Titus (rocket)

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Titus is the designation of a French sounding rocket which was developed for observation of the total solar eclipse in Argentina on November 12, 1966. The Titus was a two-stage rocket with a length of 11.5 m, a launch weight of 3.4 tons, and a diameter of 56 cm. It reached a maximum height of 270 kilometers. The Titus was launched twice in Las Palmas, Chaco during the eclipse.

France Republic with mainland in Europe and numerous oversea territories

France, officially the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean. It is bordered by Belgium, Luxembourg and Germany to the northeast, Switzerland and Italy to the east, and Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. The country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres (248,573 sq mi) and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Marseille, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Lille and Nice.

Sounding rocket Rocket carrying scientific instruments

A sounding rocket, sometimes called a research rocket, is an instrument-carrying rocket designed to take measurements and perform scientific experiments during its sub-orbital flight. The rockets are used to carry instruments from 30 to 90 miles above the surface of the Earth, the altitude generally between weather balloons and satellites; the maximum altitude for balloons is about 25 mi (40 km) and the minimum for satellites is approximately 75 mi (121 km). Certain sounding rockets have an apogee between 620 and 930 miles, such as the Black Brant X and XII, which is the maximum apogee of their class. Sounding rockets often use military surplus rocket motors. NASA routinely flies the Terrier Mk 70 boosted Improved Orion, lifting 600–1,000-pound (270–450 kg) payloads into the exoatmospheric region between 60 and 125 miles.

Solar eclipse natural phenomenon wherein the Sun is obscured by the Moon

A solar eclipse occurs when an observer passes through the shadow cast by the Moon which fully or partially blocks ("occults") the Sun. This can only happen when the Sun, Moon and Earth are nearly aligned on a straight line in three dimensions (syzygy) during a new moon when the Moon is close to the ecliptic plane. In a total eclipse, the disk of the Sun is fully obscured by the Moon. In partial and annular eclipses, only part of the Sun is obscured.

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Meteor is a designation of a series of Polish sounding rockets. The Meteor rockets were built between 1963 and 1974.

Between 1933 and 1964 numerous rocket experiments were carried out in the area of Cuxhaven, Germany.

Seliger Rocket is the designation for the sounding rockets of the Berthold Seliger Forschungs- und Entwicklungsgesellschaft mbH. They were

  1. A single-stage rocket with a length of 3.4 metres and a takeoff thrust of 50 kN. This rocket was first launched on November 19, 1962 near Cuxhaven and reached a height of 40 km.
  2. A two-stage rocket with a length of 6 metres and a takeoff thrust of 50 kN. This rocket was first launched on February 7, 1963 and reached a height of 80 km.
  3. A three-stage rocket with a length of 12.8 metres, a diameter of 0.56 metres and a takeoff thrust of 50 kN. This rocket was first launched on May 2, 1963 with reduced fuel and reached an altitude of 110 km. Later with maximum fuel it reached a height of 150 km.
Loki (rocket) rocket

Loki, officially designated 76mm HEAA Rocket T220, was an American unguided anti-aircraft rocket based on the German Taifun. Like the Taifun, Loki never saw service in its original role, but later found widespread use as a sounding rocket. It was so successful in this role that several advanced versions were developed on the basic Loki layout, including the final Super Loki.

Petrel (rocket)

The Petrel was a British sounding rocket. The Petrel 1 was launched, like the Skua 1, with 3 Chick booster rockets. The Chick motors were fitted into a Booster Carriage that also carried the two parachutes that brought it back to earth for re-use. The Petrel 1 was 3.34 m long, had a diameter of 19 cm and reached a maximum altitude of 140 kilometers. It was fired from a barrel launcher approximately 60 ft long (18 m).

Centaure was a two-stage French sounding rocket consisting of a Belier (rocket) starting stage and a Venus upper stage. It was operated by CNES between 1961 and 1986. The Centaure has been built in a number of 230 and has been launched from the CIEES/Hammaguir missile range, Reggane, CELPA, Salto di Quirra, Esrange, Thumba, Sonmiani, and Andøya. It had a maximum payload of 60 kg, a maximum height of 140 km, a launch thrust of 44 kN, a launch weight of 457 kg, a diameter of 0.28 m and a length of 6.02 m. It belongs to a family of solid-propellant rockets consisting of the Belier, Centaure, Dragon, Dauphin, and Eridan rockets.

Salto di Quirra spaceport

Salto di Quirra is a restricted weapons testing range and rocket launching site near Perdasdefogu on Sardinia.
It is the largest military range in Italy, composed of 12000 hectares of land owned by the Italian Ministry of Defence and one of the largest in operation within the European Union. Birth defects and cancer in the area have been blamed on weaponry used at the site.

MGM-29 Sergeant

The MGM-29 Sergeant was an American short-range, solid fuel, surface-to-surface missile developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The missiles were built by Sperry Utah Company. The Sergeant was the fourth and last in a series of JPL rockets for the US Army whose names correspond to the progression in Army enlisted ranks, starting with Recruit, Private and Corporal.

Ryori is a launching site for sounding rockets in Japan at 39°02′N 141°50′E in Iwate Prefecture. Ryori has been in use since April 1970, but it is not used for launching satellites.

Lambda (rocket family) series of Japanese rockets

Lambda is the name of a series of Japanese carrier rockets. It consisted of the types Lambda 2, LS-A, LSC-3, Lambda 3, Lambda 4 and LS-C, developed jointly by Institute of Industrial Science of University of Tokyo, Institute of Space and Astronautical Science of Tokyo University, and Prince Motor Company.

Javelin (rocket) American sounding rocket

Javelin was the designation of an American sounding rocket. The four stage Javelin rocket had a payload of around 125 pounds, an apogee of 1100 kilometers, a liftoff thrust of 365 kilonewtons, a total mass of 3,385 kilograms, and a core diameter of 580 millimeters. It was launched 82 times between 1959 and 1976.

Nike-Asp American sounding rocket

Nike Asp was an American sounding rocket. The Nike Asp has a ceiling of 220 km, a takeoff thrust of 217 kN, a takeoff weight of 700 kg, a diameter of 0.42 m and a length of 7.90 m.

Kookaburra is an Australian sounding rocket consisting of a Lupus-rocket as first stage and a Musca rocket as second stage. The Kookaburra was launched 33 times, from Woomera, South Australia, and from Gan, which is an atoll located in the Indian Ocean.

Sonda (rocket)

Sonda is a family of Brazilian-built sounding rockets which serves as an R&D path to the VLS orbital rocket.

Las Palmas is a rocket launch site in Argentina at 27.13°S 58.75°W used on November 12, 1966, for the launch of two Titus rockets for observing a solar eclipse.

The Sandhawk was a sounding rocket developed by Sandia National Laboratories in 1966. This single-stage, sub-orbital rocket had a mass of 700 kg, a takeoff thrust of 80 kN, and could reach heights around 200 km or so. Sandia launched eight of these rockets between 1966 and 1974 as part of experiments conducted for the United States Atomic Energy Commission. About 25% of the launches failed.

M90 Stršljen light-weight, single-use, unguided anti-tank rocket launcher

The RBR-120 mm M90 is a light-weight, single-use, unguided anti-tank rocket launcher. The launcher is produced by Eurokompozit of Prilep, Macedonia and Poliester Grupa Priboj Serbia, while the anti-tank rocket is produced by Sloboda Čačak, Serbia. It is intended for use against tanks and other armored vehicles in addition to fortifications and infantry.

October 2005 lunar eclipse

A partial lunar eclipse took place on October 17, 2005, the second of two lunar eclipses in 2005.


Kosmos-2I is the designation applied to two Soviet carrier rockets, members of the R-12 Kosmos, which were used to orbit satellites between 1961 and 1977. They were superseded by the R-14 derived Kosmos-3 and Kosmos-3M.

Solar eclipse of November 12, 1966

A total solar eclipse occurred on November 12, 1966. A solar eclipse occurs when the Moon passes between Earth and the Sun, thereby totally or partly obscuring the image of the Sun for a viewer on Earth. A total solar eclipse occurs when the Moon's apparent diameter is larger than the Sun's, blocking all direct sunlight, turning day into darkness. Totality occurs in a narrow path across Earth's surface, with the partial solar eclipse visible over a surrounding region thousands of kilometres wide. The path of totality cut a swath across South America from north of Lima, Peru, passing the northeastern tip of Chile, Bolivia, Argentina, southwestern tip of Ñeembucú Department in Paraguay, nearly to the southernmost tip of Brazil.