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|San Pedro Tlaquepaque|
Spanish: La villa alfarera
(English: Potter's village)
|Foundation||25 March 1530|
|• Municipal president||Mirna Citlalli Amaya de Luna (Citizens' Movement )|
|• City||82.04 km2 (31.68 sq mi)|
|• Metro||3,571 km2 (1,379 sq mi)|
|• Municipality||116.8 km2 (45.1 sq mi)|
|Elevation||1,870 m (6,140 ft)|
|• Density||7,900/km2 (21,000/sq mi)|
|• Metro density||1,500/km2 (3,800/sq mi)|
|• Municipality density||5,900/km2 (15,000/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC−6 (CST)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC−5 (CDT)|
Tlaquepaque (Spanish pronunciation: [tlakeˈpake] ), officially San Pedro Tlaquepaque, is a city and the surrounding municipality in the Mexican state of Jalisco.
During the 20th century, it was absorbed by the outward spread of the state capital, and is now a fully integrated part of the Guadalajara conurbation, lying only a few kilometers from the city center. The city had a 2010 census population of 575,942, making it the third largest city in the state, behind only Guadalajara proper, and Zapopan, another city in the metro area. The municipality's area is 270.88 km2 (104.59 sq mi) and lies adjacent to the south side of Guadalajara. Its largest community besides Tlaquepaque is the town of Santa Anita, at the municipality's southwestern corner.
The climate of the municipality is semi-dry with dry winter and spring, semi-warm without defined winter season. The average annual temperature is 20.7 °C (69.3 °F), and has an average annual rainfall of 919 millimetres (36.2 in) with a rain regime in the months of June to August. The prevailing winds are in a southeasterly direction. The average number of frost days per year is 5.2.
It currently has a few forest areas where species of acacia, palo dulce and granjeno predominate. The native fauna is composed of rabbits, hares, squirrels, reptiles, and various bird species in the region.
The municipality has no river, has streams with the most outstanding being La Pila Seca, Sebastianito and New Spain. Previously there were the dams Las Lomas, La Ladrillera, Las Pintas and Las Rusias. Most of the land has an urban use and is held as private property.
Lithologically, the municipality was formed in the Quaternary period and is composed of pumitic tobas (commonly known as pumice stone that are made up of explosion products such as lapillis, puzzolanas and ash. The predominant soils belong to the type haplic feozem and planosol eútric. An associated soil is the planepeloic sun.
In the agricultural field the crops of maize, sorghum, sweet potato, onion, kale, lettuce and betabel stand out. In livestock, there are farms where meat and milk are reared, porcino-porcino cattle, sheep-sheep, goat-goat, poultry and posture, and beekeeping-beehives.
The main industrial branch is manufacturing, handicrafts, papier-mache, glass, brass, pottery, yarn, mud, leather and wood. Within the municipality are located several industrial parks, in which they house different national and transnational plants, such as:
The name Tlaquepaque derives from Nahuatl and means "place above clay land". The area is famous for its pottery and blown glass. Before the Spaniards arrived on these lands, the Toluquilla, Zalatitán, Coyula, Tateposco, Tlaquepaque, Tapechi (Tepetitlán), and Tequepexpan, formed with Tonalá a kingdom, ruled by a woman named Cihualpilli Tzapotzinco. It was inhabited by Tonalteca Indians and later by the tecos that were in place at the arrival of the Spaniards. It was a pre-Hispanic town settled on a hill where they built houses of grass, reaching 500 inhabitants. In March 1530 he arrived in these lands Nuño de Guzmán and his people, entering San Martín de las Flores, formerly called Tlaxicoltzingo. Knowing the natives of the approach of the Spaniards, they were divided into two sides, because while Queen Cihualpilli and some gentlemen opted to give them a peaceful reception given their invincible power, others pretended to be resisted. The supporters of peace sent to the meeting of the Spaniards a delegation composed of nobles and rulers of the various peoples of the kingdom. From the town of Tlaquepaque were Coyotl, Chitacotl and Tonatl, Xonatic, Cuauhuntin and Oceotl, from the town of Tetlán, Coyopitzantli from Tzalatitán, Timoac and Oxatl, from Atemaxac, Ipac, from Ichcatlán, and Tzacamitl from Xocatic gift of chickens, eggs, honey, ahuacates, onions and some fruits to tell them that they already had news of their coming and that they were waiting for them amicably Guzmán well received by the Queen of Tonalá, being baptized with the name of Juana Bautista Danza. This name was the winner of a raffle that made names such as Petra, Micaela and Juana. Dance was chosen because it arranged a dance in honor of the Spaniards. Before entering the city, it sent several of its men to require the rebels who obtained in response a great shouting and a rain of arrows. Those who opposed confronted Guzman's army; The result of the meeting was unfavorable for the natives of the earth. All the rebels were captained by the lord of Tetlan, Tlaquitehuitli, and also by the Indian nobles Cuautipizahuac, and Catipamatac. On 25 March 1530, Nuño de Guzmán took possession of the kingdom of Tonalá and the subject peoples, including Tlaquepaque. In 1548, the town received the name of San Pedro, at the suggestion of Fray Antonio de Segovia, and during the colonial era and throughout the nineteenth century, he was only known by that name. From the second half of the sixteenth century it acquired the character of corregimiento subject to the jurisdiction of the city of Guadalajara. Once the Spaniards settled in Guadalajara, they began to exercise political and religious control in the surrounding towns, and the authorities of the incipient Pearl Tapatia ordered that San Pedro deliver a tribute according to the number of inhabitants and in accordance with their occupations. In that way, in 1551 they came and made the order clear to the encomendero that this tribute be fulfilled. San Pedro, according to the same census that was taken for the tax transaction, had 1416 inhabitants living in 177 jacales. The tribute they imposed was four loads of grass a day, ten chickens from Castile, ten loads of firewood and five service Indians a week, thirty blankets, forty tapatios, twenty pairs of quills, six loaves of salt and two jugs of honey, every two months, and four hundred hanegas of corn and twenty hanegas of chili every year. In the year 1600, San Pedro had fewer inhabitants than Toluquilla, which today belongs to Tlaquepaque. Alonso de la Mota and Escobar said:
Leaving, then, from Guadalajara on the road that falls further to the east, one goes to the town of San Pedro of one hundred Indian neighbors
By 1621, San Pedro was a doctrine of Franciscan religious from the convent of Guadalajara. On the morning of 26 November 1810, Hidalgo made his entrance to San Pedro where he was presented with a feast, and in the afternoon he entered the capital triumphantly.
The priest Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla arrives in San Pedro Tlaquepaque, on Sunday, 25 November, from Atequiza Jalisco. It was arranged to take for your best comfort, the most comfortable house, you will be served a great banquet at noon, and at night a refreshment with all visitors, from the church and the government. Making preparations to leave San Pedro Tlaquepaque towards the capital today Guadalajara with around 7,000 men. Arriving around noon at the gates of the cathedral. In 1821, San Pedro Tlaquepaque was the cradle of the proclamation of the 'Independence of Jalisco' by the brigadier Pedro Celestino Negrete, since the document is signed in the town on 13 June of the same year . According to the decree of 27 March 1824, San Pedro became a member of the Guadalajara Department. In 1825, San Pedro is registered as a town.
In 1859, Fray Luis Argüello Bernal was given the task of designing, sponsoring and building a hospital and house of spiritual exercises that was named "El Refugio" and "Casa de la Salud Josefina", (since it was administered by the Religious Josefinas until 1935), this with the financing of the Brotherhood of San Vicente de Paul, in addition to the contributions of the neighborhood of San Pedro, as well as the wealthy families of Guadalajara who had their summer homes in San Pedro Tlaquepaque. Its construction is colonial style of approximately 10,000 m2.
In the year of 1979 it was closed, and after being abandoned for a long time, the construction was acquired by the Municipal Administration of Tlaquepaque of Mr. Porfirio Cortés Silva in 1983; and rescued, renovated and modified in 1984 by the Architect Alejandro Zhon, in order to carry out the Cultural Center "The Refuge" who was responsible for carrying out the rehabilitation work, which retained the original architecture of the building, highlighting its lengths corridors and large patios, making it a Cultural, Commercial, Craft and Tourist Center.
This section is written like a manual or guidebook.(October 2019)
The city was designated "Pueblo Mágico" in 2018.It is a resort focused on the crafts of pottery, textiles and [blowing glass]. Its streets and walkers are adorned with various Casonas of the last century, in addition to colonial constructions, the Tapatío Tour arrives at the municipality on one of its routes. Main attractions include:
Tlaquepaque features El Parián, a large plaza flanked by columned arcades and surrounded by restaurants and bars.
The main plaza in the city centre, named after one of its dominating features, the larger-than-life statue of the "Father of Mexican Independence," Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla.
Other main features include the two important churches, Santuario de Nuestra Señora de la Soledad (The Sanctuary of Our Lady of Solitude) and Parroquia de San Pedro Apóstol (Saint Peter), and the Benito Juárez market.
Tlaquepaque is known for its mariachi bands. During the annual San Pedro festivities, El Jardín is filled with stalls and street sellers. On the day of San Pedro itself, towering firework-festooned structures known as the Castillo ("castle") and Toro ("bull") are set alight.[ citation needed ]
The native name has its etymology in the same land. The word "Tlaquepaque" means "Place on knolls of clay land," although there are other versions that are inclined to "men who craft clay pieces ("Tlacapan")". For others, the word "Tlaquepaque" comes from the word "Tlalipac", "on mud knolls". Yet another etymology says that it means "place of mud."
As established in the initiative that the municipal president sent to the State Congress, in 1843 San Pedro Tlaquepaque was granted the category of Villa, a name he kept until 1917, when by decree of the then governor Manuel Aguirre Berlanga, prohibited in Jalisco using the name of saints in streets, squares, parks, as well as "living people, animals or other frivolous designations". The ban did not include municipalities, but San Pedro Tlaquepaque lost the first part of its original name.[ citation needed ]
Currently, the municipality of Tlaquepaque recovered its full name San Pedro Tlaquepaque, an initiative carried out by the municipal president, Miguel Castro Reynoso. Before seeking recovery, the City Council of Tlaquepaque carried out a consultation between residents of the municipality, both the head and other delegations. The polls were available to citizens from 20 September to 8 October 2010 and 13,043 people participated. The result was that 62.4 percent of the people consulted are in favor of the municipality being renamed San Pedro Tlaquepaque; 37.2 percent to stay as is and 0.4 percent did not answer. The results of the consultation were the basis for the agreement that the plenary session of the City of Tlaquepaque took on 11 November 2010, through which the municipal president was authorized to present to the State Congress an initiative to request the name change, as well as the modification of article 4 of the Law of Government and Municipal Public Administration, which establishes the list of municipalities that make up Jalisco.[ citation needed ]
On 21 June 2011, the Constitutional Points Commission of the State Congress approved the opinion through which the name change is authorized, so on 27 September 2011 the State Congress approved that the municipality of Tlaquepaque return to its original name, that is, San Pedro.[ citation needed ]
Tlaquepaque is also known for its famous tepache, a partially fermented drink made with pineapple, brown sugar and water.[ citation needed ]
Guadalajara is a metropolis in western Mexico and the capital of the state of Jalisco. According to the 2020 census, the city has a population of 1,385,629 people, making it the 7th most populous city in Mexico, while the Guadalajara metropolitan area has a population of 5,268,642 people, making it the third-largest metropolitan area in the country and the twentieth largest metropolitan area in the Americas Guadalajara has the second-highest population density in Mexico, with over 10,361 people per square kilometer. Within Mexico, Guadalajara is a center of business, arts and culture, technology and tourism; as well as the economic center of the Bajío region. It usually ranks among the 100 most productive and globally competitive cities in the world. It is home to numerous landmarks, including Guadalajara Cathedral, the Teatro Degollado, the Templo Expiatorio, the UNESCO World Heritage site Hospicio Cabañas, and the San Juan de Dios Market—the largest indoor market in Latin America.
Jalisco is a state in Western Mexico that is divided into 125 municipalities. According to the 2020 Mexican Census, it is the third most populated state with 8,348,151 inhabitants and the seventh largest by land area spanning 78,595.9 square kilometres (30,346.0 sq mi). The largest municipality by population is Zapopan, with 1,476,491 residents, while the smallest is Santa María del Oro with 1,815 residents. The largest municipality by land area is Mezquitic which spans 3,363.60 km2 (1,298.69 sq mi), and the smallest is Techaluta with 79.20 km2 (30.58 sq mi). The newest is San Ignacio Cerro Gordo, established in 2007 out of Arandas.
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Jalisco, officially the Free and Sovereign State of Jalisco, is one of the 31 states which, along with Mexico City, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico. It is located in western Mexico and is bordered by six states, which are Nayarit, Zacatecas, Aguascalientes, Guanajuato, Michoacán, and Colima. Jalisco is divided into 125 municipalities, and its capital and largest city is Guadalajara.
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Tecolotlán is a town and municipality, in Jalisco in central-western Mexico. The municipality covers an area of 795.55 km².
Tlajomulco de Zúñiga is a city and municipality in the state of Jalisco in central-western Mexico. It forms part of the Guadalajara metropolitan area, lying to the southeast of it. It covers an area of 636.93 km2. As of 2010 it had a population of 416,626.
Ceramics in Mexico date back thousands of years before the Pre-Columbian period, when ceramic arts and pottery crafts developed with the first advanced civilizations and cultures of Mesoamerica. With one exception, pre-Hispanic wares were not glazed, but rather burnished and painted with colored fine clay slips. The potter's wheel was unknown as well; pieces were shaped by molding, coiling and other methods,
Jorge Wilmot was one of the most distinguished artisans of Mexico, and has been credited with the introduction of stoneware and other high fire techniques to the country. His work is also known for its more austere, Oriental-inspired designs blended with Mexican motifs. His work has been widely sold and exhibited both in Mexico and abroad and he has trained and influenced generations of ceramicists at the school he established in Tonalá, Jalisco.
The Museo Regional de la Cerámica in Tlaquepaque, Jalisco, Mexico is located on Independencia Street in the center of the city. The museum is one of two main ceramics museums in the city, with the other being the Pantaleon Panduro Museum. It was established in 1954 to preserve and promote indigenous handcrafts of Jalisco, especially the state’s ceramic tradition. The emphasis is still on ceramics but the museum also has a room dedicated to Huichol art and holds events related to various types of indigenous crafts and culture.
Ceramics of Jalisco, Mexico has a history that extends far back in the pre Hispanic period, but modern production is the result of techniques introduced by the Spanish during the colonial period and the introduction of high-fire production in the 1950s and 1960s by Jorge Wilmot and Ken Edwards. Today various types of traditional ceramics such as bruñido, canelo and petatillo are still made, along with high fire types like stoneware, with traditional and nontraditional decorative motifs. The two main ceramics centers are Tlaquepaque and Tonalá, with a wide variety of products such as cookware, plates, bowls, piggy banks and many types of figures.
Nicasio Pajarito Gonzalez is a Mexican potter from Tonalá, Jalisco known for his canelo ware.
Jalisco handcrafts and folk art are noted among Mexican handcraft traditions. The state is one of the main producers of handcrafts, which are noted for quality. The main handcraft tradition is ceramics, which has produced a number of known ceramicists, including Jorge Wilmot, who introduced high fire work into the state. In addition to ceramics, the state also makes blown glass, textiles, wood furniture including the equipal chair, baskets, metal items, piteado and Huichol art.