Tithonian

Last updated
Tithonian
149.2 ± 0.7 – ~145.0 Ma
O
S
D
C
P
T
J
K
Pg
N
Chronology
Etymology
Name formalityFormal
Usage information
Celestial body Earth
Regional usageGlobal (ICS)
Time scale(s) usedICS Time Scale
Definition
Chronological unit Age
Stratigraphic unit Stage
Time span formalityFormal
Lower boundary definitionNot formally defined
Lower boundary definition candidates
Lower boundary GSSP candidate section(s)
Upper boundary definitionNot formally defined
Upper boundary definition candidates
Upper boundary GSSP candidate section(s)None

In the geological timescale, the Tithonian is the latest age of the Late Jurassic Epoch and the uppermost stage of the Upper Jurassic Series. It spans the time between 149.2 ±0.7 Ma and 145.0 ± 4 Ma (million years ago). It is preceded by the Kimmeridgian and followed by the Berriasian (part of the Cretaceous). [2]

Contents

Stratigraphic definitions

The Tithonian was introduced in scientific literature by German stratigrapher Albert Oppel in 1865. The name Tithonian is unusual in geological stage names because it is derived from Greek mythology. Tithonus was the son of Laomedon of Troy and fell in love with Eos, the Greek goddess of dawn. His name was chosen by Albert Oppel for this stratigraphical stage because the Tithonian finds itself hand in hand with the dawn of the Cretaceous. [3]

The base of the Tithonian stage is at the base of the ammonite biozone of Hybonoticeras hybonotum . A global reference profile (a GSSP or golden spike) for the base of the Tithonian had in 2009 not yet been established.

The top of the Tithonian stage (the base of the Berriasian Stage and the Cretaceous System) is marked by the first appearance of small globular calpionellids of the species Calpionella alpina , at the base of the Alpina Subzone .

Subdivision

The Tithonian is often subdivided into Lower/Early, Middle and Upper/Late substages or subages. The Late Tithonian is coeval with the Portlandian Age of British stratigraphy.

The Tithonian stage contains seven ammonite biozones in the Tethys domain, from top to base:

Sedimentary environments

Sedimentary rocks that formed in the Tethys Ocean during the Tithonian include limestones, which preserve fossilized remains of, for example, cephalopods. The Solnhofen limestone of southern Germany, which is known for its fossils (especially Archaeopteryx ), is of Tithonian age.

Tithonian extinction

The later part of the Tithonian stage experienced an extinction event. [4] [5] It has been referred to as the Tithonian extinction, [6] [7] [8] Jurassic-Cretaceous (J–K) extinction, [4] [5] [9] or end-Jurassic extinction. [10] [11] This event was fairly minor and selective, by most metrics outside the top 10 largest extinctions since the Cambrian. Nevertheless, it was still one of the largest extinctions of the Jurassic Period, alongside the Toarcian Oceanic Anoxic Event (TOAE) in the Early Jurassic. [7] [12]

Potential causes

Cooling and sea level fall

The Tithonian extinction has not been studied in great detail, but it is usually attributed to habitat loss via a major marine regression (sea level fall). [6] There is good evidence for a marine regression in Europe across the Jurassic-Cretaceous boundary, which may explain the localized nature of the extinction. [13] [8] [11] On the other hand, there is no clear consensus on a correlation between sea level and terrestrial diversity during the Jurassic and Cretaceous. Some authors support a fundamental correlation (the so-called "common cause hypothesis"), [11] while others strongly voice doubts. [14] Sea level fall was likely related to the Tithonian climate, which was substantially colder and drier than the preceding Kimmeridgian stage. Northern coral reef ecosystems, such as those of the European Tethys, would have been particularly vulnerable to global cooling during this time. [5]

Volcanism or asteroid impacts

EmperorSeamounts.jpg
Shatsky Rise
Shatsky Rise
EmperorSeamounts.jpg
The Shatsky Rise labelled on a map of North Pacific volcanic features

Few Jurassic-Cretaceous boundary sections are precisely associated with carbon isotope anomalies. [12] [15] Several Arctic outcrops show a moderate (up to 5) negative organic δ13C excursion in the middle part of the Tithonian. This excursion, sometimes called the Volgian Isotopic Carbon Excursion (VOICE), may be a consequence of volcanic activity. [16] The Tithonian stage saw the emplacement of the Shatsky Rise, a massive volcanic plateau in the North Pacific. During the Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous, numerous volcanic deposits can be found along the margin of Gondwana, which was beginning to fragment into smaller continents. [5]

Three large impact craters have been tentatively dated to the Tithonian: the Morokweng Impact Structure (South Africa, 80+ km diameter), Mjølnir crater (Barents Sea, 40 km diameter), and Gosses Bluff crater (Australia, 22 km diameter). These impacts would have caused local devastation, but likely had minimal impact on global ecosystems. Most volcanic events or extraterrestrial impacts in the Late Jurassic were concentrated around Gondwana, in contrast to the extinction event, which was centered on Laurasian ecosystems. [5]

Sampling bias

It has been suggested that the putative extinction is a consequence of sampling biases. The Late Jurassic is packed with marine lagerstätten, exceptionally diverse and well-preserved fossil beds. A lack of earliest Cretaceous marine lagerstätten may appear as a loss of diversity, simply looking at the raw data alone. [17] [18] Sampling bias may also explain apparent extinctions in terrestrial environments, which have a similar disconnect in fossil abundance. This is most obvious in sauropod-bearing deposits, which are abundant in the Late Jurassic and rare in the earliest Cretaceous. [18] Most studies relevant to the Tithonian extinction attempt to counteract sampling biases when estimating diversity loss or extinction rates. [14] [5] Depending on the sampling method or the taxonomic group, the Tithonian extinction may still be apparent even once sampling biases are accounted for. [5] [19]

Impact on life

In 1986, Jack Sepkoski argued that the Late Tithonian extinction was the largest extinction event between the end of the Triassic and the end of the Cretaceous. He estimated that a staggering 37% of genera died out during the Tithonian stage. [20] Benton (1995) found a lower estimate, with the extinction of 5.6 to 13.3% of genera in the Tithonian. Proportional extinction was higher for continental genera (5.8–17.6%) than marine genera (5.1–6.1%). [21] Sepkoski (1996) estimated that about 18% of multiple-interval marine genera (those originating prior to the Tithonian) died out in the Tithonian. [7] Based on an updated version of Sepkoski's genera compendium, Bambach (2006) found a similar estimate of 20% of genera going extinct in the Late Tithonian. [22]

Invertebrates

European bivalve diversity is severely depleted across the J–K boundary. [23] [6] [24] [5] However, bivalve fossils from the Andes and Siberia show little ecological turnover, so bivalve extinctions may have localized to the Tethys Sea. Only a fraction of Jurassic ammonite species survive to the Cretaceous, though extinction rates were actually lower in the late Tithonian relative to adjacent time intervals. [6] [8] Moderate diversity declines have been estimated or observed in gastropods, brachiopods, radiolarians, crustaceans, and scleractinian corals. This may have been related to the replacement of Jurassic-style coral reefs by Cretaceous-style rudist reefs. [5] Reef decline was likely a gradual process, stretched out between the Oxfordian stage and the Valanginian stage. [25]

Marine vertebrates

The Jurassic-Cretaceous transition saw the extinction of thalassochelydian turtles, such as Plesiochelys Naturkundemuseum Plesiochelys sp. 17RM1993.jpg
The Jurassic-Cretaceous transition saw the extinction of thalassochelydian turtles, such as Plesiochelys

Marine actinopterygians (ray-finned fishes) show elevated extinction rates across the Tithonian-Berriasian boundary. Most losses were quickly offset by substantial diversification in the Early Cretaceous. Sharks, rays, and freshwater fishes were nearly unaffected by the extinction. [26]

Marine reptiles were strongly affected by the Tithonian extinction. [27] [4] Thalassochelydians, the most prominent Jurassic clade of marine turtles, were pushed to the brink of extinction. [5] Only a single thalassochelydian fossil (an indeterminate skull from the Purbeck Group of England) is known from the Cretaceous. [28] Among plesiosaurs, only a few species of Pliosauridae and Cryptoclididae persisted, and they too would die out in the Early Cretaceous. Conversely, the Tithonian extinction acted as a trigger for a Cretaceous diversification event for plesiosaurs in the clade Xenopsaria, namely elasmosaurids and leptocleidians. [4] This turnover of marine reptile faunas may be a consequence of the turnover of reefs and marine fishes, which would have benefited generalized predators more than specialists. [5]

It has long been suggested that ichthyosaurs and marine teleosauroid crocodyliforms declined across the J–K boundary, with the latter group even going extinct. [27] [29] [30] More recent finds suggest that ichthyosaurs diversity remained stable or even increased in the Early Cretaceous. [10] [4] [5] Early Cretaceous ichthyosaur fossils are rare enough that this hypothesis is still a matter of debate. [11] European teleosauroids did indeed suffer total extinction, [31] but teleosauroids as a whole survived into the Early Cretaceous in other parts of the world. [32] [33] [34] Metriorhynchoids, the other major group of marine crocodyliforms, were not strongly affected by the Tithonian extinction. [31]

Terrestrial vertebrates

Some studies have argued that sauropods, like Apatosaurus louisae, were strongly impacted by the Tithonian extinction Louisae.jpg
Some studies have argued that sauropods, like Apatosaurus louisae , were strongly impacted by the Tithonian extinction

On land, sauropod dinosaur diversity was significantly reduced according to many [35] [36] [11] [5] [19] (but not all) [18] [37] estimates. Diplodocids, basal macronarians, and mamenchisaurids took the brunt of the extinction, [5] though a few species of each group survived to the Early Cretaceous. [38] [39] [40] Conversely, rebbachisaurids and somphospondyls saw the opportunity to diversify in the Cretaceous. [5] Turiasaurs also survived the extinction and even expanded into North America during the Early Cretaceous. [9] Theropod diversity declined through the entire Late Jurassic, with medium-sized predators such as megalosaurids being the hardest hit. [11] [5] Ornithischian (particularly stegosaur) diversity saw a small drop across the J–K boundary. Theropod and ornithischian extinctions were notably less pronounced than in sauropods. [36] [11]

Most non-pterodactyloid pterosaurs perished by the end of the Jurassic. [11] Practically no earliest Cretaceous sites are known to preserve pterosaur fossils, so the precise timing of non-pterodactyloid extinctions is very uncertain. [17] Coastal and freshwater crocodyliforms experienced high extinction rates across the J–K boundary, preceding a significant diversification of more terrestrially-adapted metasuchians in the Cretaceous. [29] [30] [5] Coastal and freshwater turtle diversity also declined, at least in Europe. [11] [30] Many tetrapod groups saw strong (albeit gradual) ecological turnover through the J-K boundary. These groups include lissamphibians, lepidosaurs, choristoderes, and mammaliaforms. [11]

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Cretaceous</span> Third and last period of the Mesozoic Era, 145-66 million years ago

The Cretaceous is a geological period that lasted from about 145 to 66 million years ago (Mya). It is the third and final period of the Mesozoic Era, as well as the longest. At around 79 million years, it is the longest geological period of the entire Phanerozoic. The name is derived from the Latin creta, "chalk", which is abundant in the latter half of the period. It is usually abbreviated K, for its German translation Kreide.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Extinction event</span> Widespread and rapid decrease in the biodiversity on Earth

An extinction event is a widespread and rapid decrease in the biodiversity on Earth. Such an event is identified by a sharp change in the diversity and abundance of multicellular organisms. It occurs when the rate of extinction increases with respect to the background extinction rate and the rate of speciation. Estimates of the number of major mass extinctions in the last 540 million years range from as few as five to more than twenty. These differences stem from disagreement as to what constitutes a "major" extinction event, and the data chosen to measure past diversity.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Jurassic</span> Second period of the Mesozoic Era 201-145 million years ago

The Jurassic is a geologic period and stratigraphic system that spanned from the end of the Triassic Period 201.4 million years ago (Mya) to the beginning of the Cretaceous Period, approximately 145 Mya. The Jurassic constitutes the middle period of the Mesozoic Era and is named after the Jura Mountains, where limestone strata from the period were first identified.

The Mesozoic Era is the second-to-last era of Earth's geological history, lasting from about 252 to 66 million years ago, comprising the Triassic, Jurassic and Cretaceous Periods. It is characterized by the dominance of archosaurian reptiles, such as the dinosaurs; an abundance of gymnosperms, and ferns; a hot greenhouse climate; and the tectonic break-up of Pangaea. The Mesozoic is the middle of the three eras since complex life evolved: the Paleozoic, the Mesozoic, and the Cenozoic.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Phanerozoic</span> Fourth and current eon of the geological timescale

The Phanerozoic is the current and the latest of the four geologic eons in the Earth's geologic time scale, covering the time period from 538.8 million years ago to the present. It is the eon during which abundant animal and plant life has proliferated, diversified and colonized various niches on the Earth's surface, beginning with the Cambrian period when animals first developed hard shells that can be clearly preserved in the fossil record. The time before the Phanerozoic, collectively called the Precambrian, is now divided into the Hadean, Archaean and Proterozoic eons.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Diplodocidae</span> Extinct family of dinosaurs

Diplodocids, or members of the family Diplodocidae, are a group of sauropod dinosaurs. The family includes some of the longest creatures ever to walk the Earth, including Diplodocus and Supersaurus, some of which may have reached lengths of up to 42 metres (138 ft).

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Titanosauria</span> Extinct clade of dinosaurs

Titanosaurs were a diverse group of sauropod dinosaurs, including genera from all seven continents. The titanosaurs were the last surviving group of long-necked sauropods, with taxa still thriving at the time of the extinction event at the end of the Cretaceous. This group includes some of the largest land animals known to have ever existed, such as Patagotitan—estimated at 37 m (121 ft) long with a weight of 69 tonnes —and the comparably-sized Argentinosaurus and Puertasaurus from the same region.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Kimmeridge Clay</span> Geological formation

The Kimmeridge Clay is a sedimentary deposit of fossiliferous marine clay which is of Late Jurassic to lowermost Cretaceous age and occurs in southern and eastern England and in the North Sea. This rock formation is the major source rock for North Sea oil. The fossil fauna of the Kimmeridge Clay includes turtles, crocodiles, sauropods, plesiosaurs, pliosaurs and ichthyosaurs, as well as a number of invertebrate species.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Turiasauria</span> Extinct clade of dinosaurs

Turiasauria is an unranked clade of basal sauropod dinosaurs known from Middle Jurassic to Early Cretaceous deposits in Europe, North America, and Africa.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Lourinhã Formation</span> Late Jurassic geological formation in Portugal

The Lourinhã Formation is a fossil rich geological formation in western Portugal, named for the municipality of Lourinhã. The formation is mostly Late Jurassic in age (Kimmeridgian/Tithonian), with the top of the formation extending into the earliest Cretaceous (Berriasian). It is notable for containing a fauna especially similar to that of the Morrison Formation in the United States and a lesser extent to the Tendaguru Formation in Tanzania. There are also similarities to the nearby Villar del Arzobispo Formation and Alcobaça Formation. The stratigraphy of the formation and the basin in general is complex and controversial, with the constituent member beds belonging to the formation varying between different authors.

The Villar del Arzobispo Formation is a Late Jurassic to possibly Early Cretaceous geologic formation in eastern Spain. It is equivalent in age to the Lourinhã Formation of Portugal. It was originally thought to date from the Late Tithonian-Middle Berriasian, but more recent work suggests a Kimmeridigan-Late Tithonian, possibly dating to the Early Berriasian in some areas. The Villar del Arzobispo Formation's age in the area of Riodeva in Spain has been dated based on stratigraphic correlations as middle-upper Tithonian, approximately 145-141 million years old. In the area of Galve, the formation potentially dates into the earliest Cretaceous.

<i>Xianshanosaurus</i> Extinct genus of dinosaurs

Xianshanosaurus is a genus of sauropod dinosaur from the Early Cretaceous (Aptian-Albian) of the Ruyang Basin in Henan Province, China. Its type and only species is Xianshanosaurus shijiagouensis. It was described in 2009 by a team of paleontologists led by Lü Junchang. Xianshanosaurus may be a titanosaur, and Daxiatitan may be its closest relative, but its evolutionary relationships remain controversial.

<i>Arthropterygius</i> Extinct genus of reptiles

Arthropterygius is a widespread genus of ophthalmosaurid ichthyosaur which existed in Canada, Norway, Russia, and Argentina from the late Jurassic period and possibly to the earliest Cretaceous.

<i>Acamptonectes</i> Extinct genus of ophthalmosaurid ichthyosaur known from England and Germany

Acamptonectes is a genus of ophthalmosaurid ichthyosaurs, a type of dolphin-like marine reptiles, that lived during the Early Cretaceous around 130 million years ago. The first specimen, a partial adult skeleton, was discovered in Speeton, England, in 1958, but was not formally described until 2012 by Valentin Fischer and colleagues. They also recognised a partial subadult skeleton belonging to the genus from Cremlingen, Germany, and specimens from other localities in England. The genus contains the single species Acamptonectes densus; the generic name means "rigid swimmer" and the specific name means "compact" or "tightly packed".

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Mesozoic–Cenozoic radiation</span> Increase in biodiversity since the Permian extinction

The Mesozoic–Cenozoic Radiation is the third major extended increase of biodiversity in the Phanerozoic, after the Cambrian Explosion and the Great Ordovician Biodiversification Event, which appeared to exceeded the equilibrium reached after the Ordovician radiation. Made known by its identification in marine invertebrates, this evolutionary radiation began in the Mesozoic, after the Permian extinctions, and continues to this date. This spectacular radiation affected both terrestrial and marine flora and fauna, during which the “modern” fauna came to replace much of the Paleozoic fauna. Notably, this radiation event was marked by the rise of angiosperms during the mid-Cretaceous, and the K-Pg extinction, which initiated the rapid increase in mammalian biodiversity.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Agardhfjellet Formation</span>

The Agardhfjellet Formation is a geologic formation in Svalbard, Norway. It preserves fossils dating back to the Oxfordian to Berriasian stages, spanning the Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous boundary. The formation contains the Slottsmøya Member, a highly fossiliferous unit (Lagerstätte) where many ichthyosaur and plesiosaur fossils have been found, as well as abundant and well preserved fossils of invertebrates.

<i>Mierasaurus</i> Extinct genus of dinosaurs

Mierasaurus is an extinct genus of sauropod dinosaur from the Early Cretaceous of Utah, United States. The taxon was first described and named in 2017 by Rafael Royo-Torres and colleagues, from a mostly complete skeleton including a disarticulated partial skull and mandible, teeth, multiple vertebrae from along the length of the body, both scapulae, radius and ulna bones, a left manus, a complete pelvis, both femora and the entire left hindlimb. Additionally, they referred a lower jaw and femur from juvenile individuals, which were found nearby, to the genus. Collectively, Mierasaurus is among the most completely known North American sauropods. The genus name honours Bernardo de Miera y Pacheco, the first European scientist to enter what is now Utah. The type species for Mierasaurus is Mierasaurus bobyoungi, named after Robert Glen Young, a paleontologist who researched the Early Cretaceous of Utah.

The sauropod hiatus is a period in the North American fossil record for most of the Late Cretaceous noted for its lack of sauropod remains. It may represent an extinction event, possibly caused by competition with ornithischian herbivores, habitat loss from the expansion of the Western Interior Seaway, or both. Alternatively, it has been argued that the hiatus represents a decrease in inland deposits that would have effectively preserved the animals, creating the illusion of an extinction. The sauropod hiatus ended shortly before the end of the Cretaceous, with the appearance of Alamosaurus, most likely an immigrant from South America, in the southern parts of North America.

References

Notes

  1. "International Chronostratigraphic Chart" (PDF). International Commission on Stratigraphy.
  2. See for a detailed version of the geologic timescale Gradstein et al. (2004)
  3. Gradstein FM, Ogg JG, Schmitz MD, Ogg GM, eds. (2012). The Geologic Timescale 2012. Elsevier. p. 746. ISBN   978-0-44-459390-0.
  4. 1 2 3 4 5 Benson, Roger B. J.; Druckenmiller, Patrick S. (2014). "Faunal turnover of marine tetrapods during the Jurassic-Cretaceous transition". Biological Reviews. 89 (1): 1–23. doi:10.1111/brv.12038. PMID   23581455. S2CID   19710180.
  5. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 Tennant, Jonathan P.; Mannion, Philip D.; Upchurch, Paul; Sutton, Mark D.; Price, Gregory D. (2017). "Biotic and environmental dynamics through the Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous transition: evidence for protracted faunal and ecological turnover: Jurassic-Cretaceous biotic and abiotic dynamics". Biological Reviews. 92 (2): 776–814. doi:10.1111/brv.12255. PMC   6849608 . PMID   26888552.
  6. 1 2 3 4 Hallam, A. (1986). "The Pliensbachian and Tithonian extinction events". Nature. 319 (6056): 765–768. Bibcode:1986Natur.319..765H. doi:10.1038/319765a0. ISSN   0028-0836. S2CID   4310433.
  7. 1 2 3 Sepkoski JJ (1996). "Patterns of Phanerozoic extinction: A perspective from global data bases". In Walliser OH (ed.). Global Events and Event Stratigraphy in the Phanerozoic. Berlin & Heidelberg, DE: Springer Berlin Heidelberg. pp. 35–51. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-79634-0_4. ISBN   978-3-642-79636-4 . Retrieved 2022-08-14.
  8. 1 2 3 Hallam, Anthony (1996), Walliser, Otto H. (ed.), "Major Bio-Events in the Triassic and Jurassic", Global Events and Event Stratigraphy in the Phanerozoic, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg, pp. 265–283, doi:10.1007/978-3-642-79634-0_13, ISBN   978-3-642-79636-4 , retrieved 2023-04-24
  9. 1 2 Royo-Torres, Rafael; Upchurch, Paul; Kirkland, James I.; DeBlieux, Donald D.; Foster, John R.; Cobos, Alberto; Alcalá, Luis (2017-10-30). "Descendants of the Jurassic turiasaurs from Iberia found refuge in the Early Cretaceous of western USA". Scientific Reports. 7 (1): 14311. Bibcode:2017NatSR...714311R. doi:10.1038/s41598-017-14677-2. ISSN   2045-2322. PMC   5662694 . PMID   29085006.
  10. 1 2 Fischer, Valentin; Maisch, Michael W.; Naish, Darren; Kosma, Ralf; Liston, Jeff; Joger, Ulrich; Krüger, Fritz J.; Pérez, Judith Pardo; Tainsh, Jessica; Appleby, Robert M. (2012-01-03). "New Ophthalmosaurid Ichthyosaurs from the European Lower Cretaceous Demonstrate Extensive Ichthyosaur Survival across the Jurassic–Cretaceous Boundary". PLOS ONE. 7 (1): e29234. Bibcode:2012PLoSO...729234F. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0029234 . ISSN   1932-6203. PMC   3250416 . PMID   22235274.
  11. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Tennant, Jonathan P.; Mannion, Philip D.; Upchurch, Paul (2016-09-02). "Sea level regulated tetrapod diversity dynamics through the Jurassic/Cretaceous interval". Nature Communications. 7 (1): 12737. Bibcode:2016NatCo...712737T. doi:10.1038/ncomms12737. ISSN   2041-1723. PMC   5025807 . PMID   27587285.
  12. 1 2 Bambach RK (May 2006). "Phanerozoic Biodiversity Mass Extinctions". Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences. 34 (1): 127–155. Bibcode:2006AREPS..34..127B. doi:10.1146/annurev.earth.33.092203.122654. ISSN   0084-6597.
  13. Hallam, A. (1989). "The case for sea-level change as a dominant causal factor in mass extinction of marine invertebrates". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. B, Biological Sciences. 325 (1228): 437–455. Bibcode:1989RSPTB.325..437H. doi:10.1098/rstb.1989.0098. ISSN   0080-4622.
  14. 1 2 Butler, Richard J.; Benson, Roger B. J.; Carrano, Matthew T.; Mannion, Philip D.; Upchurch, Paul (2011-04-22). "Sea level, dinosaur diversity and sampling biases: investigating the 'common cause' hypothesis in the terrestrial realm". Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 278 (1709): 1165–1170. doi:10.1098/rspb.2010.1754. ISSN   0962-8452. PMC   3049076 . PMID   20880889.
  15. Price, Gregory D.; Főzy, István; Pálfy, József (2016). "Carbon cycle history through the Jurassic–Cretaceous boundary: A new global δ13C stack". Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology. 451: 46–61. Bibcode:2016PPP...451...46P. doi:10.1016/j.palaeo.2016.03.016.
  16. Galloway, Jennifer M.; Vickers, Madeleine L.; Price, Gregory D.; Poulton, Terence; Grasby, Stephen E.; Hadlari, Thomas; Beauchamp, Benoit; Sulphur, Kyle (2020). "Finding the VOICE: organic carbon isotope chemostratigraphy of Late Jurassic – Early Cretaceous Arctic Canada". Geological Magazine. 157 (10): 1643–1657. Bibcode:2020GeoM..157.1643G. doi:10.1017/S0016756819001316. hdl: 10026.1/15324 . ISSN   0016-7568. S2CID   213590881.
  17. 1 2 Dean, Christopher D.; Mannion, Philip D.; Butler, Richard J. (2016). Benson, Roger (ed.). "Preservational bias controls the fossil record of pterosaurs". Palaeontology. 59 (2): 225–247. Bibcode:2016Palgy..59..225D. doi:10.1111/pala.12225. PMC   4878658 . PMID   27239072.
  18. 1 2 3 Starrfelt, Jostein; Liow, Lee Hsiang (2016-04-05). "How many dinosaur species were there? Fossil bias and true richness estimated using a Poisson sampling model". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 371 (1691): 20150219. doi:10.1098/rstb.2015.0219. ISSN   0962-8436. PMC   4810813 . PMID   26977060.
  19. 1 2 Tennant, Jonathan P.; Chiarenza, Alfio Alessandro; Baron, Matthew (2018-02-19). "How has our knowledge of dinosaur diversity through geologic time changed through research history?". PeerJ. 6: e4417. doi:10.7717/peerj.4417. ISSN   2167-8359. PMC   5822849 . PMID   29479504. S2CID   3548488.
  20. Sepkoski JJ (1986). "Phanerozoic overview of mass extinction". In Raup DM, Jablonski D (eds.). Patterns and Processes in the History of Life. Dahlem Workshop Reports. Berlin & Heidelberg, DE: Springer Berlin Heidelberg. pp. 277–295. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-70831-2_15. ISBN   978-3-642-70833-6 . Retrieved 2022-08-14.
  21. Benton MJ (April 1995). "Diversification and extinction in the history of life" (PDF). Science. 268 (5207): 52–58. Bibcode:1995Sci...268...52B. doi:10.1126/science.7701342. PMID   7701342.
  22. Bambach RK (May 2006). "Phanerozoic Biodiversity Mass Extinctions". Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences. 34 (1): 127–155. Bibcode:2006AREPS..34..127B. doi:10.1146/annurev.earth.33.092203.122654. ISSN   0084-6597.
  23. Hallam, A. (1977). "Jurassic bivalve biogeography". Paleobiology. 3 (1): 58–73. Bibcode:1977Pbio....3...58H. doi:10.1017/S009483730000511X. ISSN   0094-8373. S2CID   89578740.
  24. Liu, Chun-lian (2000). "Extinction Events Among Jurassic Bivalves". Acta Scientiarium Naturalium. 39 (1).
  25. FLÜGEL, ERIK; KIESSLING, WOLFGANG (2002), "Patterns of Phanerozoic Reef Crises", Phanerozoic Reef Patterns, SEPM (Society for Sedimentary Geology), pp. 691–733, doi:10.2110/pec.02.72.0691, ISBN   1-56576-081-6 , retrieved 2023-04-25
  26. Guinot, Guillaume; Cavin, Lionel (2016). "'Fish' (Actinopterygii and Elasmobranchii) diversification patterns through deep time: 'Fish' diversification patterns through deep time". Biological Reviews. 91 (4): 950–981. doi:10.1111/brv.12203. PMID   26105527. S2CID   25157060.
  27. 1 2 Bardet, Nathalie (1994). "Extinction events among Mesozoic marine reptiles". Historical Biology. 7 (4): 313–324. doi:10.1080/10292389409380462. ISSN   0891-2963.
  28. Anquetin, Jérémy; André, Charlotte (2020). "The last surviving Thalassochelydia—A new turtle cranium from the Early Cretaceous of the Purbeck Group (Dorset, UK)". PaleorXiv (7paf5c). doi:10.31233/osf.io/7pa5c. S2CID   226481039.
  29. 1 2 Mannion, Philip D.; Benson, Roger B. J.; Carrano, Matthew T.; Tennant, Jonathan P.; Judd, Jack; Butler, Richard J. (2015-09-24). "Climate constrains the evolutionary history and biodiversity of crocodylians". Nature Communications. 6 (1): 8438. Bibcode:2015NatCo...6.8438M. doi:10.1038/ncomms9438. ISSN   2041-1723. PMC   4598718 . PMID   26399170.
  30. 1 2 3 Tennant, Jonathan P.; Mannion, Philip D.; Upchurch, Paul (2016-03-16). "Environmental drivers of crocodyliform extinction across the Jurassic/Cretaceous transition". Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 283 (1826): 20152840. doi:10.1098/rspb.2015.2840. ISSN   0962-8452. PMC   4810856 . PMID   26962137.
  31. 1 2 Young, Mark T.; Brandalise de Andrade, Marco; Cornée, Jean-Jacques; Steel, Lorna; Foffa, Davide (2014). "Re-description of a putative Early Cretaceous "teleosaurid" from France, with implications for the survival of metriorhynchids and teleosaurids across the Jurassic-Cretaceous Boundary". Annales de Paléontologie. 100 (2): 165–174. Bibcode:2014AnPal.100..165Y. doi:10.1016/j.annpal.2014.01.002.
  32. Fanti, Federico; Miyashita, Tetsuto; Cantelli, Luigi; Mnasri, Fawsi; Dridi, Jihed; Contessi, Michela; Cau, Andrea (2016). "The largest thalattosuchian (Crocodylomorpha) supports teleosaurid survival across the Jurassic-Cretaceous boundary". Cretaceous Research. 61: 263–274. Bibcode:2016CrRes..61..263F. doi:10.1016/j.cretres.2015.11.011. hdl: 11585/529635 .
  33. Cortés, Dirley; Larsson, Hans C.E.; Maxwell, Erin E.; Parra Ruge, Mary Luz; Patarroyo, Pedro; Wilson, Jeffrey A. (2019-10-06). "An Early Cretaceous Teleosauroid (Crocodylomorpha: Thalattosuchia) from Colombia". Ameghiniana. 56 (5): 365. doi:10.5710/AMGH.26.09.2019.3269. ISSN   0002-7014. S2CID   210110716.
  34. Johnson, Michela M.; Young, Mark T.; Brusatte, Stephen L. (2020-10-08). "The phylogenetics of Teleosauroidea (Crocodylomorpha, Thalattosuchia) and implications for their ecology and evolution". PeerJ. 8: e9808. doi:10.7717/peerj.9808. ISSN   2167-8359. PMC   7548081 . PMID   33083104.
  35. Mannion, Philip D.; Upchurch, Paul; Carrano, Matthew T.; Barrett, Paul M. (2011). "Testing the effect of the rock record on diversity: a multidisciplinary approach to elucidating the generic richness of sauropodomorph dinosaurs through time". Biological Reviews. 86 (1): 157–181. doi:10.1111/j.1469-185X.2010.00139.x. PMID   20412186. S2CID   9831073.
  36. 1 2 Upchurch, P.; Mannion, P. D.; Benson, R. B. J.; Butler, R. J.; Carrano, M. T. (2011). "Geological and anthropogenic controls on the sampling of the terrestrial fossil record: a case study from the Dinosauria" (PDF). Geological Society, London, Special Publications. 358 (1): 209–240. Bibcode:2011GSLSP.358..209U. doi:10.1144/sp358.14. ISSN   0305-8719. S2CID   130777837.
  37. Cashmore, Daniel D.; Mannion, Philip D.; Upchurch, Paul; Butler, Richard J. (2020). Benson, Roger (ed.). "Ten more years of discovery: revisiting the quality of the sauropodomorph dinosaur fossil record". Palaeontology. 63 (6): 951–978. Bibcode:2020Palgy..63..951C. doi:10.1111/pala.12496. ISSN   0031-0239. S2CID   219090716.
  38. McPhee, Blair W.; Mannion, Philip D.; de Klerk, William J.; Choiniere, Jonah N. (2016). "High diversity in the sauropod dinosaur fauna of the Lower Cretaceous Kirkwood Formation of South Africa: Implications for the Jurassic–Cretaceous transition". Cretaceous Research. 59: 228–248. Bibcode:2016CrRes..59..228M. doi:10.1016/j.cretres.2015.11.006.
  39. Wang, Jun; Norell, Mark A.; Pei, Rui; Ye, Yong; Chang, Su-Chin (2019). "Surprisingly young age for the mamenchisaurid sauropods in South China". Cretaceous Research. 104: 104176. Bibcode:2019CrRes.10404176W. doi:10.1016/j.cretres.2019.07.006. S2CID   199099072.
  40. Moore, Andrew J.; Upchurch, Paul; Barrett, Paul M.; Clark, James M.; Xing, Xu (2020-08-17). "Osteology of Klamelisaurus gobiensis (Dinosauria, Eusauropoda) and the evolutionary history of Middle–Late Jurassic Chinese sauropods". Journal of Systematic Palaeontology. 18 (16): 1299–1393. doi:10.1080/14772019.2020.1759706. ISSN   1477-2019. S2CID   219749618.

Literature