Titanium oxide

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Artist's impression of the exoplanet WASP-19b, in which atmosphere astronomers detected titanium oxide. Artist's impression of the exoplanet WASP-19b.jpg
Artist's impression of the exoplanet WASP-19b, in which atmosphere astronomers detected titanium oxide.

Titanium oxide may refer to: [2]

Reduced titanium oxides

A common reduced titanium oxide is TiO, also known as titanium monoxide. It can be prepared from titanium dioxide and titanium metal at 1500 °C. [4]

Ti3O5, Ti4O7, and Ti5O9 are non-stoichiometric oxides. These compounds are typically formed at high temperatures in the presence of excess oxygen. [5] [6] As a result, they exhibit unique structural and electronic properties, and have been studied for their potential use in various applications, including in gas sensors, lithium-ion batteries, and photocatalysis. [6]

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<span class="mw-page-title-main">Inorganic chemistry</span> Field of chemistry

Inorganic chemistry deals with synthesis and behavior of inorganic and organometallic compounds. This field covers chemical compounds that are not carbon-based, which are the subjects of organic chemistry. The distinction between the two disciplines is far from absolute, as there is much overlap in the subdiscipline of organometallic chemistry. It has applications in every aspect of the chemical industry, including catalysis, materials science, pigments, surfactants, coatings, medications, fuels, and agriculture.

In chemistry, the oxidation state, or oxidation number, is the hypothetical charge of an atom if all of its bonds to different atoms were fully ionic. It describes the degree of oxidation of an atom in a chemical compound. Conceptually, the oxidation state may be positive, negative or zero. While fully ionic bonds are not found in nature, many bonds exhibit strong ionicity, making oxidation state a useful predictor of charge.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Titanium dioxide</span> Chemical compound often used as a white pigment, Including in food and paints.

Titanium dioxide, also known as titanium(IV) oxide or titania, is the inorganic compound with the chemical formula TiO
. When used as a pigment, it is called titanium white, Pigment White 6 (PW6), or CI 77891. It is a white solid that is insoluble in water, although mineral forms can appear black. As a pigment, it has a wide range of applications, including paint, sunscreen, and food coloring. When used as a food coloring, it has E number E171. World production in 2014 exceeded 9 million tonnes. It has been estimated that titanium dioxide is used in two-thirds of all pigments, and pigments based on the oxide have been valued at a price of $13.2 billion.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Titanium tetrachloride</span> Inorganic chemical compound

Titanium tetrachloride is the inorganic compound with the formula TiCl4. It is an important intermediate in the production of titanium metal and the pigment titanium dioxide. TiCl4 is a volatile liquid. Upon contact with humid air, it forms thick clouds of titanium dioxide and hydrochloric acid, a reaction that was formerly exploited for use in smoke machines. It is sometimes referred to as "tickle" or "tickle 4" due to the phonetic resemblance of its molecular formula to the word.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Lead(II) oxide</span> Chemical compound

Lead(II) oxide, also called lead monoxide, is the inorganic compound with the molecular formula PbO. PbO occurs in two polymorphs: litharge having a tetragonal crystal structure, and massicot having an orthorhombic crystal structure. Modern applications for PbO are mostly in lead-based industrial glass and industrial ceramics, including computer components. It is an amphoteric oxide.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Cerium(IV) oxide</span> Chemical compound

Cerium(IV) oxide, also known as ceric oxide, ceric dioxide, ceria, cerium oxide or cerium dioxide, is an oxide of the rare-earth metal cerium. It is a pale yellow-white powder with the chemical formula CeO2. It is an important commercial product and an intermediate in the purification of the element from the ores. The distinctive property of this material is its reversible conversion to a non-stoichiometric oxide.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Carbonate ester</span> Chemical group (R–O–C(=O)–O–R)

In organic chemistry, a carbonate ester is an ester of carbonic acid. This functional group consists of a carbonyl group flanked by two alkoxy groups. The general structure of these carbonates is R−O−C(=O)−O−R' and they are related to esters, ethers and also to the inorganic carbonates.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Vanadium(II) oxide</span> Chemical compound

Vanadium(II) oxide is the inorganic compound with the idealized formula VO. It is one of the several binary vanadium oxides. It adopts a distorted NaCl structure and contains weak V−V metal to metal bonds. VO is a semiconductor owing to delocalisation of electrons in the t2g orbitals. VO is a non-stoichiometric compound, its composition varying from VO0.8 to VO1.3.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Ruthenium(IV) oxide</span> Chemical compound

Ruthenium(IV) oxide is the inorganic compound with the formula RuO2. This black solid is the most common oxide of ruthenium. It is widely used as an electrocatalyst for producing chlorine, chlorine oxides, and O2. Like many dioxides, RuO2 adopts the rutile structure.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Titanium(III) oxide</span> Chemical compound

Titanium(III) oxide is the inorganic compound with the formula Ti2O3. A black semiconducting solid, it is prepared by reducing titanium dioxide with titanium metal at 1600 °C.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Titanium(II) oxide</span> Chemical compound

Titanium(II) oxide (TiO) is an inorganic chemical compound of titanium and oxygen. It can be prepared from titanium dioxide and titanium metal at 1500 °C. It is non-stoichiometric in a range TiO0.7 to TiO1.3 and this is caused by vacancies of either Ti or O in the defect rock salt structure. In pure TiO 15% of both Ti and O sites are vacant, as the vacancies allow metal-metal bonding between adjacent Ti centres. Careful annealing can cause ordering of the vacancies producing a monoclinic form which has 5 TiO units in the primitive cell that exhibits lower resistivity. A high temperature form with titanium atoms with trigonal prismatic coordination is also known. Acid solutions of TiO are stable for a short time then decompose to give hydrogen:

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Organotitanium chemistry</span>

Organotitanium chemistry is the science of organotitanium compounds describing their physical properties, synthesis, and reactions. Organotitanium compounds in organometallic chemistry contain carbon-titanium chemical bonds. They are reagents in organic chemistry and are involved in major industrial processes.

Molybdenum dioxide is the chemical compound with the formula MoO2. It is a violet-colored solid and is a metallic conductor. The mineralogical form of this compound is called tugarinovite, and is only very rarely found.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Silicon monoxide</span> Chemical compound

Silicon monoxide is the chemical compound with the formula SiO where silicon is present in the oxidation state +2. In the vapour phase, it is a diatomic molecule. It has been detected in stellar objects and has been described as the most uncommon oxide of silicon in the universe.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Disulfur dioxide</span> Chemical compound

Disulfur dioxide, dimeric sulfur monoxide or SO dimer is an oxide of sulfur with the formula S2O2. The solid is unstable with a lifetime of a few seconds at room temperature.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Titanium(IV) nitrate</span> Chemical compound

Titanium nitrate is the inorganic compound with formula Ti(NO3)4. It is a colorless, diamagnetic solid that sublimes readily. It is an unusual example of a volatile binary transition metal nitrate. Ill defined species called titanium nitrate are produced upon dissolution of titanium or its oxides in nitric acid.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Metal peroxide</span>

Metal peroxides are metal-containing compounds with ionically- or covalently-bonded peroxide (O2−
) groups. This large family of compounds can be divided into ionic and covalent peroxide. The first class mostly contains the peroxides of the alkali and alkaline earth metals whereas the covalent peroxides are represented by such compounds as hydrogen peroxide and peroxymonosulfuric acid (H2SO5). In contrast to the purely ionic character of alkali metal peroxides, peroxides of transition metals have a more covalent character.

The +4 oxidation state dominates titanium chemistry, but compounds in the +3 oxidation state are also numerous. Commonly, titanium adopts an octahedral coordination geometry in its complexes, but tetrahedral TiCl4 is a notable exception. Because of its high oxidation state, titanium(IV) compounds exhibit a high degree of covalent bonding.

Hafnium compounds are compounds containing the element hafnium (Hf). Due to the lanthanide contraction, the ionic radius of hafnium(IV) (0.78 ångström) is almost the same as that of zirconium(IV) (0.79 angstroms). Consequently, compounds of hafnium(IV) and zirconium(IV) have very similar chemical and physical properties. Hafnium and zirconium tend to occur together in nature and the similarity of their ionic radii makes their chemical separation rather difficult. Hafnium tends to form inorganic compounds in the oxidation state of +4. Halogens react with it to form hafnium tetrahalides. At higher temperatures, hafnium reacts with oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, boron, sulfur, and silicon. Some compounds of hafnium in lower oxidation states are known.

Americium compounds are compounds containing the element americium (Am). These compounds can form in the +2, +3 and +4, although the +3 oxidation state is the most common. The +5, +6 and +7 oxidation states have also been reported.


  1. "Inferno World with Titanium Skies - ESO's VLT makes first detection of titanium oxide in an exoplanet". www.eso.org. Retrieved 14 September 2017.
  2. Wells A.F. (1984) Structural Inorganic Chemistry 5th edition Oxford Science Publications ISBN   0-19-855370-6
  3. Greenwood, Norman N.; Earnshaw, Alan (1997). Chemistry of the Elements (2nd ed.). Butterworth-Heinemann. ISBN   978-0-08-037941-8.
  4. Holleman, Arnold Frederik; Wiberg, Egon (2001), Wiberg, Nils (ed.), Inorganic Chemistry, translated by Eagleson, Mary; Brewer, William, San Diego/Berlin: Academic Press/De Gruyter, ISBN   0-12-352651-5
  5. Kumar, Ashish; Barbhuiya, Najmul H.; Singh, Swatantra P. (2022-11-01). "Magnéli phase titanium sub-oxides synthesis, fabrication and its application for environmental remediation: Current status and prospect". Chemosphere. 307: 135878. doi:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2022.135878. ISSN   0045-6535.
  6. 1 2 Soleimani, Meisam; Ghasemi, Jahan B.; Badiei, Alireza (2022-01-01). "Black titania; novel researches in synthesis and applications". Inorganic Chemistry Communications. 135: 109092. doi:10.1016/j.inoche.2021.109092. ISSN   1387-7003.