Titin

Last updated
TTN
1BPV.png
Available structures
PDB Ortholog search: PDBe RCSB
Identifiers
Aliases TTN , CMD1G, CMH9, CMPD4, EOMFC, HMERF, LGMD2J, MYLK5, TMD, titin, SALMY, LGMDR10
External IDs OMIM: 188840 MGI: 98864 HomoloGene: 130650 GeneCards: TTN
EC number 2.7.11.1
Orthologs
SpeciesHumanMouse
Entrez
Ensembl
UniProt
RefSeq (mRNA)

NM_011652
NM_028004

RefSeq (protein)

NP_035782
NP_082280
NP_001372637

Location (UCSC) Chr 2: 178.53 – 178.83 Mb Chr 2: 76.7 – 76.98 Mb
PubMed search [3] [4]
Wikidata
View/Edit Human View/Edit Mouse
Cardiac sarcomere structure, featuring titin Cardiac sarcomere structure.png
Cardiac sarcomere structure, featuring titin
Reconstruction of the thin (green) and thick filament from mammalian cardiac tissue. Myosin is in blue, MyBP-C is in yellow, and titin is in two shades of red (dark red for titin-alpha and light red for titin-beta). Mammalian Titin Structure from the relaxed thick filament.tif
Reconstruction of the thin (green) and thick filament from mammalian cardiac tissue. Myosin is in blue, MyBP-C is in yellow, and titin is in two shades of red (dark red for titin-alpha and light red for titin-beta).

Titin [5] /ˈttɪn/ (contraction for Titan protein) (also called connectin) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TTN gene. [6] [7] Titin is a giant protein, greater than 1 µm in length, [8] that functions as a molecular spring that is responsible for the passive elasticity of muscle. It comprises 244 individually folded protein domains connected by unstructured peptide sequences. [9] These domains unfold when the protein is stretched and refold when the tension is removed. [10]

Titin is important in the contraction of striated muscle tissues. It connects the Z disc to the M line in the sarcomere. The protein contributes to force transmission at the Z disc and resting tension in the I band region. [11] It limits the range of motion of the sarcomere in tension, thus contributing to the passive stiffness of muscle. Variations in the sequence of titin between different types of striated muscle (cardiac or skeletal) have been correlated with differences in the mechanical properties of these muscles. [6] [12]

Titin is the third most abundant protein in muscle (after myosin and actin), and an adult human contains approximately 0.5 kg of titin. [13] With its length of ~27,000 to ~35,000 amino acids (depending on the splice isoform), titin is the largest known protein. [14] Furthermore, the gene for titin contains the largest number of exons (363) discovered in any single gene, [15] as well as the longest single exon (17,106 bp).

Discovery

In 1954, Reiji Natori proposed the existence of an elastic structure in muscle fiber to account for the return to the resting state when muscles are stretched and then released. [16] In 1977, Koscak Maruyama and coworkers isolated an elastic protein from muscle fiber that they called connectin. [17] Two years later, Kuan Wang and coworkers identified a doublet band on electrophoresis gel corresponding to a high molecular weight, elastic protein that they named titin. [5] [18]

In 1990, Siegfried Labeit isolated a partial cDNA clone of titin. [7] Five years later, Labeit and Bernhard Kolmerer determined the cDNA sequence of human cardiac titin. [9] In 2001, Labeit and colleagues determined the complete sequence of the human titin gene. [15] [19]

Genetics

The human gene encoding for titin is located on the long arm of chromosome 2 and contains 363 exons, which together code for 38,138 amino acid residues (4200 kDa). [15] Within the gene are found a large number of PEVK (proline-glutamate-valine-lysine -abundant structural motifs) exons 84 to 99 nucleotides in length, which code for conserved 28- to 33-residue motifs that may represent structural units of the titin PEVK spring. The number of PEVK motifs in the titin gene appears to have increased during evolution, apparently modifying the genomic region responsible for titin's spring properties. [20]

Isoforms

A number of titin isoforms are produced in different striated muscle tissues as a result of alternative splicing. [21] All but one of these isoforms are in the range of ~27,000 to ~36,000 amino acid residues in length. The exception is the small cardiac novex-3 isoform, which is only 5,604 amino acid residues in length. The following table lists the known titin isoforms:

IsoformAlias/descriptionLengthMolecular weight
Q8WZ42-1The "canonical" sequence34,3503,816,030
Q8WZ42-234,2583,805,708
Q8WZ42-3Small cardiac N2-B26,9262,992,939
Q8WZ42-4Soleus33,4453,716,027
Q8WZ42-532,9003,653,085
Q8WZ42-6Small cardiac novex-35,604631,567
Q8WZ42-7Cardiac novex-233,6153,734,648
Q8WZ42-8Cardiac novex-134,4753,829,846
Q8WZ42-927,1183,013,957
Q8WZ42-1027,0513,006,755
Q8WZ42-1133,4233,713,600
Q8WZ42-1235,9913,994,625
Q8WZ42-1334,4843,831,069

Structure

Titin is the largest known protein; its human variant consists of 34,350 amino acids, with the molecular weight of the mature "canonical" isoform of the protein being approximately 3,816,030.05 Da. [22] Its mouse homologue is even larger, comprising 35,213 amino acids with a molecular weight of 3,906,487.6 Da. [23] It has a theoretical isoelectric point of 6.02. [22] The protein's empirical chemical formula is C169,719H270,466N45,688O52,238S911. [22] It has a theoretical instability index (II) of 42.38, classifying the protein as unstable. [22] The protein's in vivo half-life, the time it takes for half of the amount of protein in a cell to break down after its synthesis in the cell, is predicted to be approximately 30 hours (in mammalian reticulocytes). [21]

Titin Ig domains. a) Schematic of part of a sarcomere b) Structure of Ig domains c) Topology of Ig domains. Titin IG Domains.jpg
Titin Ig domains. a) Schematic of part of a sarcomere b) Structure of Ig domains c) Topology of Ig domains.

The Titin protein is located between the myosin thick filament and the Z disk. [25] Titin consists primarily of a linear array of two types of modules, also referred to as protein domains (244 copies in total): type I fibronectin type III domain (132 copies) and type II immunoglobulin domain (112 copies). [13] [9] However, the exact number of these domains is different in different species. This linear array is further organized into two regions:

The C-terminal region also contains a serine kinase domain [27] [28] that is primarily known for adapting the muscle to mechanical strain. [29] It is “stretch-sensitive” and helps repair overstretching of the sarcomere. [30] The N-terminal (the Z-disc end) contains a "Z repeat" that recognizes Actinin alpha 2. [31]

The elasticity of the PEVK region has both entropic and enthalpic contributions and is characterized by a polymer persistence length and a stretch modulus. [32] At low to moderate extensions PEVK elasticity can be modeled with a standard worm-like chain (WLC) model of entropic elasticity. At high extensions PEVK stretching can be modeled with a modified WLC model that incorporates enthalpic elasticity. The difference between low-and high- stretch elasticity is due to electrostatic stiffening and hydrophobic effects.

Embedded between the PEVK and Ig residues are N2A domains. [33]

Evolution

The titin domains have evolved from a common ancestor through many gene duplication events. [34] Domain duplication was facilitated by the fact that most domains are encoded by single exons. Other giant sarcomeric proteins made out of Fn3/Ig repeats include obscurin and myomesin. Throughout evolution, titin mechanical strength appears to decrease through the loss of disulfide bonds as the organism becomes heavier. [35]

Titin A-band has homologs in invertebrates, such as twitchin (unc-22) and projectin, which also contain Ig and FNIII repeats and a protein kinase domain. [30] The gene duplication events took place independently but were from the same ancestral Ig and FNIII domains. It is said that the protein titin was the first to diverge out of the family. [28] Drosophila projectin, officially known as bent (bt), is associated with lethality by failing to escape the eggnog in some mutations as well as dominant changes in wing angles. [36] [37] [38]

Titin repeat
Identifiers
SymbolTitin_Ig-rpts
Pfam PF06582
InterPro IPR010939
Available protein structures:
Pfam   structures / ECOD  
PDB RCSB PDB; PDBe; PDBj
PDBsum structure summary

Drosophila Titin, also known as Kettin or sallimus (sls), is kinase-free. It has roles in the elasticity of both muscle and chromosomes. It is homologous to vertebrate titin I-band and contains Ig PEVK domains, the many repeats being a hot target for splicing. [39] There also exists a titin homologue, ttn-1, in C. elegans . [40] It has a kinase domain, some Ig/Fn3 repeats, and PEVT repeats that are similarly elastic. [41]

Function

Sliding filament model of muscle contraction. (Titin labeled at upper right.) Sarcomere.svg
Sliding filament model of muscle contraction. (Titin labeled at upper right.)

Titin is a large abundant protein of striated muscle. Titin's primary functions are to stabilize the thick filament, center it between the thin filaments, prevent overstretching of the sarcomere, and to recoil the sarcomere like a spring after it is stretched. [42] An N-terminal Z-disc region and a C-terminal M-line region bind to the Z-line and M-line of the sarcomere, respectively, so that a single titin molecule spans half the length of a sarcomere. Titin also contains binding sites for muscle-associated proteins so it serves as an adhesion template for the assembly of contractile machinery in muscle cells. It has also been identified as a structural protein for chromosomes. [43] [44] Considerable variability exists in the I-band, the M-line and the Z-disc regions of titin. Variability in the I-band region contributes to the differences in elasticity of different titin isoforms and, therefore, to the differences in elasticity of different muscle types. Of the many titin variants identified, five are described with complete transcript information available. [6] [7]

Dominant mutation in TTN causes predisposition to hernias. [45]

Titin interacts with many sarcomeric proteins including: [15]

Clinical relevance

Mutations anywhere within the unusually long sequence of this gene can cause premature stop codons or other defects. Titin mutations are associated with hereditary myopathy with early respiratory failure, [46] [47] early-onset myopathy with fatal cardiomyopathy, [48] core myopathy with heart disease, centronuclear myopathy, limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2J, [49] familial dilated cardiomyopathy 9, [11] [50] hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and tibial muscular dystrophy. [51] Further research also suggests that no genetically linked form of any dystrophy or myopathy can be safely excluded from being caused by a mutation on the TTN gene. [49] Truncating mutations in dilated cardiomyopathy patients are most commonly found in the A region; although truncations in the upstream I region might be expected to prevent translation of the A region entirely, alternative splicing creates some transcripts that do not encounter the premature stop codon, ameliorating its effect. [52] mRNA splicing factors such as RBM20 and SLM2 (KHDRBS3) were shown to mediated alternative mRNA splicing of titin mRNA contributing to the development of heart failure due to cardiomyopathies. [53] [54]

Autoantibodies to titin are produced in patients with the autoimmune disease Myasthenia gravis. [55]

Interactions

Titin has been shown to interact with:

Linguistic significance

The name titin is derived from the Greek Titan (a giant deity, anything of great size). [5]

As the largest known protein, titin also has the longest IUPAC name of a protein. The full chemical name of the human canonical form of titin, which starts methionyl... and ends ...isoleucine , contains 189,819 letters and is sometimes stated to be the longest word in the English language, or of any language. [66] However, lexicographers regard generic names of chemical compounds as verbal formulae rather than English words. [67]

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Intermediate filament</span> Cytoskeletal structure

Intermediate filaments (IFs) are cytoskeletal structural components found in the cells of vertebrates, and many invertebrates. Homologues of the IF protein have been noted in an invertebrate, the cephalochordate Branchiostoma.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Desmin</span> Mammalian protein found in humans

Desmin is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DES gene. Desmin is a muscle-specific, type III intermediate filament that integrates the sarcolemma, Z disk, and nuclear membrane in sarcomeres and regulates sarcomere architecture.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">MYH7</span> Protein-coding gene in the species Homo sapiens

MYH7 is a gene encoding a myosin heavy chain beta (MHC-β) isoform expressed primarily in the heart, but also in skeletal muscles. This isoform is distinct from the fast isoform of cardiac myosin heavy chain, MYH6, referred to as MHC-α. MHC-β is the major protein comprising the thick filament that forms the sarcomeres in cardiac muscle and plays a major role in cardiac muscle contraction.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Myofilament</span> The two protein filaments of myofibrils in muscle cells

Myofilaments are the three protein filaments of myofibrils in muscle cells. The main proteins involved are myosin, actin, and titin. Myosin and actin are the contractile proteins and titin is an elastic protein. The myofilaments act together in muscle contraction, and in order of size are a thick one of mostly myosin, a thin one of mostly actin, and a very thin one of mostly titin.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Nebulin</span> Protein-coding gene in the species Homo sapiens

Nebulin is an actin-binding protein which is localized to the thin filament of the sarcomeres in skeletal muscle. Nebulin in humans is coded for by the gene NEB. It is a very large protein and binds as many as 200 actin monomers. Because its length is proportional to thin filament length, it is believed that nebulin acts as a thin filament "ruler" and regulates thin filament length during sarcomere assembly and acts as the coats the actin filament. Other functions of nebulin, such as a role in cell signaling, remain uncertain.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Myomesin</span>

Myomesin is a protein family found in the M-line of the sarcomere structure. Myomesin has various forms throughout the body in striated muscles with specialized functions. This includes both slow and fast muscle fibers. Myomesin are made of 13 domains including a unique N-terminal followed by two immunoglobulin-like (Ig) domains, five fibronectin type III (Fn) domains, five more Ig domains. These domains all promote binding which indicates that myomesin is regulated through binding.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">TNNT2</span> Protein-coding gene in the species Homo sapiens

Cardiac muscle troponin T (cTnT) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TNNT2 gene. Cardiac TnT is the tropomyosin-binding subunit of the troponin complex, which is located on the thin filament of striated muscles and regulates muscle contraction in response to alterations in intracellular calcium ion concentration.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Alpha-actinin-2</span> Protein-coding gene in the species Homo sapiens

Alpha-actinin-2 is a protein which in humans is encoded by the ACTN2 gene. This gene encodes an alpha-actinin isoform that is expressed in both skeletal and cardiac muscles and functions to anchor myofibrillar actin thin filaments and titin to Z-discs.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Telethonin</span>

Telethonin, also known as Tcap, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TCAP gene. Telethonin is expressed in cardiac and skeletal muscle at Z-discs and functions to regulate sarcomere assembly, T-tubule function and apoptosis. Telethonin has been implicated in several diseases, including limb-girdle muscular dystrophy, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, dilated cardiomyopathy and idiopathic cardiomyopathy.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">MYOT</span> Mammalian protein found in Homo sapiens

Myotilin is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MYOT gene. Myotilin also known as TTID is a muscle protein that is found within the Z-disc of sarcomeres.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">MYBPC1</span> Protein-coding gene in the species Homo sapiens

Myosin-binding protein C, slow-type is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MYBPC1 gene.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Obscurin</span> Protein-coding gene in the species Homo sapiens

Obscurin is a protein that in humans is encoded by the OBSCN gene. Obscurin belongs to the family of giant sarcomeric signaling proteins that includes titin and nebulin. Obscurin is expressed in cardiac and skeletal muscle, and plays a role in the organization of myofibrils during sarcomere assembly. A mutation in the OBSCN gene has been associated with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and altered obscurin protein properties have been associated with other muscle diseases.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">ANKRD1</span> Protein-coding gene in the species Homo sapiens

Ankyrin repeat domain-containing protein 1, or Cardiac ankyrin repeat protein is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ANKRD1 gene also known as CARP. CARP is highly expressed in cardiac and skeletal muscle, and is a transcription factor involved in development and under conditions of stress. CARP has been implicated in several diseases, including dilated cardiomyopathy, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and several skeletal muscle myopathies.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">TRIM63</span> Protein-coding gene in the species Homo sapiens

E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase TRIM63, also known as "MuRF1", is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the TRIM63 gene.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">LDB3</span> Protein-coding gene in the species Homo sapiens

LIM domain binding 3 (LDB3), also known as Z-band alternatively spliced PDZ-motif (ZASP), is a protein which in humans is encoded by the LDB3 gene. ZASP belongs to the Enigma subfamily of proteins and stabilizes the sarcomere during contraction, through interactions with actin in cardiac and skeletal muscles. Mutations in the ZASP gene has been associated with several muscular diseases.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Myopalladin</span> Protein-coding gene in the species Homo sapiens

Myopalladin is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MYPN gene. Myopalladin is a muscle protein responsible for tethering proteins at the Z-disc and for communicating between the sarcomere and the nucleus in cardiac and skeletal muscle

<span class="mw-page-title-main">MYOM1</span> Protein-coding gene in humans

Myomesin-1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MYOM1 gene. Myomesin-1 is expressed in muscle cells and functions to stabilize the three-dimensional conformation of the thick filament. Embryonic forms of Myomesin-1 have been detected in dilated cardiomyopathy.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">TRIM55</span> Protein-coding gene in the species Homo sapiens

Tripartite motif-containing protein 55 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TRIM55 gene.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">ANKRD23</span> Protein-coding gene in the species Homo sapiens

Ankyrin repeat domain-containing protein 23 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ANKRD23 gene.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Myomesin-2</span> Protein-coding gene in the species Homo sapiens

Myomesin-2, also known as M-protein is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MYOM2 gene. M-protein is expressed in adult cardiac muscle and fast skeletal muscle, and functions to stabilize the three-dimensional arrangement of proteins comprising M-band structures in a sarcomere.

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