|• Municipal unit
|149.6 km2 (57.8 sq mi)
|• Municipal unit
|• Municipal unit density
|21/km2 (55/sq mi)
|• Summer (DST)
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Tithorea (Greek : Τιθορέα), is an ancient place with more than 4,000 years of human history. A part of the municipality of Amfikleia-Elateia, in Phthiotis, Greece, it had a population of 630 in 2011, and is situated 156 km from Athens.
Tithorea, located on the slopes of Mount Parnassus,the mountain was sacred to Dionysus and the Dionysian mysteries; it was also sacred to Apollo and the Corycian nymphs and was the home of the Muses.
Tithorea is situated at the northern foot of the Parnassus, 5 km from Tithorea Train Station, 90 minutes or 156 km from the country capital Athens. Tithorea (Velitsa) Ancient Phokis. Tithorea is about 180 stades distant from Delphi on the road across Parnassus. This road is not mountainous throughout, being fit even for vehicles, but was said to be several stades longer.
Tithorea, considered the birthplace of the Phocians, where about 2000 BC, Phocus and his wife Antiopi settled, where they lived and died and were buried. Tithorea (Neon), is the starting point and co-founders, along with other cities in the Boeotian Kifissos, Phocaea, a colony on the coast of Asia Minor, opposite Chios, under the Athenian Philogenes. Lampsacus was one of the first colonies in the Black Sea, Marseilles, Antipolis, Nicaea, Arelati (present-day Arles), Agathi, Hierapolis, Monoikos, present-day Monaco, present-day southern France, Elea in south Italy, Olvia in Sardinia and Kallipoli (Barcelona). The Tithorians, along with the other Phocians, were the only ones from the central and northern Greek states who did not get the side of the Persians when Xerxes marched against Greece and participated with a remarkable army in the battle of Thermopylae. Tithorea was the operational center of Onomarhos, born near Tithorea in the settlement of Parapotamioi, Emperor of the Phocians, the most powerful personality of Greece from 353 BC to 352 BC, where at that time it had occupied Thronio in Locri, subjugated Amfissa, conquered Doric Tetrapolis and Orchomenos. The Phocians King Onomarchos, led the entire Phocian army and invaded Thessaly twice (354-353 BC), where after an equal number of victories forced Philip to return to Macedonia, but Onomarchos in the third match, with the Macedonians had a fatal end to the battle that took place at Krokion Field near the Pagasitic Gulf, where the Phocian forces were defeated and the Onomarchos killed during the battle. Philip, in retaliation for the defeats suffered by the Phocians in 338 BC, conquered and leveled the Phocian cities.
It has been identified by 3d and 2d c. B.C. inscriptions, dated by the archon of Tithorea. Several refer to Isis, Serapis, and Anubis, recalling the sanctuary that Pausanias (10.32) said was the holiest of those built to Isis in Greece. Varying opinions have arisen from Herodotos' statement, that a number of Phocians fleeing Xerxes took refuge on the isolated peak of Tithorea, near Neon. Tithorea referring to the heights above the great cliff rising S of the village, later applied by extension to the whole district. Others, however, have supposed Tithorea was the refuge site, and that Neon is to be identified with the remains of a walled site of considerable size at Palia Pheva on the right bank of the Kephissos about 5 km to the N. Plutarch, described Tithorea as merely a fortress in the early 1st c. B.C. but of much greater importance a century later. It had declined again by the time of Pausanias, who saw a theater, an ancient market, a Temple and Grove of Athena, and the tomb of Antiope and Phocos. In the vicinity, there was also a Temple of Asklepios Archagetos (Founder). Scattered theater seats have been noted outside the walls as well as other foundations for large buildings. The most important remains are those of the fortifications, classed with Messene and Eleutherai as the finest examples of 4th c. work. The walls, supplementing the natural defenses of cliff to the S and gorge to the E, are of trapezoidal ashlar masonry, as much as 14 courses high. On the steep W slope, the top is both inclined and stepped, and crowned with coping blocks. The towers are square with windows and loopholes. Neon is listed by Pausanias as one of the Phocian towns razed in 346 B.C.; the walls were probably rebuilt soon after the battle of Chaironeia eight years later. The local olive oil was noted for color and sweetness and well known across Greece. In inscription stated that in Tithorea lived and died the famous Alexandrian medical doctor Dorotheos. In Diogenes Laertius, stated in his work "Lives of Philosophers", that Tithorea gave the birth to a philosopher, in the 4th century BC, which was called Theon the Tithoreus.
The people of Velitsa (Tithorea), took part, with a 47-member percussion group members, during the battle of Arachova on November 18 and 24, 1826, as well with a lower participation under Sergeant Vagenas and Athanasakos, at the exit of Messolonghi. In Velitsa (Tithorea), was the base of Odysseas Androutsos, hero of the Greek liberation, against Turkish. Tithorea was the origin of the admiral of independence, Russian army officer, Catherine the Great, Empress of Russia lover Lambros Katsonis.
Tithorea in the post-liberation period and prior to that name Velitsa, was established on 18.10.1835, as a settlement of the prefecture of Attica and Boeotia.During the German-Italian occupation, the Velitsiotes, along with the other villages, took part in one of the largest sabotages in central Greece, in Palavitsa, between Amfikleia-Tithorea, on April 16, 1943, which cost Rommel the supply, for 12 days and influenced the development of World War II.
After a few days, the Italian army entered Velitsa and the people of Velitsa paying for their brave act, a heavy blood cost. Velitsa (Tithorea) was looted, the village was burned, in retaliation for the sabotage in Palavitsa and by indiscriminately firing,
killed the people of Velitsa: Gazis Christos father's name Andreas, Kaperonis Ioannis fathe's Konstantinos, Trifylli Kalliopi of fatner's name Ioannis, Stafyla Panayiou and the teacher Yiannis Galanis.
The economy of Tithorea was predominantly tobacco-producing, livestock-based, with mills, a class of food merchants, shoemakers, barbers, tailors, craftsmen, builders and ironworkers. The Gymnasium of Tithorea operated for decades with students as Academician Georgios Sklavounos, the defence Minister Giannakitsas, during the period of the Balkan Wars, the founder of Finos Film, F. Finos, Deputy Minister of Agriculture of C. Triantafylou, Deputy President of court of auditors Ev. Gialouris. Tithorea is the place of origin of Stathis Giotas, former Minister the PASOK periods.
The ancient city of Tithorea was built after the destruction of the nearby cities, including Neon, by Xerxes' Persian army in 480 BC. Ac.
A recent comparison of the genetic sample of Phocaeans and French from Provence and Corsica shows that one in ten men in southern France comes from colonized Greek Phocians, Phocaeans.According to Herodotus, inhabitants from ruined cities located on the banks of the Cephissus fled to the foot of the Parnassus around Tithorea.After the Persians left, the Phocians settled around Tithorea, where a fortress was built. The city reached its peak in the 3rd century BC, when it minted its own coins.
Leonidas I was a king of the Greek city-state of Sparta, and the 17th of the Agiad line, a dynasty which claimed descent from the mythological demigod Heracles and Cadmus. Leonidas I was son of King Anaxandridas II. He succeeded his half-brother King Cleomenes I to the throne in c. 489 BC. His co-ruler was King Leotychidas. He was succeeded by his son, King Pleistarchus.
The Battle of Thermopylae was fought between an alliance of Ancient Greek city-states, led by King Leonidas I of Sparta, and the Achaemenid Empire of Xerxes I. It was fought in 480 BC over the course of three days, during the second Persian invasion of Greece.
The Greco-Persian Wars were a series of conflicts between the Achaemenid Empire and Greek city-states that started in 499 BC and lasted until 449 BC. The collision between the fractious political world of the Greeks and the enormous empire of the Persians began when Cyrus the Great conquered the Greek-inhabited region of Ionia in 547 BC. Struggling to control the independent-minded cities of Ionia, the Persians appointed tyrants to rule each of them. This would prove to be the source of much trouble for the Greeks and Persians alike.
The Battle of Plataea was the final land battle during the second Persian invasion of Greece. It took place in 479 BC near the city of Plataea in Boeotia, and was fought between an alliance of the Greek city-states, and the Persian Empire of Xerxes I.
Mardonius was a leading Persian military commander during the Persian Wars with Greece in the early 5th century BC who died at the Battle of Plataea.
Pausanias was a Spartan regent and a general. In 479 BC, as a leader of the Hellenic League's combined land forces, Pausanias won a pivotal victory in the Battle of Plataea ending the Second Persian invasion of Greece. One year after the victories over Persians and Persian allies, Pausanias fell under suspicion of conspiring with the Persian king, Xerxes I to betray Greeks and died in 477 BC in Sparta starved to death by fellow citizens. What is known of his life is largely according to Thucydides' History of the Peloponnesian War, Diodorus' Bibliotheca historica and a handful of other classical sources.
Phocaea or Phokaia was an ancient Ionian Greek city on the western coast of Anatolia. Greek colonists from Phocaea founded the colony of Massalia in 600 BC, Emporion in 575 BC and Elea in 540 BC.
The so-called Battle of Crocus Field was a battle in the Third Sacred War, fought between the armies of Phocis, under Onomarchos, and the combined Thessalian and Macedonian army under Philip II of Macedon. In the bloodiest battle recorded in Ancient Greek history, the Phocians were decisively defeated by Philip's forces. Philip's victory secured his appointment as ruler of Thessaly, marking an important step in the rise of Macedon to political ascendancy in Ancient Greece. Opinion amongst historians is divided as to the year of the battle; some favour 353 BC, and others 352 BC.
Doris is a small mountainous district in ancient Greece, bounded by Aetolia, southern Thessaly, the Ozolian Locris, and Phocis; the original homeland of the Dorian Greeks. It lies between Mounts Oeta and Parnassus, and consists of the valley of the river Pindus (Πίνδος), a tributary of the Cephissus, into which it flows not far from the sources of the latter. The Pindus is now called the Apostoliá. This valley is open towards Phocis; but it lies higher than the valley of the Cephissus, rising above the towns of Drymaea, Tithronium, and Amphicaea, which are the last towns in Phocis.
Elateia was an ancient Greek city of Phthiotis, and the most important place in that region after Delphi. It is also a modern-day town that is a former municipality in the southeastern part of Phthiotis. Since the 2011 local government reform, it is a municipal unit of the municipality Amfikleia-Elateia. Its population is 3,538 inhabitants and its land area is 154.361 km². The municipal seat was the town of Eláteia ; other towns are Zeli (673), Panagítsa (266), Lefkochóri (123), Sfáka (93), and Katályma (11).
Amfikleia is a town and a former municipality in Phthiotis, Greece. Since the 2011 local government reform it is part of the municipality Amfikleia-Elateia, of which it is a municipal unit. The municipal unit has an area of 229.366 km2, the community 108.124 km2. At the 2011 census, the population of the municipal unit was 4,186 and of the community 3,191. The town is situated at the northern foot of Mount Parnassus, in the valley of the river Cephissus. It is 11 km northwest of Kato Tithorea and 31 km southeast of Lamia. Greek National Road 3 passes through the town. The town is served by a railway station with connections on the Athens–Thessaloniki railway.
The Third Sacred War was fought between the forces of the Delphic Amphictyonic League, principally represented by Thebes, and latterly by Philip II of Macedon, and the Phocians. The war was caused by a large fine imposed in 357 BC on the Phocians by the Amphictyonic League, for the offense of cultivating sacred land; refusing to pay, the Phocians instead seized the Temple of Apollo in Delphi, and used the accumulated treasures to fund large mercenary armies. Thus, although the Phocians suffered several major defeats, they were able to continue the war for many years, until eventually all parties were nearing exhaustion. Philip II used the distraction of the other states to increase his power in northern Greece, in the process becoming ruler of Thessaly. In the end, Philip's growing power, and the exhaustion of the other states, allowed him to impose a peaceful settlement of the war, marking a major step in the rise of Macedon to pre-eminence in Ancient Greece.
The Serpent Column, also known as the Serpentine Column, Plataean Tripod or Delphi Tripod, is an ancient bronze column at the Hippodrome of Constantinople in what is now Istanbul, Turkey. It is part of an ancient Greek sacrificial tripod, originally in Delphi and relocated to Constantinople by Constantine the Great in 324. It was built to commemorate the Greeks who fought and defeated the Persian Empire at the Battle of Plataea. The serpent heads of the 8-metre (26 ft) high column remained intact until the end of the 17th century.
The second Persian invasion of Greece occurred during the Greco-Persian Wars, as King Xerxes I of Persia sought to conquer all of Greece. The invasion was a direct, if delayed, response to the defeat of the first Persian invasion of Greece at the Battle of Marathon, which ended Darius I's attempts to subjugate Greece. After Darius's death, his son Xerxes spent several years planning for the second invasion, mustering an enormous army and navy. The Athenians and Spartans led the Greek resistance. About a tenth of the Greek city-states joined the 'Allied' effort; most remained neutral or submitted to Xerxes.
Kato Tithorea is a town in Phthiotis, in central Greece. Since the 2011 local government reform it is part of the municipality Amfikleia-Elateia, of which it is the seat. It has a population 1,841 according to the 2011 Greek census. It is situated on the right bank of the river Cephissus and between the Parnassus and Kallidromo mountains, 11 km east of Amfikleia and 24 km northwest of Livadeia. Nearby places includes Panagitsa (northeast), Agia Paraskevi (southeast) and Tithorea (southwest).
Hyampolis was a city in ancient Phocis, Greece. A native of this city was called a Hyampolites. Some ancient authors record that the city was also called simply Hya.
Lilaea or Lilaia, also Lilaeum or Lilaion (Λίλαιον), was one of the most important ancient Phocian towns, and a polis (city-state), built on the north slopes of Mount Parnassus, and at the sources of the Cephissus.
Neon was a town of ancient Phocis, said to have been built after the Trojan War, that was situated at the foot of Mount Tithorea, one of the peaks of Mount Parnassus.
Tithorea was a city in ancient Phocis, the successor settlement to Neon. Whether Tithorea occupied the same, or a nearby spot, to Neon is a matter of some doubt. Pausanias regards Tithorea as situated on the same site as Neon; and relates that Tithorea was the name anciently applied to the whole district, and that when the inhabitants of the neighbouring villages were collected in the city, the name of Tithorea was substituted for that of Neon. This, however, is not in accordance with the statement of Plutarch, according to whom Tithorea, in the time of the Mithridatic War, was a fortress surrounded by precipitous rocks, where the Phocians took refuge from Xerxes I. He further states that it was not such a city as the one existing in his day. If the view of Plutarch is correct, that the fortress, the site of which was afterwards occupied by the city Tithorea, was the place where the Phocians took refuge from Xerxes, we may conclude that Tithorea and Neon were two different places.
In Greek mythology, Tithorea a Phocian nymph of Mount Parnassus, from whom the town of Tithorea, previously called Neon, was believed to have derived its name. She was possibly a dryad.