class="mw-page-title-main">Tantalum carbide</span> Chemical compound

Tantalum carbides (TaC) form a family of binary chemical compounds of tantalum and carbon with the empirical formula TaCx, where x usually varies between 0.4 and 1. They are extremely hard, brittle, refractory ceramic materials with metallic electrical conductivity. They appear as brown-gray powders, which are usually processed by sintering.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Titanium nitride</span> Ceramic material

Titanium nitride is an extremely hard ceramic material, often used as a physical vapor deposition (PVD) coating on titanium alloys, steel, carbide, and aluminium components to improve the substrate's surface properties.

Titanium alloys are alloys that contain a mixture of titanium and other chemical elements. Such alloys have very high tensile strength and toughness. They are light in weight, have extraordinary corrosion resistance and the ability to withstand extreme temperatures. However, the high cost of both raw materials and processing limit their use to military applications, aircraft, spacecraft, bicycles, medical devices, jewelry, highly stressed components such as connecting rods on expensive sports cars and some premium sports equipment and consumer electronics.

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<span class="mw-page-title-main">Zirconium nitride</span> Chemical compound

Zirconium nitride is an inorganic compound used in a variety of ways due to its properties.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Chromium(II) carbide</span> Chemical compound

Chromium(II) carbide is a ceramic compound that exists in several chemical compositions: Cr3C2, Cr7C3, and Cr23C6. At standard conditions it exists as a gray solid. It is extremely hard and corrosion resistant. It is also a refractory compound, which means that it retains its strength at high temperatures as well. These properties make it useful as an additive to metal alloys. When chromium carbide crystals are integrated into the surface of a metal it improves the wear resistance and corrosion resistance of the metal, and maintains these properties at elevated temperatures. The hardest and most commonly used composition for this purpose is Cr3C2.

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Zirconium carbide (ZrC) is an extremely hard refractory ceramic material, commercially used in tool bits for cutting tools. It is usually processed by sintering.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Vanadium carbide</span> Extremely hard refractory ceramic material

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Aluminium carbide, chemical formula Al4C3, is a carbide of aluminium. It has the appearance of pale yellow to brown crystals. It is stable up to 1400 °C. It decomposes in water with the production of methane.

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Aluminium magnesium boride or Al3Mg3B56, colloquially known as BAM, is a chemical compound of aluminium, magnesium and boron. Whereas its nominal formula is AlMgB14, the chemical composition is closer to Al0.75Mg0.75B14. It is a ceramic alloy that is highly resistive to wear and has an extremely low coefficient of sliding friction, reaching a record value of 0.04 in unlubricated and 0.02 in lubricated AlMgB14−TiB2 composites. First reported in 1970, BAM has an orthorhombic structure with four icosahedral B12 units per unit cell. This ultrahard material has a coefficient of thermal expansion comparable to that of other widely used materials such as steel and concrete.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Cemented carbide</span> Type of composite material

Cemented carbides are a class of hard materials used extensively for cutting tools, as well as in other industrial applications. It consists of fine particles of carbide cemented into a composite by a binder metal. Cemented carbides commonly use tungsten carbide (WC), titanium carbide (TiC), or tantalum carbide (TaC) as the aggregate. Mentions of "carbide" or "tungsten carbide" in industrial contexts usually refer to these cemented composites.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Titanium aluminium nitride</span> Group of metastable hard coatings

Titanium aluminium nitride (TiAlN) or aluminium titanium nitride is a group of metastable hard coatings consisting of nitrogen and the metallic elements aluminium and titanium. This compound as well as similar compounds(such as TiN and TiCN) are most notably used for coating machine tools such and endmills and drills to change their properties, such as increased thermal stability and/or wear resistance. Four important compositions are deposited in industrial scale by physical vapor deposition methods:


  1. Dunn, Pete J (1985). "New mineral names". American Mineralogist. 70: 1329–1335.
  2. Chang, R; Graham, L (1966). "Low-Temperature Elastic Properties of ZrC and TiC". Journal of Applied Physics. 37 (10): 3778–3783. Bibcode:1966JAP....37.3778C. doi:10.1063/1.1707923.
  3. Gupta, P.; Fang, F.; Rubanov, S.; Loho, T.; Koo, A.; Swift, N.; Fiedler, H.; Leveneur, J.; Murmu, P.P.; Markwitz, A.; Kennedy, J. (2019). "Decorative black coatings on titanium surfaces based on hard bi-layered carbon coatings synthesized by carbon implantation". Surface and Coatings Technology. 358: 386–393. doi:10.1016/j.surfcoat.2018.11.060. S2CID   139179067.
  4. Sforza, Pasquale M. (13 November 2015). Manned Spacecraft Design Principles. Elsevier. p. 406. ISBN   9780124199767 . Retrieved 4 January 2017.
  5. "New welding process opens up uses for formerly un-weldable lightweight alloy". newatlas.com. 13 February 2019. Retrieved 2019-02-18.