Titanium yellow

Last updated
Titanium yellow
Pigment Yellow 53.jpg
Commercial pigment
Gtk-dialog-info.svg    Color coordinates
Hex triplet #EEE600
sRGB B (r, g, b)(238, 230, 0)
HSV (h, s, v)(58°, 100%, 93%)
CIELChuv (L, C, h)(89, 98, 83°)
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
Titanium yellow
IUPAC name
  • Titanium yellow
  • nickel antimony titanium yellow
  • nickel antimony titanium yellow rutile
  • CI Pigment Yellow 53
  • C.I. 77788
ECHA InfoCard 100.029.410 OOjs UI icon edit-ltr-progressive.svg
EC Number
  • 232-353-3
AppearanceYellow pigment
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).

Titanium yellow, also nickel antimony titanium yellow, nickel antimony titanium yellow rutile, CI Pigment Yellow 53, or C.I. 77788, is a yellow pigment with the chemical composition of NiO·Sb2O3·20TiO2. It is a complex inorganic compound. Its melting point lies above 1000 °C, and has extremely low solubility in water. While it contains antimony and nickel, their bioavailability is very low, so the pigment is relatively safe.[ citation needed ]

The pigment has crystal lattice of rutile, with 25% of titanium ions replaced with nickel(II) and 912% of them replaced with antimony(III).

Titanium yellow is manufactured by reacting fine powders of metal oxides, hydroxides, or carbonates in solid state in temperatures between 1000 and 1200 °C, either in batches or continuously in a pass-through furnace.

Titanium yellow is used primarily as a pigment for plastics and ceramic glazes, and in art painting.

See also

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Titanium</span> Chemical element, symbol Ti and atomic number 22

Titanium is a chemical element; it has symbol Ti and atomic number 22. Found in nature only as an oxide, it can be reduced to produce a lustrous transition metal with a silver color, low density, and high strength, resistant to corrosion in sea water, aqua regia, and chlorine.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Yellow</span> Color between orange and green on the visible spectrum of light

Yellow is the color between green and orange on the spectrum of light. It is evoked by light with a dominant wavelength of roughly 575–585 nm. It is a primary color in subtractive color systems, used in painting or color printing. In the RGB color model, used to create colors on television and computer screens, yellow is a secondary color made by combining red and green at equal intensity. Carotenoids give the characteristic yellow color to autumn leaves, corn, canaries, daffodils, and lemons, as well as egg yolks, buttercups, and bananas. They absorb light energy and protect plants from photo damage in some cases. Sunlight has a slight yellowish hue when the Sun is near the horizon, due to atmospheric scattering of shorter wavelengths.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Rutile</span> Oxide mineral composed of titanium dioxide

Rutile is an oxide mineral composed of titanium dioxide (TiO2), the most common natural form of TiO2. Rarer polymorphs of TiO2 are known, including anatase, akaogiite, and brookite.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Pigment</span> Colored material

A pigment is a powder used to add color or change visual appearance. Pigments are completely or nearly insoluble and chemically unreactive in water or another medium; in contrast, dyes are colored substances which are soluble or go into solution at some stage in their use. Dyes are often organic compounds whereas pigments are often inorganic. Pigments of prehistoric and historic value include ochre, charcoal, and lapis lazuli.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Anatase</span> Mineral form of titanium dioxide

Anatase is a metastable mineral form of titanium dioxide (TiO2) with a tetragonal crystal structure. Although colorless or white when pure, anatase in nature is usually a black solid due to impurities. Three other polymorphs (or mineral forms) of titanium dioxide are known to occur naturally: brookite, akaogiite, and rutile, with rutile being the most common and most stable of the bunch. Anatase is formed at relatively low temperatures and found in minor concentrations in igneous and metamorphic rocks. Glass coated with a thin film of TiO2 shows antifogging and self-cleaning properties under ultraviolet radiation.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Ilmenite</span> Titanium-iron oxide mineral

Ilmenite is a titanium-iron oxide mineral with the idealized formula FeTiO
. It is a weakly magnetic black or steel-gray solid. Ilmenite is the most important ore of titanium and the main source of titanium dioxide, which is used in paints, printing inks, fabrics, plastics, paper, sunscreen, food and cosmetics.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Titanium dioxide</span> Chemical compound often used as a white pigment, Including in food and paints.

Titanium dioxide, also known as titanium(IV) oxide or titania, is the inorganic compound with the chemical formula TiO
. When used as a pigment, it is called titanium white, Pigment White 6 (PW6), or CI 77891. It is a white solid that is insoluble in water, although mineral forms can appear black. As a pigment, it has a wide range of applications, including paint, sunscreen, and food coloring. When used as a food coloring, it has E number E171. World production in 2014 exceeded 9 million tonnes. It has been estimated that titanium dioxide is used in two-thirds of all pigments, and pigments based on the oxide have been valued at a price of $13.2 billion.

Sulfide (British English also sulphide) is an inorganic anion of sulfur with the chemical formula S2− or a compound containing one or more S2− ions. Solutions of sulfide salts are corrosive. Sulfide also refers to large families of inorganic and organic compounds, e.g. lead sulfide and dimethyl sulfide. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and bisulfide (SH) are the conjugate acids of sulfide.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Cadmium pigments</span> Class of pigments that have cadmium as one of the chemical components

Cadmium pigments are a class of pigments that contain cadmium. Most of the cadmium produced worldwide has been for use in rechargeable nickel–cadmium batteries, which have been replaced by other rechargeable nickel-chemistry cell varieties such as NiMH cells, but about half of the remaining consumption of cadmium, which is approximately 2,000 tonnes annually, is used to produce colored cadmium pigments. The principal pigments are a family of yellow, orange and red cadmium sulfides and sulfoselenides, as well as compounds with other metals.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Titanium tetrachloride</span> Inorganic chemical compound

Titanium tetrachloride is the inorganic compound with the formula TiCl4. It is an important intermediate in the production of titanium metal and the pigment titanium dioxide. TiCl4 is a volatile liquid. Upon contact with humid air, it forms thick clouds of titanium dioxide and hydrochloric acid, a reaction that was formerly exploited for use in smoke machines. It is sometimes referred to as “tickle” or “tickle 4”, as a phonetic representation of the symbols of its molecular formula.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Antimony trisulfide</span> Chemical compound

Antimony trisulfide is found in nature as the crystalline mineral stibnite and the amorphous red mineral metastibnite. It is manufactured for use in safety matches, military ammunition, explosives and fireworks. It also is used in the production of ruby-colored glass and in plastics as a flame retardant. Historically the stibnite form was used as a grey pigment in paintings produced in the 16th century. In 1817, the dye and fabric chemist, John Mercer discovered the non-stoichiometric compound Antimony Orange, the first good orange pigment available for cotton fabric printing.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Naples yellow</span> Lead-antimonate inorganic pigment used in paintings

Naples yellow, also called antimony yellow or lead antimonate yellow, is an inorganic pigment that largely replaced lead-tin-yellow and has been used in European paintings since the seventeenth century. While the mineral orpiment is considered to be the oldest yellow pigment, Naples yellow, like Egyptian blue, is one of the oldest known synthetic pigments. Naples yellow was used in ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia, finding widespread application during the Hellenistic and Roman periods. Prior to its earliest occurrences in European paintings, the pigment was commonly employed in pottery, glazes, enamels, and glass. The pigment ranged in hue from a muted, earthy, reddish yellow to a bright light yellow.

Chrome yellow is a bright, warm yellow pigment that has been used in art, fashion, and industry. It is the premier orange pigment for many applications.

In chemistry an antimonate is a compound which contains a metallic element, oxygen, and antimony in an oxidation state of +5. These compounds adopt polymeric structures with M-O-Sb linkages. They can be considered to be derivatives of the hypothetical antimonic acid H3SbO4, or combinations of metal oxides and antimony pentoxide, Sb2O5.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Antimony pentoxide</span> Chemical compound

Antimony pentoxide (molecular formula: Sb2O5) is a chemical compound of antimony and oxygen. It contains antimony in the +5 oxidation state.

The chloride process is used to separate titanium from its ores. The goal of the process is to win high purity titanium dioxide from ores such as ilmenite (FeTiO3) and rutile (TiO2). The strategy exploits the volatility of TiCl4, which is readily purified and converted to the dioxide. Millions of tons of TiO2 are produced annually by this process, mainly for use as white pigments. The chloride process has largely displaced the older sulfate process, which relies on hot sulfuric acid to extract iron and other impurities from ores..

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Kerala Minerals and Metals</span>

Kerala Minerals and Metals Ltd is an integrated titanium dioxide manufacturing public sector undertaking in Kollam, Kerala, India. Its operations comprise mining, mineral separation, synthetic rutile and pigment-production plants. Apart from producing rutile-grade titanium dioxide pigment for various types of industries, it also produces other products like ilmenite, rutile, zircon, sillimanite, synthetic rutile etc. It is one of the best performing Public Sector Units in India. The company manufactures titanium dioxide through the chloride route. The different grades are produced by KMML under the brand name KEMOX.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Nickel(II) titanate</span> Chemical compound

Nickel(II) titanate, also known as nickel titanium oxide, is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula NiTiO3. It is a coordination compound between nickel(II), titanium(IV) and oxide ions. It has the appearance of a yellow powder. Nickel(II) titanate has been used as a catalyst for toluene oxidation.