Titus Ullrich (22 August 1813 – 17 December 1891) was a German poet, dramatist, art critic and literary critic from the County of Kladsko. Some of his songs were set by Robert Schumann.
The son of a farmer and grandson of the Mayor of Habelschwerdt (now Bystrzyca Kłodzka), he was born in the Hallmannschen Haus, Ring no. 7, where his mother had taken refuge during the disorder of the war. Raised by his grandfather, he entered the Glatzer Gymnasium in 1825, and proceeded in 1832 to Breslau to study philosophy and classics, continuing his studies in Berlin one year later. He earned his doctorate in 1836.
The death of his father thwarted his plan of a habilitation, and he took employment as a private tutor in Berlin. His first works, Das Hohe Lied and Viktor, were published in 1845 and 1847 and attracted a cult following. These ambitious philosophical epics championed the ideas of Ludwig Feuerbach. In 1848 he improved his financial position by taking a job as a columnist at the National-Zeitung , where he remained until 1860. He was one of the founders of the Rütli literary group. In 1854 he travelled to Italy, and in 1857 he was able to visit the major art exhibition in Manchester, taking the opportunity to explore England and Scotland, and, on the way home, Belgium and Paris. His observations were published in the National-Zeitung and were collected after his death as Reisestudien (1893).
Towards the end of 1860 he was appointed privy secretary in the offices of the General Intendant of the Royal Theatre. He was later promoted to Privy Counsellor to the King, and then commissary. He continued to publish poetry but later regretted that he had not devoted more effort to his creative writing. His marriage to Emilie Ribbeck was happy and his life generally uneventful. He went into retirement in 1887, and died in Berlin in 1891.
Theodor Fontane was a German novelist and poet, regarded by many as the most important 19th-century German-language realist author. He published the first of his novels, for which he is best known today, only at age 58 after a career as a journalist.
Rudolf Gottschall was a German poet, dramatist, literary critic and literary historian.
Hermann Sudermann was a German dramatist and novelist.
Julius Sturm, German poet, was born at Köstritz in the principality of Reuss.
Johann Leonhard Hug, was a German Roman Catholic theologian, orientalist and biblical scholar.
Heinrich Laube, German dramatist, novelist and theatre-director, was born at Sprottau in Prussian Silesia.
Hermann Ulrici was a German philosopher. He was co-editor of the philosophical journal Zeitschrift für Philosophie und philosophische Kritik. He also wrote under the pseudonym of Ulrich Reimann.
Hermann Anastas Bahr was an Austrian writer, playwright, director, and critic.
Heinrich Landesmann, more commonly known by his pseudonym, Hieronymus Lorm, was an Austrian poet and philosophical writer.
Levin Goldschmidt was a German jurist, judge and academic. He was a Judge at the Reichsoberhandelsgericht and a professor at the University of Berlin. Between 1875 and 1877 he also served as a member of the German Parliament.
Archduke Ludwig Viktor Joseph Anton of Austria was the youngest child of Archduke Franz Karl of Austria and his wife Princess Sophie of Bavaria, and as such was the younger brother of Emperor Franz Joseph I. He had a military career, as was usual for archdukes, but did not take part in politics. He was openly homosexual and declined to marry princesses who were sought for him. He is well known for his art collection and patronage as well as philanthropy.
Gustav Karpeles was a German Jewish historian of literature and editor; son of Elijah Karpeles.
Paulus Stephanus Cassel, born Selig Cassel, was a German Jewish convert to Christianity, writer, orator, and missionary to Jews.
Louise Otto-Peters was a German suffragist and women's rights movement activist who wrote novels, poetry, essays, and libretti. She wrote for Der Wandelstern [The Wandering Star] and Sächsische Vaterlandsblätter [Saxon Fatherland Pages], and founded Frauen-Zeitung and Neue Bahnen specifically for women. She is best known as the founder in 1865 of the General German Women's Association.
Anton Bettelheim was an Austrian critic and journalist.
Victor I, Duke of Ratibor, Prince of Corvey, Prince of Hohenlohe-Schillingsfürst was a member of House of Hohenlohe-Schillingsfürst and later Duke of the Silesian duchy of Ratibor and Prince of Corvey.
Karl Theodor Ferdinand Grün, also known by his alias Ernst von der Haide, was a German journalist, philosopher, political theorist and socialist politician. He played a prominent role in radical political movements leading up to the Revolution of 1848 and participated in the revolution. He was an associate of Heinrich Heine, Ludwig Feuerbach, Pierre-Joseph Proudhon, Karl Marx, Mikhail Bakunin and other radical political figures of the era.
Ludwig Laistner was a German novelist, mythologist, and literary historian.
Ludwig Speidel was a German writer, which in the second half of the 19th century was the leading music, theater and literary critic in Vienna.
Johann Georg Adolf Ritter von Deines was a Prussian soldier, diplomat, and educator, as well as a member of the lower nobility.