Titus (praenomen)

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Titus ( /ˈttəs/ TY-təs, Latin pronunciation:  [ˈtɪtʊs] ) [1] is a Latin praenomen , or personal name, and was one of the most common names throughout Roman history. For most of Roman history, Titus was the sixth most common praenomen, following Lucius, Gaius, Marcus, Publius , and Quintus . While not used by every family, it was widely used by all social classes including both patricians and plebeians and was a favorite of many families and gave rise to the patronymic gens Titia . It was regularly abbreviated T. [2] [3] and the feminine form was Tita or Titia. The name survived the Roman Empire, and has continued to be used, in various forms, into modern times. [4] [5]

Contents

Origin and meaning

The original meaning of Titus is obscure, but it was widely believed to have come to Rome during the time of Romulus, the founder and first king of Rome. Early in his reign, a war with the Sabines ended with the migration of a great many Sabine families to Rome, and Titus Tatius, king of the Sabine town of Cures, becoming co-regent with Romulus. Titus would thus have been an Oscan praenomen introduced to Rome, although it was later regarded as Latin. This explanation is accepted by Chase. [6] [7] [8]

Variations

The feminine form of Titus should be Tita, and this form is found in older inscriptions such as the Tita Vendia vase and Tita Varia inscription. [9] However the more common form in later periods was Titia, with an "i". The same pattern was followed by the praenomen Marca or Marcia. [10]

The name was borrowed by the Etruscans, who used the forms Tite (masculine) and Titi or Titia (feminine). [11] [12]

See also

Related Research Articles

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Faustus is a Latin praenomen, or personal name. It was never particularly common at Rome, but may have been used more frequently in the countryside. The feminine form is Fausta. The name was not usually abbreviated, but is occasionally found abbreviated F. During the period of the Roman Empire, it was widely used as a cognomen, or surname. As the Roman nomenclature system began to break down towards the end of the Western Empire in the 4th and 5th centuries, Faustus once again became a personal name, and it has survived into modern times.

Gnaeus is a Latin praenomen, or personal name, which was common throughout the period of the Roman Republic, and well into imperial times. The feminine form is Gnaea. The praenomen was used by both patrician and plebeian families, and gave rise to the patronymic gens Naevia. The name was regularly abbreviated Cn., based on the archaic spelling, Cnaeus, dating from the period before the letters "C" and "G" were differentiated.

Hostus is a Latin praenomen, or personal name, which was used in pre-Roman times and during the early centuries of the Roman Republic, but become obsolete by the 1st century BC. The feminine form was probably Hosta or Hostia. The patronymic gentes Hostia and Hostilia were derived from Hostus. The name was not regularly abbreviated.

Manius is a Latin praenomen, or personal name, which was used throughout the period of the Roman Republic, and well into imperial times. The feminine form is Mania. The name was used by both patrician and plebeian families, and gave rise to the patronymic gentes Manlia and Manilia. Manius was originally abbreviated with an archaic five-stroke "M", which was not otherwise used in Latin. In place of this letter, the praenomen came to be abbreviated M'.

Marcus is a Latin praenomen, or personal name, which was one of the most common names throughout Roman history. The feminine form is Marca or Marcia. The praenomen was used by both patrician and plebeian families, and gave rise to the patronymic gens Marcia, as well as the cognomen Marcellus. It was regularly abbreviated M.

Mettius is a Latin praenomen, or personal name, which was used in pre-Roman times and perhaps during the early centuries of the Roman Republic, but which was obsolete by the 1st century BC. The feminine form is Mettia. The patronymic gens Mettia was derived from this praenomen. The name was rare in historical times, and not regularly abbreviated.

Octavius is a Latin praenomen, or personal name. It was never particularly common at Rome, but may have been used more frequently in the countryside. The feminine form is Octavia. The name gave rise to the patronymic gens Octavia, and perhaps also to gens Otacilia, also written Octacilia. A late inscription gives the abbreviation Oct.

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Quintus is a Latin praenomen, or personal name, which was common throughout all periods of Roman history. It was used by both patrician and plebeian families, and gave rise to the patronymic gentes Quinctia and Quinctilia. The feminine form is Quinta. The name was regularly abbreviated Q.

Septimus is a Latin praenomen, or personal name. It was never particularly common at Rome, but it gave rise to the patronymic gens Septimia. The feminine form is Septima. The name was not regularly abbreviated.

Sertor is a Latin praenomen, or personal name. It was never common, and is not known to have been used by any prominent families at Rome. It gave rise to the patronymic gens Sertoria. The feminine form was probably Sertora. The name was not regularly abbreviated, but is sometimes found as Sert.

Servius is a Latin praenomen, or personal name, which was used throughout the period of the Roman Republic, and well into imperial times. It was used by both patrician and plebeian families, and gave rise to the patronymic gens Servilia. The feminine form is Servia. The name was regularly abbreviated Ser.

Sextus is a Latin praenomen, or personal name, which was common throughout all periods of Roman history. It was used by both patrician and plebeian families, and gave rise to the patronymic gentes Sextia and Sextilia. The feminine form is Sexta. The name was regularly abbreviated Sex., but occasionally is found abbreviated S., or Sext.

Spurius is a Latin praenomen, or personal name, which was used primarily during the period of the Roman Republic, and which fell into disuse in imperial times. It was used by both patrician and plebeian families, and gave rise to the patronymic gens Spurilia. The feminine form is Spuria. The name was originally abbreviated S., as it was the most common praenomen beginning with that letter; but, as it grew less common, it was sometimes abbreviated Sp.

Vibius is a Latin praenomen, or personal name, which was occasionally used throughout the period of the Roman Republic and perhaps into imperial times. It gave rise to the patronymic gens Vibia. The feminine form is Vibia. As a praenomen, it was usually abbreviated V.

Volesus, Volusus, or Volero is a Latin praenomen, or personal name, which was occasionally used during the period of the Roman Republic, and briefly revived in imperial times. It gave rise to the patronymic gentes Valeria and Volusia. Although not attested from inscriptions, the feminine form would have been Volesa or Volusa. Unlike the more common praenomina, which were usually abbreviated, this name was regularly spelled out, but is also found abbreviated Vol.

References

  1. Lewis & Short indicate that the i in Titus is short in Latin. From A Latin Dictionary. Founded on Andrews' edition of Freund's Latin dictionary. revised, enlarged, and in great part rewritten by Charlton T. Lewis, Ph.D. and. Charles Short (1879).
  2. Realencyclopädie der Classischen Altertumswissenschaft
  3. Mika Kajava, Roman Female Praenomina: Studies in the Nomenclature of Roman Women (1994)
  4. Dictionary of Greek & Roman Biography & Mythology
  5. Realencyclopädie der Classischen Altertumswissenschaft
  6. Titus Livius, Ab Urbe Condita , book I
  7. De Praenominibus (epitome by Julius Paris)
  8. George Davis Chase, "The Origin of Roman Praenomina", in Harvard Studies in Classical Philology, vol. VIII (1897)
  9. Acta Instituti Romani Finlandiae. Vol. 13–14. Bardi. 1993. p. 83.
  10. Mika Kajava, Roman Female Praenomina: Studies in the Nomenclature of Roman Women (1994)
  11. Jacques Heurgon, Daily Life of the Etruscans (1964)
  12. Mika Kajava, Roman Female Praenomina: Studies in the Nomenclature of Roman Women (1994)