|Born||March 4, 1886|
Pecangaan, Dutch East Indies
|Died||March 8, 1943 57) (aged|
|Occupation||Politician, activist, writer|
Tjipto Mangoenkoesoemo or Cipto Mangunkusumo (4 March 1886 in Pecangakan, Ambarawa, Semarang – 8 March 1943 in Batavia) was a prominent Indonesian independence leader and Sukarno's political mentor. Together with Ernest Douwes Dekker and Soewardi Soerjaningrat he was one of the three founders of the influential Indische Party, a political party disseminating the idea of self-government of the Dutch East Indies. After the party was labeled subversive by colonial court of law in 1913, he and his fellow IP leaders were exiled to the Netherlands.
Tjipto advocated an Indies-based nationalism rather than Javanese nationalism.Unlike other Javanese nationalist leaders, Tjipto's belief in democracy remained strong until the end of this life and in his view the traditional character of feudal Javanese civilization had to change. He considered western education and its subsequent social and cultural dislocation as indispensable in creating a revolutionary atmosphere. He disagreed with Budi Utomo's emphasis on the reinvigoration of traditional Javanese civilization. In a 1916 debate he stated: "The psyche of the Javanese people needs to be changed to such an extent that a change of language, or more cynically a killing of a language becomes urgent. Only in this way will it be possible to build another language on its ruins and also another civilization."
Tjipto married his Indo (Eurasian) wife Marie Vogel in 1920.
When the three IP leaders returned to the Dutch East Indies his two companions eventually took the path of education, while Tjipto remained politically active. After his exile he was involved in the Insulinde Political Party which was transformed into the new "Nationaal Indische Party" of which he became one of the leaders and its representative in the Peoples Assembly (Volksraad).
When Sukarno, future President of Indonesia, moved to Bandung, he gradually alienated from his first political mentor and father in law Tjokroaminoto (leader of the Sarekat Islam). Tjipto then became his main political mentor and turned him into a convinced radical nationalist.
"In some ways this close relationship between Cipto and Sukarno was not surprising; both were highly intelligent men and extremely sensitive to the reality of the colonial situation, an injustice they took as a personal insult."
Both men were relentless and uncompromising independence fighters professing a deep concern with the plight of the poor peasant. However unlike his political pupil Tjipto's often courageous actions showed a proven track record of practically improving the social predicament of peasants.As early as 1910 Tjipto had devoted his unstinting services to the Javanese people during an outbreak of the plague. For his efforts he was awarded a royal decoration in the Order of Orange-Nassau, by the colonial government.
After the NIP's involvement in the farmers' strike in central Java the party was banned. Tjipto co-founded the National Party of Indonesia (PNI), chaired by Sukarno. Soon thereafter he attempted to foment revolt among the Indonesians serving in the KNIL and was exiled again in 1927, this time to Banda. On Banda he was later joined by other leading revolutionaries like Hatta and Sjahrir. However, during his 11-year-long exile he was unable to further any significant political activity.
He died in 1943 and was buried in Ambarawa.
After Indonesian independence the 'Centrale Burgerlijke Ziekeninrichting Salemba' was renamed the 'Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital'.
Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital is named after him, and his face appears in the 2016 series of the Rp 200 Indonesian rupiah coins.
Mohammad Hatta was an Indonesian statesman who served as the country's first vice president. Known as "The Proclamator", he and a number of Indonesians, including the first president of Indonesia, Sukarno, fought for the independence of Indonesia from the Dutch. Hatta was born in Fort de Kock, Dutch East Indies. After his early education, he studied in Dutch schools in the Dutch East Indies and studied in the Netherlands from 1921 until 1932.
Pancasila is the official, foundational philosophical theory of Indonesia. The name is made from two words originally derived from Sanskrit: "pañca" ("five") and "śīla" ("principles").
Priyayi was the Dutch-era class of the nobles of the robe, as opposed to royal nobility or ningrat (Javanese), in Java, Indonesia, the world's most populous island.
Raden Mas Soewardi Soerjaningrat ; from 1922 also known as Ki Hadjar Dewantara, which is also written as Ki Hajar Dewantoro to reflect its Javanese sounds, was a leading Indonesian independence movement activist, writer, columnist, politician, and pioneer of education for native Indonesians in Dutch colonial times. He founded the Taman Siswa school, an institution that provided education for indigenous commoners, which otherwise was limited to the Javanese aristocracy and the Dutch colonials.
The Indonesian National Awakening is a term for the period in the first half of the 20th century, during which people from many parts of the archipelago of Indonesia first began to develop a national consciousness as "Indonesians".
Sutomo, also known as Bung Tomo, is best known for his role as an Indonesian military leader during the Indonesian National Revolution against the Netherlands. He played a central role in Battle of Surabaya when the British attacked the city in October and November 1945.
Ernest François Eugène Douwes Dekker also known as Setyabudi or Setiabudi was an Indonesian-Dutch nationalist and politician of Indo descent. He was related to the famous Dutch anti-colonialism writer Multatuli, whose real name was Eduard Douwes Dekker. In his youth, he fought in the Second Boer War in South Africa on the Boer side. His thoughts were highly influential in the early years of the Indonesian freedom movement.
Frans Hendrik Karel Zaalberg was an Indo (Eurasian) journalist and politician in the Dutch East Indies.
The Indo Europeesch Verbond (IEV) or Indo European Alliance was a social movement and political organisation founded in 1919 by the Indo-European (Eurasian) community of the Dutch East Indies that fought for race equality and political say in late colonial Indonesia during the early 20th century.
The Indische Partij (IP) or Indies Party was a short lived (1912–1913) but influential political organisation founded in 1912 by the Indo-European (Eurasian) journalist E.F.E. Douwes Dekker and the Javanese physicians Tjipto Mangoenkoesoemo and Soewardi Soerjaningrat. As one of the first political organisations pioneering Indonesian nationalism in the colonial Dutch East Indies it inspired several later organisations such as the ‘Nationaal Indische Party’ (N.I.P.) or ‘Sarekat Hindia’ in 1919 and, ‘Indo Europeesch Verbond’ (I.E.V.) in 1919. Its direct successor was 'Insulinde '.
"Revolutionary action enables people to achieve their objectives quickly. Surely this is not immoral [...] The Indische Party can safely be called revolutionary. Such a word does not frighten us[...]" Douwes Dekker.
Pieter Frederich Dahler, more commonly known as P.F. Dahler or Frits Dahler, was one of the leading Indo (Eurasian) politicians and activists advocating integration of the native Indo-European community into the indigenous society of the Dutch East Indies. After World War II he changed his name to Amir Dachlan.
Insulinde (1907–1919), a direct successor of the Indische Party (IP) and later renamed the Nationale Indische Party (NIP), was a political organization that represented efforts by some Indo Eurasians to identify and cooperate with the Indigenous educated élite of the Dutch East Indies in an effort to establish an independent dominion. The organisation was mainly led by Indo-European and Javanese activists, but had a considerable membership in the South Moluccas. It was considered part of the more radical political wing in the colony, for which it faced much oppression from the colonial authorities.
Dutch Indies literature or Dutch East Indies literature is the Dutch language literature of colonial and post-colonial Indonesia from the Dutch Golden Age to the present day. It includes Dutch, Indo-European and Indonesian authors. Its subject matter thematically revolves around the VOC and Dutch East Indies eras, but also includes the postcolonial discourse.
Marco Kartodikromo, also known by his pen name Mas Marco, was an Indonesian journalist and writer.
I Gusti Ketut Pudja was an Indonesian politician and national hero, who served as the first governor of Lesser Sunda from 1945 until 1946. He was a member of the Investigating Agency for Preparatory Work for Indonesian Independence (BPUPK). He was also present at Admiral Tadashi Maeda's house, during the preparation for the Proclamation of Indonesian Independence on 17 August 1945. Making him the only Balinese to be present during the proclamation.
Iwa Koesoemasoemantri was an Indonesian politician. Born in Ciamis, West Java, Iwa graduated from legal school in the Dutch East Indies and Netherlands before spending time at a school in the Soviet Union. After returning to Indonesia he established himself as a lawyer, nationalist, and, later, a figure for workers' rights. During the first twenty years of Indonesia's independence Iwa held several cabinet positions. After retiring he continued to write. In 2002 Iwa was declared a National Hero of Indonesia.
Sukarni was an Indonesian freedom fighter and activist who demanded independence for Indonesia during the Dutch colonial era and the Japanese occupation, and was the chairman of the Murba Party until his death.
Arnoldus Isaac Zacharias Mononutu was an Indonesian nationalist, politician, and national hero of Indonesia from North Sulawesi, who served as Minister of Information from 1949 until 1950, and the again from 1951 until 1953. He later became the first Indonesia Ambassador to China, as well as the third Rector of Hasanuddin University. A member of the Indonesian National Party, Mononutu was also involved in the struggle for Indonesia's independence. Having gained his sense of nationalism during his post-secondary studies in the Netherlands. In 2020, he was posthumously given the honorary title of National Hero of Indonesia.
Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo National Central Public Hospital, is a government run hospital located at Salemba in Jakarta, Indonesia. The hospital was established in 1919 as the Centrale Burgelijke Ziekeninrichting (CBZ), which has undergone various changes in name and status since then, but since 1964 it is named after Cipto Mangunkusumo, an Indonesian independence leader and Sukarno's political mentor. It is a government run general hospital as well serves as teaching hospital for University of Indonesia. RSCM provides primary, secondary and tertiary care, acts as a national referral center for government hospitals and is a place for general practitioners, specialist doctors, subspecialists, nurses and other health workers. The hospital has almost all advanced diagnostic and therapeutic medical technology.
Jusuf Wibisono was an Indonesian economist and politician of the Masyumi Party who served as Minister of Finance between 1951–1952 and 1956–1957, within the Sukiman and Second Ali Sastroamidjojo Cabinets.