Titles of Mary

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Our Lady of Good Counsel by Pasquale Sarullo, 19th century. Our Lady of Good Counsel by Pasquale Sarullo.jpg
Our Lady of Good Counsel by Pasquale Sarullo, 19th century.

Mary is known by many different titles (Blessed Mother, Madonna, Our Lady), epithets (Star of the Sea, Queen of Heaven, Cause of Our Joy), invocations ( Theotokos , Panagia , Mother of Mercy) and other names (Our Lady of Loreto, Our Lady of Guadalupe).

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All of these titles refer to the same individual named Mary, the mother of Jesus Christ (in the New Testament) and are used variably by Roman Catholics, Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox, and some Anglicans. (Note: Mary Magdalene, Mary of Clopas, and Mary Salome are different individuals from Mary, mother of Jesus.)

Many of the titles given to Mary are dogmatic in nature. Other titles are poetic or allegorical and have lesser or no canonical status, but which form part of popular piety, with varying degrees of acceptance by the clergy. Yet more titles refer to depictions of Mary in the history of art.

Historical and cultural context

There are several stories on the significance of the relatively large number of titles given to Mary. [1] Some titles grew due to geographic and cultural reasons, e.g. through the veneration of specific icons. Others were related to Marian apparitions.

Mary's help is sought for a large spectrum of human needs in varied situations. This led to the formulation of many of her titles (good counsel, help of the sick, etc.). Moreover, meditations and devotions on the different aspects of the Virgin Mary's role within the life of Jesus led to additional titles such as Our Lady of Sorrows. [2] Still further titles have been derived from dogmas and doctrines, such as the Immaculate Conception.

Mary's cultus or "devotional cult" consolidated in the year 431 when, at the Council of Ephesus, the Theotokos , or Mary as bearer (or mother) of God, was declared dogma. Henceforth Marian devotion—which centered on the subtle and complex relationship between Mary, Jesus, and the Church—would flourish, first in the East and later in the West.

The Reformation diminished Mary's role in many parts of Northern Europe in the 16th and 17th centuries. The Council of Trent and Counter Reformation would intensify Marian devotion in the West. Around the same period, Mary would become an instrument of evangelization in the Americas and parts of Asia and Africa, e.g. via the apparitions at Our Lady of Guadalupe which resulted in a large number of conversions to Christianity in Mexico.

Following the Reformation, as of the 17th century, the baroque literature on Mary experienced unforeseen growth with over 500 pages of Mariological writings during the 17th century alone. [3] During the Age of Enlightenment, the emphasis on scientific progress and rationalism put Catholic theology and Mariology often on the defensive in the later parts of the 18th century, to the extent that books such as The Glories of Mary (by Alphonsus Liguori) were written in defense of Mariology.

Dogmatic titles

Early titles of Mary

“Our Lady” is a common title to give to Mary as a sign of respect and honor. In French she is called "Notre Dame" and in Spanish she is "Nuestra Señora". [8]

EnglishLatinGreekNotes
MaryMariaMariam (Μαριάμ), Maria (Μαρία)Arabic: Maryām (مريم), Chinese: (瑪利亞), Coptic: Maria (Ⲙⲁⲣⲓⲁ), French: Marie, German: Maria, Italian: Maria, Judeo-Aramaic: Maryām (מרים), Maltese: Marija, Portuguese: Maria, Russian: Marija (Мария), Spanish: María, Syriac: Mariam, Vietnamese: Maria
"Full of Grace", "Blessed", "Most Blessed"Gratia plena, Beata, Beatissimakecharitomene [10] (κεχαριτωμένη)from the angel's greeting to Mary in Luke 1:28;
"Virgin", "the Virgin"VirgoParthenos [11] [12] (Παρθένος)Greek parthenos used in Matthew 1:22; Ignatius of Antioch refers to Mary's virginity and motherhood (ca. 110);
"Cause of our Salvation"causa salutis [13] according to Irenaeus of Lyons (150202);
"Mother of God"Mater DeiMeter Theou (Μήτηρ Θεοῦ)often abbr. ΜΡ ΘΥ in Greek iconography;
"God-bearer"Deipara, Dei genitrix Theotokos (Θεοτόκος)lit. "one who bears the One who is God"; a common title in Eastern Christianity with christological implications; adopted officially during Council of Ephesus (431) in response to Nestorianism, which questioned the Church's teaching that Jesus Christ's nature was unified;
"Ever-virgin"semper virgoaei-parthenos [11] (ἀειπάρθενος)
"Holy Mary", "Saint Mary"Sancta MariaHagia Maria [11] (Ἁγία Μαρία)Greek invocation is infrequent in contemporary Eastern Christianity; [14]
"Most Holy"Sanctissima, tota Sancta [15] Panagia (Παναγία)
"Most Pure"Purissima
"Immaculate"immaculataakeratos [11] (ἀκήρατος)
"Lady", "Mistress"DominaDespoina [11] (Δέσποινα)related, "Madonna" (Italian: Madonna, from ma "my" + donna "lady"; from Latin domina); also, "Notre Dame" (French: Notre Dame, lit. "our lady");
"Queen of Heaven"Regina Coeli, Regina Caeli Mary is identified with the figure in Revelation 12:1;

Papal actions

Image TypeTypical Art StyleDescription
Odigitriya Smolenskaya Dionisiy.jpg

Hodegetria
"She Who Shows the Way"

Byzantine Mary holds Christ in her left hand and with her right hand she "shows the way" by pointing to Him;
Presbyter Martinus Madonna als Sedes Sapientiae.jpg

Sedes Sapientiae
"Throne of Wisdom"

Romanesque Christ is seated in His mother Mary's lap, symbolically the "Throne of Wisdom";
Toledo Virgen Coro.jpg

"Gothic Madonna"

Gothic Based loosely on Byzantine Hodegetria iconography; typically depicts a standing, smiling Mary and playful Christ Child; considered one of the earliest depictions of Mary that is strictly Western; [16]
Giovenone Madonna del latte Trino.jpg

Madonna Lactans
"Our Lady Nursing"

Gothic and Renaissance The Virgin is depicted breastfeeding the Holy Infant. One of the earliest depictions (if not the earliest depiction) of Mary, is Our Lady nursing, as painted in the Catacomb of Priscilla in Rome, c. A.D. 250; [17] Discouraged by the Council of Trent and rare subsequently.
Lippo memmi, madonna della misericordia, Chapel of the Corporal, Duomo, Orvieto.jpg

Mater Misericordiae
"Virgin/Mother of Mercy"

Gothic, Renaissance, Baroque A regal, celestial Mary is depicted covering the faithful in her protective mantle; first arose in the late 13th century in Central Europe and Italy; depiction is commonly associated with plague monuments. [18]
Maesta-madonna.jpg

Maestà
"Majesty"
of the Virgo Deipara
"Virgin God-bearer"

Gothic Mary is seated in majesty, holding the Christ Child; based on Byzantine Nikopoia iconography;
Michelangelo's Pieta 5450 cropncleaned.jpg

Pietà
"Pity"
of the Mater Dolorosa
"Mother of Sorrows"

Gothic, Renaissance, Baroque Mary cradles the dead body of Jesus Christ after his crucifixion; this type emerged first in the 13th century in Germany as an Andachtsbild or devotional icon relating to grief; Italian Pietàs appeared in the 14th century; [19] Michelangelo's Pietà (14981499) is considered a masterpiece;
Antonello da Messina 033.jpg

Mater Amabilis
"Loving Mother"
commonly, " Madonna and Child "

Renaissance, Baroque Iconic Western depiction with many variations; based loosely on Byzantine Glykophilousa ("sweet kisses") iconography; Mary turns her gaze away from the Christ Child as she contemplates His future Passion; Renaissance emphasis on classical ideal types, realistic human anatomy, and linear perspective are evident;

Devotional titles

In the Loreto Litanies Mary's prayers are invoked under more than fifty separate titles, such as "Mother Most Pure", "Virgin Most Prudent", and "Cause of Our Joy". [20]

Other devotional titles include:

Theological Mariology

With the exception of Jesus Christ God, which has a twofold nature both human and divine (dyophysitism), the Blessed Virgin Mary is the unique human creature which a dogma is concerned with. Furthermore, she is interested by four different dogmas and a lot of Marian titles. Christians prayers, titles and arts witness her prominent role at the sight of the throne of God for the history of salvation.

In the Hail Mary prayer, she is called "full of grace" by the angel of the Annunciation talking in the name and on behalf of God. In the Nicene Creed, it is told that Jesus was "incarnate by the Holy Ghost and of the Virgin Mary, and was made man", meaning that the divine grace firstly concerns the Real Presence of the Holy Spirit God into her body, the degree of her participation to the life of the Holy Trinity as well as the amount of charisms of the Holy Spirit God she continuosly receives and that only her is allowed by God to redistribute.

The Virgin Mother of God was anointed by the Holy Spirit God, summing up the anointings of the Kings, Prophets, Judges and High Priests of Israel, like Jesus Christ God did. For Marian apparitions testify her gift of prophecy, the Virgin Mary is assimilated to the anointed of Israel by her titles of:

In the Roman Catholic and in the Orthodox Church, the Virgin Mother of God is venerated in a special mode called with the Greek word hyperdulia, that is secondary only to the adoration reserved to the Triune God. She is venerated and honoured in such a way since no other creature -both angelic and human- has a greater power than Mary to intercede the grace of God to His sons.

Titles associated with devotional images

Our Lady of Penafrancia in Naga City, Philippines Penafrancia Original Image.jpg
Our Lady of Peñafrancia in Naga City, Philippines

Other titles related to images include:

Titles associated with apparitions

Our Lady of the Rosary as Madonna di Pompei Icona Madonna Pompei.jpg
Our Lady of the Rosary as Madonna di Pompei

Latin America

A number of titles of Mary found in Latin America pertain to cultic images of her represented in iconography identified with a particular already existent title adapted to a particular place. Our Lady of Luján in Argentina refers to a small terracotta image made in Brazil and sent to Argentina in May, 1630. Its appearance seems to have been inspired by Murillo's Immaculates. Our Lady of Copacabana (Bolivia): is a figure related to devotion to Mary under the title "Most Blessed Virgin de la Candelaria, Our Lady of Copacabana". About four feet in height, the statue was made by Francisco Tito Yupanqui around 1583 and is garbed in the colors and dress of an Inca princess. [24]

Titles in the Orthodox Church

Theotokos of Pochayiv Bagarodzitsa Pachaeuskaia z tsudami. 2-ia pal. XVIII st., Valyn'.jpg
Theotokos of Pochayiv

Theotokos means "God-bearer" and is translated as "Mother of God". This title was given to Mary at the Third Ecumenical Council in Ephesus in 431 AD.(cf. Luke 1:43). [27]

Titles of Mary in Islam

The Qur'an refers to Mary (Arabic : مريم, romanized: Maryam) by the following titles:

See also

Citations

  1. “Why does Mary have So Many Different Titles?” All About Mary, International Marian Research Institute, University of Dayton.
  2. Tavard, George Henry, The thousand faces of the Virgin Mary 1996 ISBN   0-8146-5914-4 p. 95
  3. Roskovany, A., conceptu immacolata ex monumentis omnium seculrorum demonstrate III, Budapest 1873
  4. by Braaten, Carl E. and Jenson, Robert W., Mary, Mother of God, 2004 ISBN   0802822665 p. 84
  5. Maas, Anthony. "Virgin Birth of Christ." The Catholic Encyclopedia Vol. 15. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1912. 10 April 2016
  6. Wuerl, Donald W. and Stubna, Kris D., The Teaching of Christ: A Catholic Catechism for Adults, Our Sunday Visitor Publishing, 2004, ISBN   9781592760947
  7. "In Honor of Nuestra Señora de Guia", De AnDA (2009-11-22),
  8. Hargett, Malea. "Marian titles chosen for one out of four churches in diocese", Arkansas Catholic, Diocese of Arkansas, May 20, 2006
  9. Mauriello, Matthew R., “Mary the New Eve,” Frei Francisco.
  10. "...Byzantine inscriptions from Palestine...in the sixth [century]....fourteen inscriptions invoke "Holy Mary" (Hagia Maria), eleven more hail her as Theotokos; others add the attribution of "Immaculate" (Akeratos), "Most Blessed" (Kecharitomene), "Mistress" (Despoina), "Virgin" or "Ever-Virgin" (Aei-Parthenos)." ( Frend 1984 , p. 836)
  11. 1 2 3 4 5 Frend 1984, p. 836.
  12. "Blue Letter Bible" lexicon results for parthenos Retrieved December 19, 2007.
  13. Irenaeus of Lyons (Adversus Haereses 3.22.4).
  14. The Titles of Saints, Orthodox Holiness, December 18, 2005
  15. "Universität Mannheim". www.uni-mannheim.de. 3 January 2019.
  16. Madonna. (2008). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved February 17, 2008, from Encyclopædia Britannica Online:
  17. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2009-11-01. Retrieved 2009-08-24.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  18. Jeep 2001, p. 393.
  19. Watts, Barbara. "Pietà". Grove Art Online. Oxford University Press, Retrieved February 17, 2008, http://www.groveart.com/
  20. "The Loreto Litanies". The Holy See. Retrieved 2011-11-07.
  21. Mark Alessio (31 January 2006). "Mary, advocate of the Church and Mediatrix of all graces". catholicism.org. Archived from the original on 9 March 2016.
  22. Duricy, Michael P., “Black Madonnas: Origin, History, Controversy,” All About Mary, International Marian Research Institute, University of Dayton.
  23. 1 2 3 "Titles of Mary", Regis University
  24. 1 2 3 “Latin American Titles of Mary,” All About Mary, International Marian Research Institute, University of Dayton.
  25. Paraguay: South America's Lewis Carroll world
  26. Website of Center for the Promotion of Devotion, Sanctuary of Mary of the Rosary of San Nicolás]
  27. 1 2 3 "Titles of the Holy Theotokos, Saint Mary", Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria, Diocese of Los Angeles

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