Titles of Mary

Last updated

210} , Byzantine icon, possibly 13th or 14th c. now in Rome Desprestaur.jpg
210} , Byzantine icon, possibly 13th or 14th c. now in Rome

Mary is known by many different titles (Blessed Mother, Madonna, Our Lady), epithets (Star of the Sea, Queen of Heaven, Cause of Our Joy), invocations ( Panagia , Mother of Mercy) and names associated with places (Our Lady of Loreto, Our Lady of Guadalupe).

Contents

All of these descriptives refer to the same woman named Mary, the mother of Jesus Christ (in the New Testament), and are used differently by Roman Catholics, Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox, and some Anglicans. (Note: Mary Magdalene, Mary of Clopas, and Mary Salome are different women.)

Some descriptives of Mary are properly titles, dogmatic in nature, while some of them are invocations. Other descriptives are poetic or allegorical or have lesser or no canonical status, but form part of popular piety, with varying degrees of acceptance by Church authorities. There is another class of titles which refer to depictions of Mary in Catholic Marian art and in art generally. A rich range of Marian titles also belong to musical settings. [1]

Historical and cultural context

The relatively large number of titles given to Mary may be explained in several ways. [2] Some titles grew due to geographic and cultural reasons, e.g., through the veneration of specific icons. Others were related to Marian apparitions.

Mary's intercession is sought for a large spectrum of human needs in varied situations. This has led to the formulation of many of her titles (good counsel, Help of the Sick, etc.). Moreover, meditations and devotions on the different aspects of Mary's role in the life of Jesus have led to additional titles, such as Our Lady of Sorrows. [3] Still further titles have been derived from dogmas and doctrines, such as, the Assumption of Mary, Dormition of the Mother of God and Immaculate Conception.

The veneration of Mary or "devotional cult" was consolidated in the year 431 when, at the Council of Ephesus, the descriptive, Theotokos , or Mary the bearer (or mother) of God, was declared a dogma. Thereafter Marian devotion, centred on the subtle and complex relationship between Mary, Jesus, and the Church, began to flourish, first in the East and later in the West.

The Reformation diminished Mary's role in many parts of Europe in the 16th and 17th centuries. The Council of Trent and Counter Reformation intensified Marian devotion in the Western Europe. Around the same period, Mary became an instrument of evangelisation in the Americas and parts of Asia and Africa, e.g. gaining impetus from reported apparitions at Our Lady of Guadalupe, which resulted in a large number of conversions to Christianity in Mexico.

Following the Reformation, baroque literature on Mary experienced unprecedented growth, with over 500 instances of Mariological writings during the 17th century alone. [4] During the Age of Enlightenment, the emphasis on scientific progress and rationalism put Catholic theology and Mariology often on the defensive later in the 18th century. Books, such as The Glories of Mary by Alphonsus Liguori, were written in defence of the cult of Mary.

Dogmatic titles

Dormition of the Mother of God 10th c. ivory plaque, Cluny Dormition de la Vierge.JPG
Dormition of the Mother of God 10th c. ivory plaque, Cluny

In the Orthodox and Eastern Catholic Churches the Assumption of Mary may be translated as the Dormition of the Mother of God ; it is an important feast day, not based on a scriptural canon but affirmed by tradition.

Early titles of Mary

Madonna and Child among Ethiopian saints, Ethiopia mid 17th c. NMAfA-D20020002.jpg
Madonna and Child among Ethiopian saints, Ethiopia mid 17th c.

“Our Lady” is a common title to give to Mary as a sign of respect and honor. In French she is called "Notre Dame" and in Spanish she is "Nuestra Señora". [9]

EnglishLatinGreekNotes
MaryMariaMariam (Μαριάμ), Maria (Μαρία)Arabic: Maryām (مريم), Chinese: (瑪利亞), Coptic: Maria (Ⲙⲁⲣⲓⲁ), French: Marie, German: Maria, Italian: Maria, Judeo-Aramaic: Maryām (מרים), Maltese: Marija, Portuguese: Maria, Russian: Marija (Мария), Spanish: María, Syriac: Mariam, Vietnamese: Maria
"Full of Grace", "Blessed", "Most Blessed"Gratia plena, Beata, Beatissimakecharitomene [11] (κεχαριτωμένη)from the angel's greeting to Mary in Luke 1:28;
"Virgin", "the Virgin"VirgoParthenos [12] [13] (Παρθένος)Greek parthenos used in Matthew 1:22; Ignatius of Antioch refers to Mary's virginity and motherhood (ca. 110);
"Cause of our Salvation"causa salutis [14] according to Irenaeus of Lyons (150202);
"Mother of God"Mater DeiMeter Theou (Μήτηρ Θεοῦ)often abbr. ΜΡ ΘΥ in Greek iconography;
"God-bearer"Deipara, Dei genitrix Theotokos (Θεοτόκος)lit. "one who bears the One who is God"; a common title in Eastern Christianity with christological implications; adopted officially during Council of Ephesus (431) in response to Nestorianism, which questioned the Church's teaching that Jesus Christ's nature was unified;
"Ever-virgin"semper virgoaei-parthenos [12] (ἀειπάρθενος)
"Holy Mary", "Saint Mary"Sancta MariaHagia Maria [12] (Ἁγία Μαρία)Greek invocation is infrequent in contemporary Eastern Christianity; [15]
"Most Holy"Sanctissima, tota Sancta [16] Panagia (Παναγία)
"Most Pure"Purissima
"Immaculate"immaculataakeratos [12] (ἀκήρατος)
"Lady", "Mistress"DominaDespoina [12] (Δέσποινα)related, "Madonna" (Italian: Madonna, from ma "my" + donna "lady"; from Latin domina); also, "Notre Dame" (French: Notre Dame, lit. "our lady");
"Queen of Heaven"Regina Coeli, Regina Caeli Mary is identified with the figure in Revelation 12:1;

Papal actions

Copy of Our Lady of Mercy from Lwow Cathedral before which John II Casimir Vasa first made vows to Mary, "Queen of Poland and Lithuania in 1656 M. Laskawa.JPG
Copy of Our Lady of Mercy from Lwów Cathedral before which John II Casimir Vasa first made vows to Mary, "Queen of Poland and Lithuania in 1656
Image TypeTypical Art StyleDescription
Vladimirskaya ikona.jpg

Eleusa icon
"Our Lady of Tenderness"

Byzantine In this 12th c. depiction by an unknown artist, Mary holds her baby's face to her cheek as an expression of maternal tenderness. The evocative pose was copied two centuries later by the great Russian painter Andrei Rublev. The original was saved from destruction several times in its history. After the Russian Revolution it was housed in the Tretyakov Gallery in Moscow, but representations from the Russian Orthodox Church ensured it is once again in a nearby church, where services are held;
Odigitriya Smolenskaya Dionisiy.jpg

Hodegetria
"She Who Shows the Way"

Byzantine Mary holds Christ in her left hand and with her right hand she "shows the way" by pointing to Him;
Presbyter Martinus Madonna als Sedes Sapientiae.jpg

Sedes Sapientiae
"Throne of Wisdom"

Romanesque Christ is seated in His mother Mary's lap, symbolically the "Throne of Wisdom";
Toledo Virgen Coro.jpg

"Gothic Madonna"

Gothic Based loosely on Byzantine Hodegetria iconography; typically depicts a standing, smiling Mary and playful Christ Child; considered one of the earliest depictions of Mary that is strictly Western; [21]
Giovenone Madonna del latte Trino.jpg

Madonna Lactans
"Our Lady Nursing"

Gothic and Renaissance The Virgin is depicted breastfeeding the Holy Infant. Our Lady Nursing, as painted in the Catacomb of Priscilla in Rome, c. A.D. 250, is one of the earliest depictions (if not the earliest depiction) of Mary; [22] Discouraged by the Council of Trent and rare subsequently.
Lippo memmi, madonna della misericordia, Chapel of the Corporal, Duomo, Orvieto.jpg

Mater Misericordiae
"Virgin/Mother of Mercy"

Gothic, Renaissance, Baroque A regal, celestial Mary is depicted covering the faithful in her protective mantle; first arose in the late 13th century in Central Europe and Italy; depiction is commonly associated with plague monuments. [23]
Maesta-madonna.jpg

Maestà
"Majesty"
of the Virgo Deipara
"Virgin God-bearer"

Gothic Mary is seated in majesty, holding the Christ Child; based on Byzantine Nikopoia iconography;
Michelangelo's Pieta 5450 cropncleaned.jpg

Pietà
"Pity"
of the Mater Dolorosa
"Mother of Sorrows"

Renaissance Mary cradles the dead body of Jesus Christ after his crucifixion; this type emerged first in the 13th century in Germany as an Andachtsbild or devotional icon relating to grief; Italian Pietàs appeared in the 14th century; [24] Michelangelo's Pietà (14981499) is considered a masterpiece;
Antonello da Messina 033.jpg

Mater Amabilis
"Loving Mother"
commonly, " Madonna and Child "

Renaissance, Baroque Iconic Western depiction with many variations; based loosely on Byzantine Glykophilousa ("sweet kisses") iconography; Mary turns her gaze away from the Christ Child as she contemplates His future Passion; Renaissance emphasis on classical ideal types, realistic human anatomy, and linear perspective are evident;
Raphael Madonna della seggiola.jpg

Madonna della seggiola
"Madonna of the Chair"

Renaissance round painting Mary with toddlers Jesus and his cousin, John the Baptist, looking on, painted 1513-1514 during Raphael's Roman period. The unusual non-linear style and colouring is more reminiscent of Titian and Sebastiano del Piombo and bears out their influence. This painting has been greatly admired by many people, including Nathaniel Hawthorne, and by subsequent painters of the stature of Ingres. [25]

Devotional titles

In the Loreto Litanies Mary's prayers are invoked under more than fifty separate titles, such as "Mother Most Pure", "Virgin Most Prudent", and "Cause of Our Joy". [26]

Other devotional titles include:

Theological Mariology

Raphael, Madonna and Child, Urbino 1498 Raffaello Madonna col Bambino 1498.jpg
Raphael, Madonna and Child, Urbino 1498

With the exception of the Jesus Christ, who is believed to have a twofold nature, both human and divine, (dyophysitism), the Blessed Virgin Mary is considered among many Christians to be the unique human being about whom there is a dogma. She is connected to four different dogmas and numerous Marian titles. Christian invocations, titles, and art bear witness to the prominent role she has been accorded in the history and programme of salvation in parts of Christendom, although this is not shared by many (mainly reformed) Christian churches.

In the Hail Mary prayer, she is addressed as "full of grace" by Archangel Gabriel of the Annunciation speaking in the Name of God. The Nicene Creed, declares that Jesus was "incarnate by the Holy Ghost and of the Virgin Mary, and was made man,". This has given rise to the descriptive, "spouse of the Holy Spirit".

Tradition has it that the Virgin Mother of God was anointed by the Holy Spirit, hence putting her on a par with the anointing of the Kings, Prophets, Judges, and High Priests of Israel, as Jesus Christ is said to have been. This in turn opens the way to titles such as:

In the Roman Catholic and in the Orthodox Churches, the Virgin Mother of God is venerated in a special form expressed in Greek as hyperdulia, that is, secondary only to the adoration reserved for the Triune God. She is venerated and honoured in this way since no other being--whether angelic or human--has greater power than Mary to intercede with God in the distribution of Grace to His children.

Titles associated with devotional images

Our Lady of Mercy, Vilnius Lady of the Gate of Dawn, Vilnius Lithuania.jpg
Our Lady of Mercy, Vilnius
Our Lady of Penafrancia in Naga City, Philippines Penafrancia Original Image.jpg
Our Lady of Peñafrancia in Naga City, Philippines

Titles of images related to epithets include:

Titles of images related to places of worship include:

Titles associated with apparitions

Our Lady of the Rosary, Lourdes France-002009 - Our Lady of Lourdes (15774765182).jpg
Our Lady of the Rosary, Lourdes

Latin America

A number of titles of Mary found in Latin America pertain to cultic images of her represented in iconography identified with a particular already existent title adapted to a particular place. Our Lady of Luján in Argentina refers to a small terracotta image made in Brazil and sent to Argentina in May, 1630. Its appearance seems to have been inspired by Murillo's Immaculates. Our Lady of Copacabana (Bolivia): is a figure related to devotion to Mary under the title "Most Blessed Virgin de la Candelaria, Our Lady of Copacabana". About four feet in height, the statue was made by Francisco Tito Yupanqui around 1583 and is garbed in the colors and dress of an Inca princess. [30]

Titles in the Orthodox Church

Theotokos of Pochayiv Bagarodzitsa Pachaeuskaia z tsudami. 2-ia pal. XVIII st., Valyn'.jpg
Theotokos of Pochayiv

Theotokos means "God-bearer" and is translated as "Mother of God". This title was given to Mary at the Third Ecumenical Council in Ephesus in 431 AD.(cf. Luke 1:43). [33]

Titles of Mary in Islam

The Qur'an refers to Mary (Arabic : مريم, romanized: Maryam) by the following titles:

See also

Our Lady of Good Counsel by Pasquale Sarullo, 19th century. Our Lady of Good Counsel by Pasquale Sarullo.jpg
Our Lady of Good Counsel by Pasquale Sarullo, 19th century.

Citations

  1. The History and Use of Hymns and Hymn-Tunes by David R Breed 2009 ISBN   1-110-47186-6 page 17
  2. “Why does Mary have So Many Different Titles?” All About Mary, International Marian Research Institute, University of Dayton.
  3. Tavard, George Henry, The thousand faces of the Virgin Mary 1996 ISBN   0-8146-5914-4 p. 95
  4. Roskovany, A., conceptu immacolata ex monumentis omnium seculrorum demonstrate III, Budapest 1873
  5. by Braaten, Carl E. and Jenson, Robert W., Mary, Mother of God, 2004 ISBN   0802822665 p. 84
  6. Maas, Anthony. "Virgin Birth of Christ." The Catholic Encyclopedia Vol. 15. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1912. 10 April 2016
  7. Wuerl, Donald W. and Stubna, Kris D., The Teaching of Christ: A Catholic Catechism for Adults, Our Sunday Visitor Publishing, 2004, ISBN   9781592760947
  8. "In Honor of Nuestra Señora de Guia", De Anda (2009-11-22),
  9. Hargett, Malea. "Marian titles chosen for one out of four churches in diocese", Arkansas Catholic, Diocese of Arkansas, May 20, 2006
  10. Mauriello, Matthew R., “Mary the New Eve,” Frei Francisco.
  11. "...Byzantine inscriptions from Palestine...in the sixth [century]....fourteen inscriptions invoke "Holy Mary" (Hagia Maria), eleven more hail her as Theotokos; others add the attribution of "Immaculate" (Akeratos), "Most Blessed" (Kecharitomene), "Mistress" (Despoina), "Virgin" or "Ever-Virgin" (Aei-Parthenos)." ( Frend 1984 , p. 836)
  12. 1 2 3 4 5 Frend 1984, p. 836.
  13. "Blue Letter Bible" lexicon results for parthenos Retrieved December 19, 2007.
  14. "Irenaeus, Against Heresies 3.22.4".
  15. The Titles of Saints, Orthodox Holiness, December 18, 2005
  16. "Universität Mannheim". www.uni-mannheim.de. 3 January 2019.
  17. Reynolds, Brian (2012). Gateway to Heaven: Marian Doctrine and Devotion, Image and Typology in the Patristic and Medieval Periods, Volume 1. New City Press. ISBN   9781565484498.
  18. Pope Pius XII (11 October 1954). "Ad Caeli Reginam". Roman Catholic Church. Archived from the original on 7 October 2010.
  19. "Śluby króla Jana Kazimierza, złożone dnia 1 kwietnia 1656 roku" [King John Casimir's vows made on 1 April 1656] (in Polish). Konferencja Episkopatu Polski i Wydawnictwo Pallottinum. Retrieved 27 April 2013.
  20. Paweł Zuchniewicz  [ pl ]. "Ostatni dokument Jana Pawła II" [The Last Document of Pope John Paul II ] (in Polish). Retrieved 29 September 2019.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  21. Madonna. (2008). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved February 17, 2008, from Encyclopædia Britannica Online:
  22. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 1 November 2009. Retrieved 24 August 2009.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  23. Jeep 2001, p. 393.
  24. Watts, Barbara. "Pietà". Grove Art Online. Oxford University Press, Retrieved February 17, 2008, http://www.groveart.com/
  25. Zoffany Archived 2014-10-18 at the Wayback Machine , RoyalCollection.org, retrieved 18 October 2014
  26. "The Loreto Litanies". The Holy See. Retrieved 7 November 2011.
  27. Mark Alessio (31 January 2006). "Mary, advocate of the Church and Mediatrix of all graces". catholicism.org. Archived from the original on 9 March 2016.
  28. Duricy, Michael P., “Black Madonnas: Origin, History, Controversy,” All About Mary, International Marian Research Institute, University of Dayton.
  29. 1 2 3 "Titles of Mary", Regis University
  30. 1 2 3 “Latin American Titles of Mary,” All About Mary, International Marian Research Institute, University of Dayton.
  31. Paraguay: South America's Lewis Carroll world
  32. Website of Center for the Promotion of Devotion, Sanctuary of Mary of the Rosary of San Nicolás]
  33. 1 2 3 "Titles of the Holy Theotokos, Saint Mary", Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria, Diocese of Los Angeles

Related Research Articles

Mary, mother of Jesus Mother of Jesus, according to the Christian New Testament

Mary was a 1st century Galilean Jewish woman of Nazareth, the wife of Joseph and the mother of Jesus, according to the canonical gospels and the Quran.

Queen of Heaven

Queen of Heaven is a title given to the Virgin Mary, by Christians mainly of the Catholic Church and, to a lesser extent, in Anglicanism, Lutheranism, and Eastern Orthodoxy. The title is a consequence of the First Council of Ephesus in the fifth century, in which Mary was proclaimed "Theotokos", a title rendered in Latin as Mater Dei, in English "Mother of God".

Litany of the Blessed Virgin Mary

The Litany of the Blessed Virgin Mary is a Marian litany originally approved in 1587 by Pope Sixtus V. It is also known as the Litany of Loreto, after its first-known place of origin, the Shrine of Our Lady of Loreto (Italy), where its usage was recorded as early as 1558.

Our Lady of Sorrows

Our Lady of Sorrows, Our Lady of Dolours, the Sorrowful Mother or Mother of Sorrows, and Our Lady of Piety, Our Lady of the Seven Sorrows or Our Lady of the Seven Dolours are names by which the Virgin Mary is referred to in relation to sorrows in her life. As Mater Dolorosa, it is also a key subject for Marian art in the Catholic Church.

Catholic Mariology

Catholic Mariology refers to Mariology – the systematic study of the person of Mary, mother of Jesus, and of her place in the Economy of Salvation – within Catholic theology. Mary is seen as having a singular dignity above the saints. The Catholic Church teaches that she was conceived without original sin, therefore receiving a higher level of veneration than all other saints. Catholic Mariology thus studies not only her life but also the veneration of her in daily life, prayer, hymns, art, music, and architecture in modern and ancient Christianity throughout the ages.

Solemnity of Mary, Mother of God Feast day in the Roman Catholic Church

The Solemnity of Mary, the Holy Mother of God is a feast day of the Blessed Virgin Mary under the aspect of her motherhood of Jesus Christ, whom she had circumcised on the 8th day, according to the biblical and Jewish Law. Christians see him as the Lord, the Son of God. It is celebrated by the Roman Rite of the Catholic Church on 1 January, the Octave (8th) day of Christmastide. The solemnity is a Holy Day of Obligation in areas that have not abrogated it.

Co-Redemptrix is a title used within the Catholic Church for the Blessed Virgin Mary, as well as a Catholic theological concept referring to Mary's role in the redemption of all peoples. It is a reverent title for the Blessed Mother and held as a pious belief in the Catholic Church.

Anglican Marian theology Summation of the doctrines and beliefs of Anglicanism concerning Mary, mother of Jesus

Anglican Marian theology is the summation of the doctrines and beliefs of Anglicanism concerning Mary, mother of Jesus. As Anglicans believe that Jesus was both human and God the Son, the second Person of the Trinity, within the Anglican Communion and Continuing Anglican movement, Mary is accorded honour as the theotokos, a Koiné Greek term that means "God-bearer" or "one who gives birth to God".

Mediatrix

In Catholic Mariology, the title Mediatrix refers to the intercessory role of the Blessed Virgin Mary as a mediator in the salvific redemption by her son Jesus Christ and that he bestows graces through her. Mediatrix is an ancient title that has been used by many saints since at least the 5th century. Its use grew during the Middle Ages and reached its height in the writings of saints Louis de Montfort and Alphonsus Liguori in the 18th century.

Mariology Christian theological study of Mary, mother of Jesus

Mariology is the theological study of Mary, the mother of Jesus. Mariology seeks to relate doctrine or dogma about Mary to other doctrines of the faith, such as those concerning Jesus and notions about redemption, intercession and grace. Christian Mariology aims to place the role of the historic Mary in the context of scripture, tradition and the teachings of the Church on Mary. In terms of social history, Mariology may be broadly defined as the study of devotion to and thinking about Mary throughout the history of Christianity.

Marian feast days are specific holy days of the liturgical year recognized by Christians as significant Marian days for the celebration of events in the life of the Blessed Virgin Mary and her veneration. The number of Marian feasts celebrated, their names can vary among Christian denominations.

History of Catholic Mariology

The history of Catholic Mariology traces theological developments and views regarding Mary from the early Church to the 21st century. Mariology is a mainly Catholic ecclesiological study within theology, which centers on the relation of Mary, the Mother of God, and the Church. Theologically, it not only deals with her life but with her veneration in life and prayer, in art, music, and architecture, from ancient Christianity to modern times.

Mariology of the saints

Throughout history Roman Catholic Mariology has been influenced by a number of saints who have attested to the central role of Mary in God's plan of salvation. The analysis of Early Church Fathers continues to be reflected in modern encyclicals. Irenaeus vigorously defended the title of "Theotokos" or Mother of God. The views of Anthony of Padua, Robert Bellarmine and others supported the doctrine of the Immaculate Conception of the Virgin Mary, which was declared a dogma in 1850.

Mariology of the popes

The Mariology of the popes is the theological study of the influence that the popes have had on the development, formulation and transformation of the Roman Catholic Church's doctrines and devotions relating to the Blessed Virgin Mary.

Veneration of Mary in the Catholic Church Roman Catholic veneration of Mary

In the Catholic Church, the veneration of Mary, mother of Jesus, encompasses various Marian devotions which include prayer, pious acts, visual arts, poetry, and music devoted to the Blessed Virgin Mary. Popes have encouraged it, while also taking steps to reform some manifestations of it. The Holy See has insisted on the importance of distinguishing "true from false devotion, and authentic doctrine from its deformations by excess or defect". There are significantly more titles, feasts, and venerative Marian practices among Roman Catholics than in other Western Christian traditions. The term hyperdulia indicates the special veneration due to Mary, greater than the ordinary dulia for other saints, but utterly unlike the latria due only to God.

Ecumenical meetings and documents on Mary

Ecumenical meetings and documents on Mary, involving ecumenical commissions and working groups, have reviewed the status of Mariology in the Orthodox, Lutheran, Anglican, and Roman Catholic Churches.

Mary Help of Christians Title of the Virgin Mary

Mary Help of Christians ; Tagalog: Maria Mapag-ampon sa mga Kristiyano) is a Roman Catholic Marian devotion, with a feast day inscribed into the General Roman Calendar on May 24.

Mediatrix of all graces

Mediatrix of all graces is a title that the Roman Catholic Church gives to the Blessed Virgin Mary; as the Mother of God, it includes the understanding that she mediates the Divine Grace. In addition to Mediatrix, other titles are given to her in the Church: Advocate, Helper, Benefactress. In a papal encyclical of 8 September 1894, Pope Leo XIII said: "The recourse we have to Mary in prayer follows upon the office she continuously fills by the side of the throne of God as Mediatrix of Divine grace."

Marian art in the Catholic Church iconographic depiction of Virgin Mary in Catholic Churches

The Blessed Virgin Mary has been one of the major subjects of Western Art for centuries. Numerous pieces of Marian art in the Catholic Church covering a range of topics have been produced, from masters such as Michelangelo and Botticelli to works made by unknown peasant artisans.

Mariological papal documents

Mariological papal documents have been a major force that has shaped Roman Catholic Mariology over the centuries. Mariology is developed by theologians on the basis not only of Scripture and Tradition but also of the sensus fidei of the faithful as a whole, "from the bishops to the last of the faithful", and papal documents have recorded those developments, defining Marian dogmas, spreading doctrines and encouraging devotions within the Catholic Church.

References