|Tjoet Nja' Dhien
|Indonesian, Acehnese, Dutch
Tjoet Nja' Dhien (pronounced [ˈtʃʊt ˈɲaʔ diˈɛn] ) is a 1988 Indonesian film directed by Eros Djarot and starring Piet Burnama, Christine Hakim, Rudy Wowor, and Slamet Rahardjo. Based on the life's story of female Acehnese guerrilla leader Cut Nyak Dhien, it focuses on the six-year period between her second husband, Teuku Umar's death and her capture by the Dutch colonial army. Tjoet Nja' Dhien was released to critical acclaim, winning 9 Citra Awards, and was screened at the Selection de la Semaine de la Critique in Cannes, 1989. It also became Indonesia's submission to the 62nd Academy Awards for the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film, but was not nominated.
Tjoet Nja' Dhien is based on the life of Cut Nyak Dhien, an Acehnese strategist, political mentor, and freedom fighter. Born to an aristocratic family in Aceh Besar in 1848, Dhien married Teuku Cek Ibrahim Lamnga at a young age. After her father and husband died in separate attempts to repel the Royal Netherlands East Indies Army during the Second Aceh Expedition, Dhien swore revenge against the Dutch colonials.
Dhien started leading troops in the war against the Dutch, eventually uniting her forces with Teuku Umar's.They married in 1880 and she became his chief strategist and political mentor, eventually taking control of the united forces after his death in 1899. The continued fighting took a toll on her health, as she slowly became more fragile.
Due to her deteriorating health, Pang Laot, one of troops, secretly approached the Dutch and offered to surrender Dhien to them on the condition that she be treated fairly. The Dutch stated their agreement,and Dhien was captured on 4 November 1905 in Meulaboh, western Aceh. Imprisoned in Banda Aceh then exiled to Sumedang, West Java, Dhien died in 1908. Since her death she has become one of the most prominent fighters from the Aceh War, being declared a National Hero in 1964.
Director Eros Djarot required two years to complete filming.
Christine Hakim was chosen for the title role of Cut Nyak Dhien. She later described the role as a "huge honor" and "very challenging"; she also credits the role for answering her questions on her identity.
Tjoet Nja' Dhien focuses on the six-year period between Umar's death and Dhien's capture by the Dutch. Leading her guerrilla troops, Dhien fights against the Dutch colonial army. Although she is supported by her troops and many Acehnese people, some Acehnese leaders have begun collaborating with the Dutch. Within the Dutch military, some commanders and troops commit "barbarous and cruel acts", while others supply weapons to the Acehnese. Eventually, Dhien is captured; not long afterwards, an intertitle stating that the Acehnese continued to fight is shown prior to the credits.
According to Deanne Schultz, Tjoet Nja' Dhien shows the Acehnese guerrillas powered by determination against "overwhelming odds", as well righteous Islamic faith, as contrasted by the commercially motivated Dutch military and colonials. Cut Nyak Dhien herself, steadfastly believing that the Dutch soldiers are "infidels" who have "soiled the land", serves to unite her people in the Aceh War. Schultz argues that the intertitle shown at the end of the film suggests that Dhien's struggle ultimately led to Indonesian independence.
The film was well received in Indonesia, winning 9 Citra Awards at the 1988 Indonesian Film Festival.
It was chosen as Indonesia's submission to the 62nd Academy Awards for the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film, but was not accepted as a nominee.It was also screened at the Selection de la Semaine de la Critique in 1989.
In 2006, Ade Irwansyah of Tabloid Bintang (Star Tabloid) listed Tjoet Nja' Dhien as the best Indonesian film of all time, calling it the "peak achievement of [Indonesia's] film industry up till now."
Schultz writes that Tjoet Nja' Dhien has "many of the best qualities of popular narrative cinema", including powerful cinematography, a "brave, smart, pious, and loving" main character, and credible villains.
The Aceh War, also known as the Dutch War or the Infidel War (1873–1913), was an armed military conflict between the Sultanate of Aceh and the Kingdom of the Netherlands which was triggered by discussions between representatives of Aceh and the United States in Singapore during early 1873. The war was part of a series of conflicts in the late 19th century that consolidated Dutch rule over modern-day Indonesia.
Great Aceh Regency is a regency of the Indonesian province of Aceh. The regency covers an area of 2,903.49 square kilometres and had a population of 351,418 at the 2010 Census and 405,535 at the 2020 Census; the official estimate as at mid 2021 was 409,527. The Regency is located at the northwest tip of Sumatra island and surrounds the provincial capital of Banda Aceh. It includes a number of islands off the northern tip of Sumatra, which comprise Pulo Aceh District within the regency. The seat of the Regency government is the town of Jantho.
Teuku Umar was a leader of a guerrilla campaign against the Dutch in Aceh during the Aceh War. He fell when Dutch troops launched a surprise attack in Meulaboh. His body was buried in the Mugo area. After Teuku Umar's death, his wife Cut Nyak Dhien continued to lead the guerrillas against the Dutch. He was later made a Pahlawan Nasional Indonesia.
Herlina Christine Natalia Hakim is an Indonesian actress, film producer, and activist. Born to a devout Muslim family of a mixed-race background in Jambi, she grew up in Yogyakarta, aspiring to be an architect or psychologist. This changed after she was discovered by Teguh Karya for his 1973 movie Cinta Pertama, a role which garnered her a Citra Award for Best Actress and convinced her to follow a career in acting. Since then, she has starred in numerous films, including 1977's Badai Pasti Berlalu and 1988's Tjoet Nja' Dhien; she also had a minor role in the 2010 Hollywood movie Eat Pray Love. As of 2011, she has won six Citra Awards, received a lifetime achievement award from the Cinemanila International Film Festival, and served as a member of the jury at the Cannes Film Festival.
Tjoet Nja Meuthia, also known as Tjut Meutia or Cut Meutia, was an Indonesian national heroine.
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The Acehnese are an indigenous ethnic group from Aceh, Indonesia on the northernmost tip of the island of Sumatra. The area has a history of political struggle against the Dutch colonial rule. The vast majority of the Acehnese people are Muslims. The Acehnese people are also referred to by other names such as Lam Muri, Lambri, Akhir, Achin, Asji, A-tse and Atse. Their language, Acehnese, belongs to the Aceh–Chamic group of Malayo-Polynesian of the Austronesian language family.
Cut Nyak Dhien or Tjoet Nja' Dhien was a leader of the Acehnese guerrilla forces during the Aceh War. Following the death of her husband Teuku Umar, she led guerrilla actions against the Dutch for 25 years. She was posthumously awarded the title of National Hero of Indonesia on 2 May 1964 by the Indonesian government.
Badai Pasti Berlalu is a 1977 Indonesian film based on the novel of the same name by Marga T. It was directed by Teguh Karya and starred Christine Hakim, Roy Marten and Slamet Rahardjo.
Erros Djarot is an Indonesian songwriter, director and politician. Beginning his music career with the soundtrack of Kawin Lari in 1976, Djarot became famous with the success of Badai Pasti Berlalu and its soundtrack album. In 1988, he directed Tjoet Nja' Dhien which received nine Citra Awards and was Indonesia's submission to the 62nd Academy Awards for the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film. In the late 1990s, Djarot entered politics, later forming the Bung Karno National Party in 2002.
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Cut Nyak Dhien Airport is an airport located in Nagan Raya Regency, Aceh, Indonesia.
Muhammad Saman, better known as Teungku Chik di Tiro, was an Acehnese guerrilla fighter. On 6 November 1973 he was declared a National Hero of Indonesia.
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Slamet Rahardjo Djarot or better known as Slamet Rahardjo is an Indonesian actor, director, and screenwriter of Javanese descent. He is the elder brother of director, songwriter, and politician, Eros Djarot. Since his directorial debut in 1979 with Rembulan dan Matahari, he has directed and/or written twelve films; one of which, Langitku, Rumahku, was Indonesia's submission to the 63rd Academy Awards in 1991.
Sultan Alauddin Muhammad Da'ud Syah II was the thirty-fifth and last sultan of Aceh in northern Sumatra. He reigned from 1875 to 1903. Despite long lasting resistance his rule ended up being conquered by the Dutch colonial state.
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Teuku Umar University is an Indonesian public university in Meulaboh, West Aceh Regency. Starting from a foundation in 1984, it became a university in 2006 and was nationalized to form the current public university in 2014.