|Tlahtoāni of the Aztec Empire|
|Appointer||Council of Elders|
Tlatoani (Classical Nahuatl : tlahtoānipronounced [t͡ɬaʔtoˈaːniˀ] ( listen ), "one who speaks, ruler"; plural tlahtohque [t͡ɬaʔˈtoʔkee̥] or tlatoque) is the Classical Nahuatl term for the ruler of an āltepētl , a pre-Hispanic state. It is the noun form of the verb "tlahtoa" meaning "speak, command, rule". As a result, it has been variously translated in English as "king", "ruler", or "speaker" in the political sense. Above a tlahtoani is the Huey Tlahtoani, sometimes translated as "Great Speaker", though more usually as "Emperor" (the term is often seen as the equivalent to the European "great king"). A cihuatlatoani (Nahuatl pronunciation: [siwaːt͡ɬaʔtoˈaːniˀ] ( listen )) is a female ruler, or queen regnant.
The term cuauhtlatoani refers to "vice-leader". The leaders of the Mexica prior to their settlement are sometimes referred to as cuauhtlatoque, as well as colonial rulers who were not descended from the ruling dynasty.
The ruler's lands were called tlatohcatlalli [t͡ɬaʔtoʔkaːˈt͡ɬaːlːiˀ] ( listen ), and the ruler's house was called tlatohcacalli [t͡ɬaʔtoʔkaːˈkalːiˀ] ( listen )
The city-states of the Aztec Empire each had their own tlatoani, or leader. He would be the high priest and military leader for his city-state and would be considered its commander-in-chief. The tlatoani was the ultimate owner of all land in his city-state and received tribute, oversaw markets and temples, led the military, and resolved judicial disputes.He would often be a descendant of the royal family, but in some cases, he would be elected. Since the Tlatoani was allowed to have several wives, his legacy would be easily maintained. After being established as the tlatoani, he would be the tlatoani of his region for life. The tlatoani was chosen by a council of elders, nobles, and priests, which would select from a pool of four candidates.
The cihuacóatl was the second in command after the tlatoani, was a member of the nobility, served as the supreme judge for the court system, appointed all lower court judges, and handled the financial affairs of the altepetl.
During times of war, the tlatoani would be in charge of creating battle plans, and making strategies for his army. He would draft these plans after receiving information from various scouts, messengers, and spies who were sent out to an enemy āltepētl (city-state). Detailed information was presented to him from those reports to be able to construct a layout of the enemy. This was essential because this ensured the safety and success of each battle.
These layouts would be heavily detailed from city structures to surrounding area. The Tlatoani would be the most informed about any conflict and would be the primary decision maker during war. In modern terms, in the US, the Tlatoani would be the commander-in-chief, which is the president of the United States. The commander-in-chief is responsible for the armed forces or a military branch by exercising commands that must be followed.
He would also be in charge of gaining support from allied rulers by sending gifts and emissaries from his city-state. During warfare the tlatoani would be informed immediately of deaths and captures of his warriors. He would also be in charge of informing his citizens about fallen or captive warriors, and would present gifts to the successful ones.
There were eleven tlatoque of Tenochtitlan. Beginning with Itzcoatl, the tlahtoani of Tenochtitlan was also the hueyi tlahtoani of the Aztec Empire.
Axayacatl was the sixth tlatoani of the altepetl of Tenochtitlan and Emperor of the Aztec Triple Alliance.
Cuitláhuac or Cuitláhuac was the 10th Huey Tlatoani (emperor) of the Aztec city of Tenochtitlan for 80 days during the year Two Flint (1520). He is credited with leading the resistance to the Spanish and Tlaxcalteca conquest of the Mexica Empire, following the death of his kinsman Moctezuma II.
Tizocic[tiˈsosik] or TizocicatzinNahuatl pronunciation: [tisosiˈkat͡sin̥](listen) usually known in English as Tizoc, was the seventh tlatoani of Tenochtitlan. His name means, "He who makes sacrifices" or "He who does penance." Either Tizoc or his successor Ahuitzotl was the first tlatoani of Tenochtitlan to assume the title Huey Tlatoani to make their superiority over the other cities in the Triple Alliance clear.
The Aztecs were a Mesoamerican culture that flourished in central Mexico in the post-classic period from 1300 to 1521. The Aztec people included different ethnic groups of central Mexico - particularly those groups who spoke the Nahuatl language and who dominated large parts of Mesoamerica from the 14th to the 16th centuries. Aztec culture was organized into city-states (altepetl), some of which joined to form alliances, political confederations, or empires. The Aztec Empire was a confederation of three city-states established in 1427: Tenochtitlan, city-state of the Mexica or Tenochca, Texcoco, and Tlacopan, previously part of the Tepanec empire, whose dominant power was Azcapotzalco. Although, the term Aztecs is often narrowly restricted to the Mexica of Tenochtitlan, it is also broadly used to refer to Nahua polities or peoples of central Mexico in the prehispanic era, as well as the Spanish colonial era (1521–1821). The definitions of Aztec and Aztecs have long been the topic of scholarly discussion ever since German scientist Alexander von Humboldt established its common usage in the early 19th century.
Itzcoatl (1380–1440) was the fourth king of Tenochtitlan, and the founder of the Aztec Empire, ruling from 1427 to 1440. Under Itzcoatl the Mexica of Tenochtitlan threw off the domination of the Tepanecs and established the Triple Alliance together with the other city-states Tetzcoco and Tlacopan.
Huitzilihuitl or Huitzilihuitzin was the second Tlatoani or king of Tenochtitlan. According to the Codex Chimalpahin, he reigned from 1390 to 1415, according to the Codex Aubin, he reigned from 1396 to 1417 and according to the Codex Chimalpopoca, he reigned from 1403 to 1417.
Chimalpopoca or Chīmalpopōcatzin (1397–1427) was the third Emperor of Tenochtitlan (1417–1427).
The Aztec Empire or the Triple Alliance was an alliance of three Nahua city-states: Mexico-Tenochtitlan, Tetzcoco, and Tlacopan. These three city-states ruled that area in and around the Valley of Mexico from 1428 until the combined forces of the Spanish conquistadores and their native allies who ruled under Hernán Cortés defeated them in 1521.
Don Diego de Alvarado Huanitzin was a 16th-century Nahua noble. A grandson of Axayacatl, Nephew of tlatoani Moctezuma II. He was initially the tlatoani (ruler) of Ecatepec before becoming tlatoani of Tenochtitlan, as well as its first governor under the colonial Spanish system of government.
The altepetl was the local, ethnically-based political entity, usually translated into English as "city-state," of pre-Columbian Nahuatl-speaking societies in the Americas. The altepetl was constituted of smaller units known as calpolli and was typically led by a single dynastic ruler known as a tlatoani, although examples of shared rule between up to five rulers are known. Each altepetl had its own jurisdiction, origin story, and served as the center of Indigenous identity. Residents referred to themselves by the name of their altepetl rather than, for instance, as "Mexicas." "Altepetl" was a polyvalent term rooting the social and political order in the creative powers of a sacred mountain that contained the ancestors, seeds and life-giving forces of the community. The word is a combination of the Nahuatl words ātl and tepētl. A characteristic Nahua mode was to imagine the totality of the people of a region or of the world as a collection of altepetl units and to speak of them on those terms. The concept is comparable to Maya cah and Mixtec ñuu. Altepeme formed a vast complex network which predated and outlasted larger empires, such as the Aztec and Tarascan state.
Don Luis de Santa María Nanacacipactzin, also known as Cipac, was the last tlatoani ("king") of the Nahua altepetl of Tenochtitlan, as well as its governor (gobernador) under the colonial Spanish system of government. The previous ruler Cristóbal de Guzmán Cecetzin having died in 1562, Nanacacipactzin was installed on September 30, 1563, and ruled until his death on December 27, 1565.
Tlacateotl was the second Tlatoani of the Aztec city of Tlatelolco from 1417 until his death.
Chālco[ˈt͡ʃaːɬko] was a complex pre-Columbian Nahua altepetl or confederacy in central Mexico. It was divided into the four sub-altepetl of Tlalmanalco/Tlacochcalco, Amaquemecan, Tenanco Texopalco Tepopolla and Chimalhuacan-Chalco, which were themselves further subdivided into altepetl tlayacatl, each with its own tlatoani (king). Its inhabitants were known as the Chālcatl[ˈt͡ʃaːɬkat͡ɬ] (singular) or Chālcah[ˈt͡ʃaːɬkaʔ] (plural).
Tlilpotonqui or Tlilpotoncatzin was the second cihuacoatl ("president") of Mexico-Tenochtitlan.
Cuāuhtlahtoāni or Cuäuhtlahtoh is a titular office of governorship and political administration, used within certain city-states and provinces among the Aztecs of pre-Columbian central Mexico in the Late Postclassic period. The office of cuauhtlatoani carried the connotation of "military ruler" or "appointed administrator". During the rise of the Aztec Empire the title was given by the ruling Mexica-Tenochca to the governors they imposed on conquered city-states in central provinces.
Matlalxochtzin was a daughter of Tlacacuitlahuatzin, the first tlatoani (ruler) of Tiliuhcan, one of the polities (altepetl) of the Tepanec people in the Valley of Mexico during the Late Postclassic period of Mesoamerican chronology. She was born in Tiliuhcan after her father had been elevated as tlatoani—his father Huehuetzin had been leader in Tiliuhcan but was only of eagle warrior rank.
Maquiztzin was the daughter of the Aztec Tlatoque (ruler) Huehue Quetzalmacatzin and Tlacocihuatzin Ilama, in 15th-century Mesoamerica.
Chimalpilli II was a Tlatoani (ruler) of the Nahua altepetl (city-state) Ecatepec, in 16th-century Mesoamerica.
Quecholcohuatl was a Chalcan musician. He was known for making peace between his native altepetl of Chalco and Tenochtitlan by serenading its Tlatoani, Axayacatl, in 1479. His Nahuatl name roughly translated to "Flamingo Snake" in English, although he later adopted the Christian name, Don Jerónimo, after the Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire of 1519–21.