Titii (Celtiberian)

Last updated
The Iberian Peninsula in the 3rd century BC. Iberia 300BC-en.svg
The Iberian Peninsula in the 3rd century BC.

The Titii or Tithii were a small and obscure Celtiberian people, [1] whose lands were located along the middle Jalón and upper Tajuña valleys, somewhere between Alhama de Aragón in Zaragoza and Molina de Aragón in Guadalajara provinces.

Contents

Origins

The extent of the Titii people is shown in light yellow. Mapa-celtiberos.svg
The extent of the Titii people is shown in light yellow.

The Titii were of Celtic origin, whose ancestors probably migrated to the Iberian Peninsula around the 4th Century BC, [2] [3] and part of the Celtiberians. [1] There is an overwhelming amount of evidence that the ancestors of the Celtiberian groups were installed in the Meseta area of the Iberian Peninsula from at least 1000 BC and probably much earlier. [4]

Culture

Due to the lack of extensive archaeological surveys, no Iron Age settlements connected with this people were ever found in the area. Nevertheless, analysis of numismatic finds from the Jalón-Tajuña (ancient Tagonius) area has led some archaeologists to relate the mints of three unknown Celtiberian towns – Aratis/Aratikos, Titum, and Titiakos – with the Titii, pointing Titum as their presumed capital.[ citation needed ]

The town of Aratis/Aratikos was identified in 2014 with the Iron Age site of Castejón I – El Romeral at Aranda de Moncayo in Zaragoza province.

History

Often mentioned in the ancient sources as allies or clients of the Belli, they were subjected to Turboletae raids in the 3rd century BC and seem to have submitted by Carthage just prior to the Second Punic War, but what role they played in that conflict remains obscure. However, during the Celtiberian Wars of the 2nd century BC they sided with the Belli and Arevaci against Rome, being recorded as one of the signatories of the peace treaty with Tiberius Sempronius Gracchus in 179 BC. [5] The Titii also retained their political autonomy until being defeated alongside the Belli in 142 BC by Proconsul Quintus Caecilius Metellus Macedonicus [6] and later included into Hispania Citerior province in 134 BC, and thereafter cease to be mentioned by the sources. After 72 BC however, they merged with the Belli, Uraci and Cratistii tribes to create the Late Celtiberian people of romanized southern Celtiberia, losing their tribal identity in the process.

See also

Notes

  1. 1 2 Cremin, Aedeen (1992). The Celts in Europe. Sydney, Australia: Sydney Series in Celtic Studies 2, Centre for Celtic Studies, University of Sydney. p. 57. ISBN   0-86758-624-9.
  2. Pliny the Elder, Naturalis Historia, III, 29.
  3. Strabo, Geographikon, III, 4, 12.
  4. Cremin, Aedeen (1992). The Celts in Europe. Sydney, Australia: Sydney Series in Celtic Studies 2, Centre for Celtic Studies, University of Sydney. p. 60. ISBN   0-86758-624-9.
  5. Appian, Iberiké 44.
  6. Appian, Iberiké 76.

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Celtiberians</span> Ancient Celtic peoples of the Iberian Peninsula

The Celtiberians were a group of Celts and Celticized peoples inhabiting an area in the central-northeastern Iberian Peninsula during the final centuries BC. They were explicitly mentioned as being Celts by several classic authors. These tribes spoke the Celtiberian language and wrote it by adapting the Iberian alphabet, in the form of the Celtiberian script. The numerous inscriptions that have been discovered, some of them extensive, have allowed scholars to classify the Celtiberian language as a Celtic language, one of the Hispano-Celtic languages that were spoken in pre-Roman and early Roman Iberia. Archaeologically, many elements link Celtiberians with Celts in Central Europe, but also show large differences with both the Hallstatt culture and La Tène culture.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Vettones</span> Ancient people of Spain

The Vettones were a pre-Roman people of the Iberian Peninsula of possibly Celtic ethnicity.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Celtici</span> Celtic tribe or group of tribes of the Iberian peninsula

The Celtici were a Celtic tribe or group of tribes of the Iberian peninsula, inhabiting three definite areas: in what today are the regions of Alentejo and the Algarve in Portugal; in the Province of Badajoz and north of Province of Huelva in Spain, in the ancient Baeturia; and along the coastal areas of Galicia. Classical authors give various accounts of the Celtici's relationships with the Gallaeci, Celtiberians and Turdetani.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Vaccaei</span> Pre-Roman Celtic people of Northern Spain

The Vaccaei or Vaccei were a pre-Roman Celtic people of Spain, who inhabited the sedimentary plains of the central Duero valley, in the Meseta Central of northern Hispania. Their capital was Intercatia in Paredes de Nava.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Oretani</span>

The Oretani or Oretanii were a pre-Roman ancient Iberian people of the Iberian Peninsula, that lived in northeastern Andalusia, in the upper Baetis (Guadalquivir) river valley, eastern Marianus Mons, and the southern area of present-day La Mancha.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Lusones</span>

The Lusones were an ancient Celtiberian (Pre-Roman) people of the Iberian Peninsula, who lived in the high Tajuña River valley, northeast of Guadalajara. They were eliminated by the Romans as a significant threat in the end of the 2nd century BC.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Autrigones</span> Pre-Roman tribe in Iberia

The Autrigones were a pre-Roman tribe that settled in the north of the Iberian Peninsula, in what today is the western Basque Country and northern Burgos and the East of Cantabria, Spain. Their territory limited with the Cantabri territory at west, the Caristii at east, the Berones at the southeast and the Turmodigi at the south. It is discussed whether the Autrigones were Celts, theory supported by the existence of toponyms of Celtic origin, such as Uxama Barca and other with -briga endings and that eventually underwent a Basquisation along with other neighboring tribes such as the Caristii and Varduli.

The First Celtiberian War and Second Celtiberian War were two of the three major rebellions by the Celtiberians against the presence of the Romans in Hispania.

The First Celtiberian was the first of three major rebellions by the Celtiberians against the Roman presence in Hispania. The other two were the Second Celtiberian War and the Numantine War. Hispania was the name the Romans gave to the Iberian Peninsula. The peninsula was inhabited by various ethnic groups and numerous tribes. The Celtiberians were a confederation of five tribes, which lived in a large area of east central Hispania, to the west of Hispania Citerior. The eastern part of their territory shared a stretch of the border of this Roman province. The Celtiberian tribes were the Pellendones, the Arevaci, the Lusones, the Titti and the Belli.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Carpetani</span>

The Carpetani were one of the Celtic pre-Roman peoples of the Iberian Peninsula, akin to the Celtiberians, dwelling in the central part of the meseta - the high central upland plain of the Iberian Peninsula.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Arevaci</span>

The Arevaci or Aravaci, were a Celtic people who settled in the central Meseta of northern Hispania and dominated most of Celtiberia from the 4th to late 2nd centuries BC. The Vaccaei were their allies.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Turboletae</span> Pre-Roman people from the Iberian peninsula

The Turboletae or Turboleti were an obscure pre-Roman people from ancient Spain, which lived in the northwest Teruel province since the early 3rd Century BC.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Olcades</span>

The Olcades were an ancient stock-raising pre-Roman people from Hispania, who lived to the west of the Turboletae in the southeastern fringe of the Iberian system mountains.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Berones</span>

The Berones were a pre-Roman Celtic people of ancient Spain, although they were not part of the Celtiberians, they lived north of the Celtiberians and close to the Cantabrian Conisci in the middle Ebro region between the Tirón and Alhama rivers.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Pellendones</span>

The Pellendones were an ancient pre-Roman Celtic people living on the Iberian Peninsula. From the early 4th century BC they inhabited the region near the source of the river Duero in what today is north-central Spain. The area comprises the north of Soria, the southeast of Burgos and the southwest of La Rioja provinces.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Belli</span>

The Belli, also designated Beli or Belaiscos were an ancient pre-Roman Celtic Celtiberian people who lived in the modern Spanish province of Zaragoza from the 3rd Century BC.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Uraci</span> Celtic people of pre-Roman Iberia

The Uraci or Duraci were a little-known Celtic people of pre-Roman Iberia who dwelt to the east of the Vaccaei and the Carpetani, occupying the southern Soria, northern Guadalajara and western Zaragoza provinces since the 4th century BC.

This section of the timeline of Iberian history concerns events from before the Carthaginian conquests.

The Celtiberian confederacy was a tribal federation formed around the mid-3rd century BC, by the Arevaci, Lusones, Belli and Titii, with the Arevacian city of Numantia as the federal capital.

References

Further reading