Tlatelolco (Classical Nahuatl : Tlatelōlco [tɬateˈloːɬko] , or Tlatilōlco, modern Nahuatl pronunciation (help·info) from tlalli - land; telolli - hill; co - place; lit. 'In the little hill of land') is an area now within the Cuauhtémoc borough of Mexico City, centered on the Plaza de las Tres Culturas (Square of Three Cultures). Its archeological history extends to remains from the 15th and 16th centuries, as well as more recent colonial structures.
The square is bounded by an excavated Aztec archaeological site, the 16th century college church designed by Fray Juan de Torquemada and dedicated to St James the Great (known as Colegio de Santa Cruz de Tlatelolco), the remains of a former Franciscan convent to which was formerly attached the Colegio de Santa Cruz de Tlatelolco, and an office complex that was used by the Ministry of Foreign Relations and is now the property of the National Autonomous University of Mexico.
The Nonoalco-Tlatelolco housing project, built in the 1960s, is served by Metro Tlatelolco. The complex includes the pyramid-shaped Banobras building, which houses a 47-bell carillon. At 125 meters, this is the world's tallest carillon tower. A building with a facade of white marble was constructed by the government for and used by the Secretariat of Foreign Affairs (SRE). It is now used by the National Autonomous University of Mexico.
In 1967, the Treaty of Tlatelolco signed here, with the aim of establishing a nuclear-weapon-free zone throughout Latin America and the Caribbean. Since then, all the region's countries have signed and ratified the treaty.
The late 1960s were a time of political unrest in Mexico and many western nations. On October 2, 1968, ten days before the start of the 1968 Summer Olympics, the plaza was the scene of the Tlatelolco massacre. The exact number of dead and injured in that tragic afternoon is still unknown, but it is estimated that 15 thousand shells were fired and there were more than 300 dead and 700 injured by the Mexican army and police who were trying to suppress the protests, in addition, 5 thousand students were arrested.
On September 19, 1985, many homes and business structures were destroyed or suffered damage due to the 1985 Mexico City earthquake. The "Nuevo León" building collapsed. Because of Mexicans working together to rescue people from the ruins, it became a symbol of their solidarity during the disaster . A small square marks this spot. Among the many who had family there, the opera singer Plácido Domingo worked to help to rescue survivors.
Tenochtitlan, also known as Mexico-Tenochtitlan, was a large Mexica altepetl in what is now the historic center of Mexico City. The exact date of the founding of the city is unclear. The date 13 March 1325 was chosen in 1925 to celebrate the 600th anniversary of the city. The city was built on an island in what was then Lake Texcoco in the Valley of Mexico. The city was the capital of the expanding Aztec Empire in the 15th century until it was captured by the Spanish in 1521.
Following a summer of increasingly large demonstrations protesting against the 1968 Olympics held in Mexico City, the Mexican Armed Forces opened fire on 2 October 1968 on unarmed civilians, killing an undetermined number, in the hundreds. It occurred in the Plaza de las Tres Culturas in the Tlatelolco section of Mexico City. The events are considered part of the Mexican Dirty War, when the US-backed PRI regime violently repressed political and social opposition. The massacre occurred 10 days before the opening ceremony of the Olympics, which were carried out normally.
Coyoacán is a municipality (alcaldía) of Mexico City and the former village that is now the borough's "historic center". The name comes from Nahuatl and most likely means "place of coyotes", when the Aztecs named a pre-Hispanic village on the southern shore of Lake Texcoco that was dominated by the Tepanec people. Against Aztec domination, these people welcomed Hernán Cortés and the Spanish, who used the area as a headquarters during the Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire and made it the first capital of New Spain between 1521 and 1523.
Benito Juárez, is one of the 16 boroughs into which Mexico City is divided. It is a largely residential area, located to the south of historic center of Mexico City, although there are pressures for areas to convert to commercial use. It was named after Benito Juárez, president in the 19th century.
Tlatelolco is a metro station along Line 3 of the Mexico City Metro. It is located in the Tlatelolco neighbourhood of the Cuauhtémoc borough of Mexico City, to the north of the downtown area. It serves the Unidad Habitacional Nonoalco-Tlatelolco mega apartment complex, famous for its Plaza de las Tres Culturas square and infamous for the 1968 Tlatelolco massacre of demonstrating students.
San Ángel is a colonia or neighborhood of Mexico City, located in the southwest in Álvaro Obregón borough. Historically, it was a rural community, called Tenanitla in the pre-Hispanic period. Its current name is derived from the El Carmen monastery school called San Ángel Mártir. San Ángel remained a rural community, centered on the monastery until the 19th and 20th centuries, when the monastery was closed and when the area joined urban sprawl of Mexico City. However, the area still contains many of its former historic buildings and El Carmen is one of the most visited museums in the city. It is also home to an annual flower fair called the Feria de las Flores, held since 1856.
The Plaza de las Tres Culturas is the main square within the Tlatelolco neighborhood of Mexico City. The name "Three Cultures" is in recognition of the three periods of Mexican history reflected by buildings in the plaza: pre-Columbian, Spanish colonial, and the independent nation. The plaza, designed by Mexican architect and urbanist Mario Pani, was completed in 1966.
The Florentine Codex is a 16th-century ethnographic research study in Mesoamerica by the Spanish Franciscan friar Bernardino de Sahagún. Sahagún originally titled it: La Historia General de las Cosas de Nueva España. After a translation mistake, it was given the name Historia general de las Cosas de Nueva España. The best-preserved manuscript is commonly referred to as the Florentine Codex, as the codex is held in the Laurentian Library of Florence, Italy.
The Libellus de Medicinalibus Indorum Herbis is an Aztec herbal manuscript, describing the medicinal properties of various plants used by the Aztecs. It was translated into Latin by Juan Badiano, from a Nahuatl original composed in the Colegio de Santa Cruz de Tlatelolco in 1552 by Martín de la Cruz that is no longer extant. The Libellus is also known as the Badianus Manuscript, after the translator; the Codex de la Cruz-Badiano, after both the original author and translator; and the Codex Barberini, after Cardinal Francesco Barberini, who had possession of the manuscript in the early 17th century.
Andrés de Olmos was a Spanish Franciscan priest and grammarian and ethno-historian of Mexico's indigenous languages and peoples. He was born in Oña, Burgos, Spain and died in Tampico in New Spain. He is best known for his grammar, the first in the New World, of the Classical Nahuatl language.
The Colegio de Santa Cruz in Tlatelolco, Mexico City, is the first and oldest European school of higher learning in the Americas and the first major school of interpreters and translators in the New World. It was established by the Franciscans on January 6, 1536 with the intention, as is generally accepted, of preparing Native American boys for eventual ordination to the Catholic priesthood. Students trained in the Colegio were important contributors to the work of Franciscan Bernardino de Sahagún in the creation of his monumental twelve-volume General History of the Things of New Spain, often referred to as the Florentine Codex. The failure of the Colegio had long-lasting consequences, with scholar Robert Ricard saying that "[h]ad the College of Tlatelolco given the country even one [native] bishop, the history of the Mexican Church might have been profoundly changed."
The Mexican Movement of 1968, known as the Movimiento Estudiantil was a social movement that happened in Mexico in 1968. A broad coalition of students from Mexico's leading universities garnered widespread public support for political change in Mexico, particularly since the government had spent large amounts of public funding to build Olympic facilities for the 1968 Olympics in Mexico City. The movement demanded greater political freedoms and an end to the authoritarianism of the PRI regime, which had been in power since 1929.
Mexico City Metro Line 3 is one of the 12 metro lines built in Mexico City, Mexico.
Tlatelolco was a pre-Columbian altepetl, or city-state, in the Valley of Mexico. Its inhabitants, known as the Tlatelolca, were part of the Mexica, a Nahuatl-speaking people who arrived in what is now central Mexico in the 13th century. The Mexica settled on an island in Lake Texcoco and founded the altepetl of Mexico-Tenochtitlan on the southern portion of the island. In 1337, a group of dissident Mexica broke away from the Tenochca leadership in Tenochtitlan and founded Mexico-Tlatelolco on the northern portion of the island. Tenochtitlan was closely tied with its sister city, which was largely dependent on the market of Tlatelolco, the most important site of commerce in the area.
Tlatelolco is an archaeological excavation site in Mexico City, Mexico where remains of the pre-Columbian city-state of the same name have been found. It is centered on the Plaza de las Tres Culturas. On one side of the square is this excavated Tlatelolco site, on a second is the oldest European school of higher learning in the Americas called the Colegio de Santa Cruz de Tlatelolco, and on the third stands a mid-20th-century modern office complex, formerly housing the Mexican Foreign Ministry, and since 2005 used as the Centro Cultural Universitario of UNAM.
Fray Juan de Gaona (1507–1560) was a Franciscan friar. Born in 1507 in Burgos Spain, he studied at the University of Paris before journeying to New Spain in 1538.
Torre Insignia is a building designed by Mario Pani Darqui which is located on the corner of Avenida Ricardo Flores Magón and Avenida de los Insurgentes Norte, in the Tlateloco housing complex in Cuauhtémoc in Mexico City. At its completion in 1962, the tower became the second tallest building in Mexico after the Torre Latinoamericana. The tower is not currently in use and is being renovated. It is the tallest building in the Tlatelolco area and the third highest in the Avenida Insurgentes. The building housed the headquarters of Banobras. The building has a triangular prism shape and was built with a reinforced concrete frame. It has been remodeled at least twice and is one of the most important buildings in the city, besides having the tallest carillon in the world; there are 47 bells made by Petit & Fritsen.
The Conjunto Urbano Nonoalco Tlatelolco is the largest apartment complex in Mexico, and second largest in North America, after New York's Co-op City. The complex is located in the Cuauhtémoc borough of Mexico City. It was built in the 1960s by architect Mario Pani. Originally, the complex had 102 apartment buildings, with its own schools, hospitals, stores and more, to make it a city within a city. It was also created to be a kind of human habitat and includes artwork such as murals and green spaces such as the Santiago Tlatelolco Garden. Today, the complex is smaller than it was and in a state of deterioration, mostly due to the effects and after effects of the 1985 Mexico City earthquake. This quake caused the immediate collapse of the Nuevo León building with others being demolished in the months afterwards. Further earthquakes in 1993 caused the condemnation of more buildings. In addition to the lost buildings, many residents eventually undersold or abandoned their apartments, as repairs were either never made or made poorly.
Colonia Buenavista is a colonia or neighbourhood in the Cuauhtémoc borough located northwest of the historic center of Mexico City. It has historically been a train terminal, and still is as the southern terminal of the Tren Suburbano commuter rail. The colonia is also home to the offices of the Cuauhtémoc borough and the mega José Vasconcelos Library.
Colonia San Simón Tolnáhuac is a colonia in the Cuauhtémoc borough of Mexico City, just north of the city's historic center. The colonia's borders are marked by the following streets: Eje 1 Poniente to the south, Avenida Rio Consulado to the north, Lerdo Street and Calzada Vallejo to the east and Avenida de los Insurgentes Norte to the west.