Tlacochcalcatl (Nahuatl pronunciation: [t͡ɬakotʃˈkaɬkat͡ɬ] "The man from the house of darts") was an Aztec military title or rank; roughly equivalent to the modern title of field marshal. In Aztec warfare the tlacochcalcatl was second in command only to the tlatoani and he usually lead the Aztec army into battle when the ruler was otherwise occupied. Together with the tlacateccatl (general), he was in charge of the Aztec army and undertook all military decisions and planning once the tlatoani had decided to undertake a campaign.
The tlacochcalcatl was also in charge of the tlacochcalco. Tlacochcalco ("in the house of darts") was the name of four armories placed at the four entries to the ceremonial precinct of the Aztec capital Tenochtitlan. These mains armories were stocked with new weapons every year (during the festival of Quecholli), and one account by the Spanish conquistador Andrés de Tapia estimates the number of weapons found in each of the four armories to be 500 cartloads" )
The tlacochcalcatl was always a member of the military order of the cuachicqueh "the shorn ones".
The office of tlacochcalcatl was often the last step towards becoming the next tlatoani.
The first tlacochcalcatl was instated under the rule of Huitzilihuitl who appointed his brother Itzcoatl who probably also served during the rule of Chimalpopoca. When Itzcoatl became tlatoani he appointed Tlacaelel as tlacochcalcatl and Moctezuma Ilhuicamina as tlacateccatl; when Tlacaelel was appointed cihuacoatl, Moctezuma Ilhuicamina was promoted to tlacochcalcatl. It is not known who was tlacochcalcatl under the rule of Moctezuma I; possibly Tlacaelel held a dual office in this period. Under the rule of Moctezuma Ilhuicamina's son and successor Axayacatl, the tlacochcalcatl was Tizoc, who in turn became ruler at Axayacatl's death. Tizoc who was seen as a weak ruler; he was disposed of and his tlacochcalcatl Ahuitzotl became ruler. Ahuitzotl's tlacochcalcatl was the next ruler: Moctezuma II (Xocoyotzin). The tlacochcalcatl of Moctezuma II at the arrival of the Spaniards was Quappiatl.
Axayacatl was the sixth tlatoani of the altepetl of Tenochtitlan and Emperor of the Aztec Triple Alliance.
Ahuitzotl was the eighth Aztec ruler, the Huey Tlatoani of the city of Tenochtitlan, son of princess Atotoztli II. His name literally means "Water Thorny" and was also applied to the otter. It is also theorized that more likely, the animal called ahuitzotl is actually the water opossum, the hand symbolizing its prehensile tail, which otters notably lack.
Moctezuma I, also known as Moteuczomatzin Ilhuicamina, Huehuemoteuczoma or Montezuma I, was the second Aztec emperor and fifth king of Tenochtitlan. During his reign, the Aztec Empire was consolidated, major expansion was undertaken, and Tenochtitlan started becoming the dominant partner of the Aztec Triple Alliance. Often mistaken for his popular descendant, Moctezuma II, Moctezuma I greatly contributed to the famed Aztec Empire that thrived until Spanish arrival, and he ruled over a period of peace from 1440 to 1453. Moctezuma brought social, economical, and political reform to strengthen Aztec rule, and Tenochititlan benefited from relations with other cities.
Moctezuma Xocoyotzin, variant spellings include Motewksomah, Motecuhzomatzin, Montezuma, Moteuczoma, Motecuhzoma, Motēuczōmah, Muteczuma, and referred to retroactively in European sources as Moctezuma II, was the ninth Emperor of the Aztec Empire, reigning from 1502 or 1503 to 1520. Through his marriage with queen Tlapalizquixochtzin of Ecatepec, one of his two wives, he was also king consort of that altepetl.
Tizocic[tiˈsosik] or TizocicatzinNahuatl pronunciation: [tisosiˈkat͡sin̥](listen) usually known in English as Tizoc, was the seventh tlatoani of Tenochtitlan. His name means, "He who makes sacrifices" or "He who does penance." Either Tizoc or his successor Ahuitzotl was the first tlatoani of Tenochtitlan to assume the title Huey Tlatoani to make their superiority over the other cities in the Triple Alliance clear.
The Aztecs were a Mesoamerican culture that flourished in central Mexico in the post-classic period from 1300 to 1521. The Aztec people included different ethnic groups of central Mexico, particularly those groups who spoke the Nahuatl language and who dominated large parts of Mesoamerica from the 14th to the 16th centuries. Aztec culture was organized into city-states (altepetl), some of which joined to form alliances, political confederations, or empires. The Aztec Empire was a confederation of three city-states established in 1427: Tenochtitlan, city-state of the Mexica or Tenochca; Texcoco; and Tlacopan, previously part of the Tepanec empire, whose dominant power was Azcapotzalco. Although the term Aztecs is often narrowly restricted to the Mexica of Tenochtitlan, it is also broadly used to refer to Nahua polities or peoples of central Mexico in the prehispanic era, as well as the Spanish colonial era (1521–1821). The definitions of Aztec and Aztecs have long been the topic of scholarly discussion ever since German scientist Alexander von Humboldt established its common usage in the early 19th century.
Itzcoatl (1380–1440) was the fourth king of Tenochtitlan, and the founder of the Aztec Empire, ruling from 1427 to 1440. Under Itzcoatl the Mexica of Tenochtitlan threw off the domination of the Tepanecs and established the Triple Alliance together with the other city-states Tetzcoco and Tlacopan.
Aztec warfare concerns the aspects associated with the militaristic conventions, forces, weaponry and strategic expansions conducted by the Late Postclassic Aztec civilizations of Mesoamerica, including particularly the military history of the Aztec Triple Alliance involving the city-states of Tenochtitlan, Texcoco, Tlacopan and other allied polities of the central Mexican region.
Tlatoani is the Classical Nahuatl term for the ruler of an āltepētl, a pre-Hispanic state. It is the noun form of the verb "tlahtoa" meaning "speak, command, rule". As a result, it has been variously translated in English as "king", "ruler", or "speaker" in the political sense. Above a tlahtoani is the Weyi Tlahtoani, sometimes translated as "Great Speaker", though more usually as "Emperor". A siwātlahtoāni is a female ruler, or queen regnant.
The Aztec Empire or the Triple Alliance was an alliance of three Nahua city-states: Mexico-Tenochtitlan, Tetzcoco, and Tlacopan. These three city-states ruled that area in and around the Valley of Mexico from 1428 until the combined forces of the Spanish conquistadores and their native allies who ruled under Hernán Cortés defeated them in 1521.
The Aztecs were a Pre-Columbian Mesoamerican people of central Mexico in the 14th, 15th, and 16th centuries. They called themselves Mēxihcah.
The Stone of Motecuhzoma I is a pre-Columbian stone monolith dating back to the rule of Motecuhzoma I (1440-1469), the fifth Tlatoani (ruler) of Tenochtitlan. The monolith measures approximately 12 feet in diameter and 39 inches tall, and is also known as the Stone of Motecuhzoma Ilhuicamina, the Cuauhxicalli of Motecuhzoma Ilhuicamina, the Archbishop's Stone, the Ex-Arzobispado Stone, and the Sánchez-Nava Monolith. Historical sources refer to it simply as "temalacatl," literally meaning "round stone."
In the Aztec military, tlacateccatl was a title roughly equivalent to general. The tlacateccatl was in charge of the tlacatecco, a military quarter in the center of the Aztec capital, Tenochtitlan. In wartime he was second-in-command to the tlatoani and the tlacochcalcatl. The tlacateccatl was always a member of the military order of the Cuachicqueh, "the shorn ones".
Tezozomoctzin was a son of Itzcoatl, the fourth Aztec ruler (tlatoani) of Tenochtitlan.
Atotoztli or Huitzilxochtzin was a daughter of the Aztec emperor Moctezuma I and Chichimecacihuatzin I, the daughter of Cuauhtototzin, the ruler of Cuauhnahuac.
Huehue Zaca or Çaca, also Zacatzin, was a 15th-century Aztec noble, prince and a warrior who served as tlacateccatl under the ruler Moctezuma I, his brother. The name of Zaca is probably derived from Nahuatl zacatl, meaning "grass"; -tzin is an honorific or reverential suffix. Huehue is Nahuatl for "the elder", literally "old man".
Chimalpilli II was a Tlatoani (ruler) of the Nahua altepetl (city-state) Ecatepec, in 16th-century Mesoamerica.
Quecholcohuatl was a Chalcan musician. He was known for making peace between his native altepetl of Chalco and Tenochtitlan by serenading its Tlatoani, Axayacatl, in 1479. His Nahuatl name roughly translated to "Flamingo Snake" in English, although he later adopted the Christian name, Don Jerónimo, after the Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire of 1519–21.
Statues of Tlatoque Ahuitzotl and Itzcoatl are installed in Mexico City. They are collectively known as the Monumento a los Indios Verdes. The statues are verdigris due to the effects of weather. They are around 3 meters (9.8 ft) to 4 meters (13 ft) tall and their plinths have inscriptions in Nahuatl. The statues were created by Alejandro Casarín to represent Mexico at the 1889 Paris Exposition.