|Titterstone Clee Hill
|533 m (1,749 ft)
|232 m (761 ft)
|Brown Clee Hill
|OS Landrangers 137, 138
Titterstone Clee Hill, sometimes referred to as Titterstone Clee or Clee Hill, is a prominent hill in the rural English county of Shropshire, rising at the summit to 533 metres (1,749 ft) above sea level.
It is one of the Clee Hills, in the Shropshire Hills Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty. The nearest town to the hill is Ludlow, which can be seen from parts of Cleehill village.
Titterstone Clee is the third-highest hill in Shropshire, surpassed only by the nearby Brown Clee Hill (540 metres (1,770 ft)) and Stiperstones (536 metres (1,759 ft)). Much of the higher part of the hill is common land, used for the grazing of sheep, air traffic control services and both working and disused quarries. The summit of Titterstone Clee is bleak, treeless and shaped by decades of quarrying. Many of the industrial structures still remain.
Most of the summit of the hill is affected by man-made activity, the result of hill fort construction during the Bronze and Iron Ages and, more recently, by years of mining for coal and quarrying for dolerite, known locally as 'dhustone', for use in road-building. Many derelict quarry buildings scattered over the hill are of industrial archaeological interest as very early examples of the use of reinforced concrete.
The village of Cleehill lies on this road as it crosses the hill. At 1,296 feet (395 m) above sea level, it was home to what was, until it closed, the highest pub in Shropshire, called The Kremlin, and also to the highest primary school. On the northeast slope of the hill is the small village of Cleeton St Mary.
The hill rises above the surrounding countryside by virtue of its distinctive geology, the igneous rocks capping both Titterstone Clee and Clee Hill being more resistant to erosion than the neighbouring sedimentary rocks. Most of the lower ground is underlain by mudstones and sandstones of Devonian age and collected together as the Old Red Sandstone. The uppermost part of this succession is the St Maughans Formation and on the northern and western sides it rises almost to the summit where it is then capped by a hard-wearing dolerite sill. A similar but larger and separate intrusion caps Clee Hill to the south.
The Old Red Sandstone is unconformably overlain by Carboniferous Limestone which locally is accounted for by the Orton Limestone Formation and the Lower Limestone Shale Group. These rocks occur in a curved outcrop to the south of Cleehill village and to the north around Farlow. Overlying this is the Cornbrook Sandstone formation, the local representative of the Millstone Grit underlying the ground between Cleehill village and Knowle and also to the northeast of the hill. This is succeeded by the mudstones, siltstones and sandstones of the Lower and Middle Coal Measures which makes up much of the rest of the surface of the hill extending southwest to Knowbury and northeast beneath Catherton Common. It contains seatearths and coal seams which have been worked in the past. The lowermost and most extensive of these, just above the basal sandstone of the Coal Measures is known as the 'Gutter Coal'.
The dark coloured dolerite of the sill is known locally as Dhu Stone ('dhu' may have arisen from the Welsh 'du' meaning 'black'). It is an olivine basalt which appears to have been intruded as a sill between sandstone layers within the unconsolidated strata of the Middle Westphalian sediments soon after deposition of the latter.
A fault system runs ENE-WSW across the southern flanks of these hills. The northerly downthrowing Leinthall Earls Fault runs off to the WSW whilst the Titterstone Clee Fault runs off the ENE. Other smaller faults, some at right angles to these named faults, affect both the sedimentary strata dn the intruded sills.
Near the summit is the Giant's Chair – a pile of boulders created during cold phases of the Devensian ice age.
Near the summit trig point are the remains of a Bronze Age cairn, dating back up to 4,000 years and indicating that the summit was a likely ceremonial site. Although partly destroyed by quarrying, Titterstone Clee's Iron Age hill fort or encampment, enclosed by a huge boundary earthworks, has fared better than those on Brown Clee. It is of note that the walls of the fort are made up of stone blocks, instead of earth banks.
Clee Hill is one of only a few hills and mountains noted on the Hereford Mappa Mundi, a 13th-century map of the world displayed at Hereford Cathedral.
In medieval times ironstone and, later, coal were mined, in particular from bell pits: localised mine shafts, one of which has now flooded to form a lake. Over the years large numbers of quarries were opened up on Titterstone Clee to exploit the dolerite. All but one, on Clee Hill, are now abandoned. The largest quarries have sheer drops of up to around 100 feet (30m).
Before the Second World War, the area would be described as industrial, because of the presence of wide-scale quarrying and associated activity. Men came from places such as Bridgnorth and Ludlow to work in the quarries, and the villages of Bedlam and Dhustone on Titterstone Clee were built especially for the quarry workers. Crumbling remains of quarry buildings now litter the hill, reminders of a bygone industry that once employed more than 2,000 people here. An old 3 ft (914 mm) narrow gauge railway incline is still visible on the hill and a large concrete structure under which the wagons were filled with stone still remains next to the modern day car park. Nearby, on the flanks of Clee Hill, a standard gauge railway incline provided means of exporting quarried stone from above Cleehill village. This railway infrastructure remained intact until abandoned in the early 1960s. In the past the quarries have also been worked (on a much smaller scale) for coal, fireclay and limestone.
Early in the 20th century, a further large quarry (the Magpie Quarry) opened on the eastern side of Clee Hill and an aerial ropeway was built to carry stone off the hill eastwards to the railway at Detton Ford. The footings for the tall pylons which supported the wires still remain near the summit, parallel to the modern day track to the radar domes.
During the Second World War, in September 1941, a radar station was set up on Titterstone Clee under cover of being a Royal Air Force station under the name of RAF Clee Hill, which housed between 40 and 50 personnel. Initially the radar and wireless crew lived in huts within the station which made for cold living conditions in winter but it ceased to be residential in September 1956 when crew were allowed to board in Ludlow. The station, latterly commanded by a Flight Lieutenant, disbanded and closed in September 1957. However it was reactivated in 1964 under the oversight of the Civil Aviation Authority.Several radar domes and towers currently operate on the summit of the hill. The largest of the radar arrays is part of the National Air Traffic Services (NATS) radar network, and covers one of 30 overlapping regions of UK airspace. The one on Titterstone Clee monitors all aircraft within a 100-mile radius. The smaller of the two is a Met Office weather radar station which is part of a network of 16 across the country used to detect cloud precipitation (rain). The domes and masts are well-known local landmarks, with one in particular often being nicknamed 'the golf ball'.
Clee Hill is still quarried behind Cleehill village. Quarrying resumed here in the late 1980s, 50 years after the Titterstone Clee Dhustone quarry closed just below the summit. The main buildings of the quarry are just visible from the A4117 road but virtually hidden from view by ingenious landscaping.
A 20th century triangulation pillar marks the summit.
The summit area and unenclosed upper slopes of Titterstone Clee, along with Clee Hill to its south, were mapped as 'open country' under the provisions of the Countryside and Rights of Way Act 2000 and thereby freely available to walkers. There is in addition a dense network of footpaths and bridleways running both across the unenclosed land and also the enclosed farmland surrounding the hill. Some connect from the A4117 Cleobury Mortimer to Ludlow road which runs east-west across Clee Hill Common's southern flanks (reaching a height of 1,250 feet (380 m) above sea level at its highest point) though a minor public road reaches to the upper parts of the hill where there are parking areas. Thus Titterstone Clee is popular with walkers and picnickers, but much less so than nearby hills such as the Long Mynd. From the summit the Shropshire Way runs north to Brown Clee Hill, southwest to Ludlow and east to Cleobury Mortimer. Another long-distance trail, the Jack Mytton Way runs along the northeastern margin of the hill.
Titterstone Clee plays a central role in the Ellis Peters' novel The Virgin in the Ice .
Cleobury Mortimer is a market town and civil parish in south-east Shropshire, England, which had a population of 3,036 at the 2011 census. It was granted a market charter by King Henry III in 1226.
Brown Clee Hill is the highest hill in the rural English county of Shropshire, at 540 metres (1,770 ft) above sea level. It is one of the Clee Hills, and is in the Shropshire Hills Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty.
The Shropshire Hills is a designated Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty (AONB) in Shropshire, England. It is located in the south of the county, extending to its border with Wales. Designated in 1958, the area encompasses 802 square kilometres (310 sq mi) of land primarily in south-west Shropshire, taking its name from the upland region of the Shropshire Hills. The A49 road and Welsh Marches Railway Line bisect the area north–south, passing through or near Shrewsbury, Church Stretton, Craven Arms and Ludlow.
The geology of Shropshire is very diverse with a large number of periods being represented at outcrop. The bedrock consists principally of sedimentary rocks of Palaeozoic and Mesozoic age, surrounding restricted areas of Precambrian metasedimentary and metavolcanic rocks. The county hosts in its Quaternary deposits and landforms, a significant record of recent glaciation. The exploitation of the Coal Measures and other Carboniferous age strata in the Ironbridge area made it one of the birthplaces of the Industrial Revolution. There is also a large amount of mineral wealth in the county, including lead and baryte. Quarrying is still active, with limestone for cement manufacture and concrete aggregate, sandstone, greywacke and dolerite for road aggregate, and sand and gravel for aggregate and drainage filters. Groundwater is an equally important economic resource.
Cleehill is a village in south Shropshire, England. It is sometimes written as Clee Hill Village to avoid confusion. It lies in the civil parish of Caynham. The market towns of Ludlow and Cleobury Mortimer are both 5.5 miles (8.9 km) distant, Ludlow to the west and Cleobury to the east.
The A4117 is a single-carriageway 'A road' in western England, largely in Shropshire, which passes through part of the Wyre Forest and Clee Hills.
The Clee Hills are a range of hills in Shropshire, England near Ludlow, consisting of Brown Clee Hill 1,772 feet (540 m), the highest peak in Shropshire, and Titterstone Clee Hill 1,749 feet (533 m). They are both in the Shropshire Hills Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty.
Bitterley is a village and civil parish in Shropshire, England. According to the 2001 census the parish had a population of 802, increasing to 902 at the 2011 Census. The village is about 4 miles (6.4 km) east of Ludlow on the western slopes of Titterstone Clee Hill. Bitterley is the location for Bitterley Court about 0.62 miles (1.00 km) east of the modern village. Nearby to the east, is the small hamlet of Bedlam.
The Stirling Sill is an outcropping of a large quartz-dolerite intrusion or sill that underlies a large part of central Scotland, and may be contiguous at great depth. The sill is of very late Carboniferous age or more probably Permian, as it penetrates the coal measures, often in bedding planes between the various strata. In places, it rises through fractures in the strata to a new level, forming features that, at the surface, would be called dikes.
Carboniferous Limestone is a collective term for the succession of limestones occurring widely throughout Great Britain and Ireland that were deposited during the Dinantian Epoch of the Carboniferous Period. These rocks formed between 363 and 325 million years ago. Within England and Wales, the entire limestone succession, which includes subordinate mudstones and some thin sandstones, is known as the Carboniferous Limestone Supergroup.
Clee Hill Junction was a railway junction in Shropshire, England, where the goods only line from Titterstone Clee Hill joined the Shrewsbury and Hereford Railway, a LNWR/GWR joint line. It was situated 24 chains to the north of Ludlow railway station.
Clee may refer to
The Lomond Hills, also known outside the locality as the Paps of Fife, are a range of hills in central Scotland. They lie in western central Fife and Perth and Kinross, Scotland. At 522 metres (1,713 ft) West Lomond is the highest point in the county of Fife.
Burwarton is a small village and civil parish in Shropshire, England. Local governance is provided through the 'grouped' Parish Council for Aston Botterill, Burwarton and Cleobury North. The Parish falls within the Brown Clee Division of the Shropshire Unitary Council. There is no village meeting place, but the combined parishes share the facilities of the Village Hall at Cleobury North. The Burwarton Parish embraces most of the 'home estate' around Burwarton House. This rises westward from the main Bridgnorth-Ludlow road, passing north–south through the village, up to the ridge summit of Brown Clee Hill.
Coreley is a small, dispersed village and civil parish in south Shropshire, England, near to Clee Hill Village. It is situated approximately 30 miles (48 km) south west of Birmingham and just 4.5 miles (7.2 km) north east of Tenbury Wells. The name Corely comes from the Old English corn meaning a crane/heron and lēah meaning a forest/wood. This translates to crane wood/farmland.
CORELEY, a parish in Cleobury-Mortimer district, Salop; under the Clee Hills, 3½ miles NNE of Tenbury r[ailway]. station, and 5 WSW of Cleobury-Mortimer. Post town, Tenbury. Acres, 2,175. Rated property, £1,490. Pop[ulation]., 515. Houses, 106. The property is divided among a few. The living is a rectory in the diocese of Hereford. Value, £280.* Patron, Rev. J. Burnett Stuart. The church is of brick, and ancient, with tower and spire; and was reported in 1859 as bad.
Cleobury North is a civil parish and small village in south east Shropshire, England. It is situated on the B4364 southwest of the market town of Bridgnorth. To the north is the village of Ditton Priors and to the west is Brown Clee Hill, the county's highest hill.
The geology of County Durham in northeast England consists of a basement of Lower Palaeozoic rocks overlain by a varying thickness of Carboniferous and Permo-Triassic sedimentary rocks which dip generally eastwards towards the North Sea. These have been intruded by a pluton, sills and dykes at various times from the Devonian Period to the Palaeogene. The whole is overlain by a suite of unconsolidated deposits of Quaternary age arising from glaciation and from other processes operating during the post-glacial period to the present. The geological interest of the west of the county was recognised by the designation in 2003 of the North Pennines Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty as a European Geopark.
The Black Country UNESCO Global Geopark is a geopark in the Black Country, a part of the West Midlands region of England. Having previously been an ‘aspiring Geopark’, it was awarded UNESCO Global Geopark status on 10 July 2020.
The geology of the Yorkshire Dales National Park in northern England largely consists of a sequence of sedimentary rocks of Ordovician to Permian age. The core area of the Yorkshire Dales is formed from a layer-cake of limestones, sandstones and mudstones laid down during the Carboniferous period. It is noted for its karst landscape which includes extensive areas of limestone pavement and large numbers of caves including Britain's longest cave network.
The geology of Pembrokeshire in Wales inevitably includes the geology of the Pembrokeshire Coast National Park which extends around the larger part of the county’s coastline and where the majority of rock outcrops are to be seen. Pembrokeshire’s bedrock geology is largely formed from a sequence of sedimentary and igneous rocks originating during the late Precambrian and the Palaeozoic era, namely the Ediacaran, Cambrian, Ordovician, Silurian, Devonian and Carboniferous periods, i.e. between 635 and 299 Ma. The older rocks in the north of the county display patterns of faulting and folding associated with the Caledonian Orogeny. On the other hand, the late Palaeozoic rocks to the south owe their fold patterns and deformation to the later Variscan Orogeny.