Tito Biel Chuor (or Chol, Chor) was a high-ranking commander in the South Sudan Defense Forces (SSDF) during the Second Sudanese Civil War (1983–2005).
Tito Biel, of the Dok section of the Nuer people, was originally in the Sudan People's Liberation Army (SPLA), but joined Riek Machar's breakaway faction in 1991. He followed Riek Machar when he became reconciled with the Sudan government in 1997, joining the SSDF.
Major General Tito Biel led SSDF forces in 1998/1999 in clashes with Sudan Armed Forces (SAF) troops and militia under Major General Paulino Matiep.By April 1999 Tito Biel's SSDF forces in Western Upper Nile were cooperating with the Sudan People's Liberation Army (SPLA) forces in Bahr el Ghazal, who were supplying arms. Tito was pushed out of Leer by Paulino's forces, and on arrival in Yirol early in May 1999 he formally declared that he had switched to the SPLA, along with his officers and men. For several months after September 1999 he coordinated with Commander Peter Gadet in attacking various oil-related targets in Unity State. Gadet had also rebelled from the SSDF after fighting Tito earlier in the year for control of Block 5A.
In November 1999 Biel, Gadet and other Nuer commanders formed the Upper Nile Provisional United Military Command Council (UMCC) to coordinate anti-government forces in the state. They were not satisfied with Riek Machar for cooperating with the government despite the fact that the government had not honored the Khartoum peace agreement and had not handed over control of the oil fields to the Nuer militias.Riek Machar resigned from the government at the end of the year and in February 2000 formed the Sudan People's Defense Forces/Democratic Front (SPDF). For a while the UMCC and SPDF cooperated, but the arrangement broke down as the government supplied Machar with arms and ammunition to settle grievances with the SPLA/Gadet troop.
Later in 2000 Tito Biel joined Riek Machar's SPDF.He spent several months after March 2000 in Nairobi with Riek Machar and other leaders. In early 2001 Tito Biel returned to Eastern Upper Nile with Riek Machar where they tried to drum up support for the SPDF militia. In early February 2002, resentful that he had not been consulted on Riek Machar's deal with John Garang to rejoin the SPLA, Tito Biel rejoined the Sudan government. Later he was joined by Peter Gadet.
The South Sudan Liberation Movement (SSLM) is an armed group that operates in the Upper Nile Region of South Sudan. The group's creation was announced in November 1999 by people of the Nuer ethnicity who were in both the rebel Sudan People's Liberation Army (SPLA) and the government-allied South Sudan Defence Forces (SSDF) gathered in Waat. The SSLM was declared to be unaligned in the Second Sudanese Civil War, then entering its sixteenth year. The name "South Sudan Liberation Movement" was decided upon the next year, borrowing from the earlier Southern Sudan Liberation Movement, which existed in the 1980s.
Riek Machar Teny Dhurgon is a South Sudanese politician who serves as the first Vice President of South Sudan.
The South Sudan People's Defence Forces (SSPDF), formerly the Sudan People's Liberation Army (SPLA), is the army of the Republic of South Sudan. The SPLA was founded as a guerrilla movement against the government of Sudan in 1983 and was a key participant of the Second Sudanese Civil War, led by John Garang. After Garang's death in 2005, Salva Kiir was named the SPLA's new Commander-in-Chief. As of 2010, the SPLA was divided into divisions of 10,000–14,000 soldiers.
The Jikany Nuer are a section of the Nuer people who mainly live in the eastern part of Upper Nile state in South Sudan, particularly around Nasir in Nasir County.
Peter Gatdet Yak or Peter Gadet was a Sudan People's Liberation Army (SPLA) general who became the leader of the South Sudan Liberation Army (SSLA), a rebel movement in South Sudan.
Leer is a town in South Sudan. It is the capital of Southern Liech State and Leer County.
Taban Deng Gai is a South Sudanese politician who has been one of the Vice Presidents of South Sudan in the unity government since February 2020. He served as the First Vice President of South Sudan from 23 July 2016 to February 2020. He was mining minister before being appointed as acting first vice president.
Paulino Matip Nhial, or Matiep Nhial, was a military leader and politician in South Sudan.
Gordon Kong Chuol is a former militia commander in South Sudan, who fought for the Sudan People's Liberation Army (SPLA) and later for the forces led by Riek Machar during the Second Sudanese Civil War.
Mayom is a community in Unity State of South Sudan to the west of Bentiu. It is the headquarters of Mayom County.
Kerubino Kuanyin Bol was one of the founders of the Sudan People's Liberation Movement (SPLM) and one of the leaders of the Sudan People's Liberation Army (SPLA) during the Second Sudanese Civil War (1983-2005). He was said to have fired the first shot in that conflict, which flared up when the Khartoum government of Sudan imposed Islamic law, or Sharia, across the whole country, including the southern region which in 2011 became the Republic of South Sudan. The people in this region mainly follow the Christianity and/or a traditional animist religion.
Yohannes Yual Both was a leader of the South Sudan Defense Forces whose mobile forces gave the Sudan People's Liberation Army considerable difficulty during the Second Sudanese Civil War (1983–2005).
Mankien is a community in Unity state in South Sudan. With a key location near the oil fields, the town changed hands more than once during the Second Sudanese Civil War (1983-2005). In April 2011 the town was once again the scene of conflict between militia and government troops.
Fangak is a community in South Sudan. It lies in Fangak County in Jonglei state. The capital is Old Fanguk. It was once a British garrison town. The administration buildings were destroyed during the civil war.
Block 5A is an oil concession in South Sudan. After oil field development began during the Second Sudanese Civil War, Block 5A was the scene of extensive fighting as rival militias struggled for control. Out of an original population of 240,000, an estimated 12,000 were killed or died of starvation and 160,000 were displaced by force. Production started in 2006. There is evidence that the environmentally sensitive marshlands beside the Nile are becoming polluted. European companies have been accused of complicity in clearance of the population from the oil field.
The Relief Association of Southern Sudan was a humanitarian organization in Sudan, operating during the Second Sudanese Civil War. It was the humanitarian wing of the forces of Riek Machar 1991-2003. SPLA-Nasir set up RASS to function as a local civilian authority, and for liaisons with United Nations agencies and NGOs. As of 1999, Simon Kun served as executive director of RASS.
The Sudan People's Defense Forces/Democratic Front (SPDF) was an anti-government militia active in Upper Nile from 2000 to 2002.
The Sudan People's Liberation Movement-in-Opposition, also known as the anti-governmental forces (AGF), is a mainly South Sudanese political party and rebel group that split from the Sudan People's Liberation Movement in 2013, due to political tensions between President Salva Kiir and Vice President Riek Machar over leadership of the SPLM. Tensions grew between forces loyal to Kiir and Machar and South Sudan plunged into the South Sudanese Civil War.
Peter Par Jiek was a brigadier general of the Sudan People's Liberation Army (SPLA), and veteran of the Second Sudanese Civil War. In the course of that conflict, Par fought under Riek Machar with several rebel and pro-government groups, and eventually became a powerful militia commander in Unity State. In that region, he established his own fiefdom and gained some notoriety for his rivalry with another rebel leader, Peter Gadet. Even though he had followed Machar during the whole Second Sudanese Civil War until 2005, Par sided with President Salva Kiir Mayardit upon the outbreak of the South Sudanese Civil War in 2013. Leading pro-government counter-insurgency forces in Wau State since 2014, Par was eventually ambushed and killed by SPLM-IO rebels loyal to Machar in 2017.
The War of the Peters was a conflict primarily fought between the forces of Peter Par Jiek and Peter Gadet from June 2000 to August 2001 in Unity State, Sudan. Though both were leaders of local branches of larger rebel groups that were involved in the Second Sudanese Civil War, the confrontation between the two commanders was essentially a private war. As Par and Gadet battled each other, the Sudanese government exploited the inter-rebel conflict as part of a divide and rule-strategy, aimed at weakening the rebellion at large and allowing for the extraction of valuable oil in Unity State. In the end, Gadet and Par reconciled when their respective superiors agreed to merge the SPDF and SPLA.