Tlumach

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Tlumach
Тлумач
Tlumach Vinnichenka 16.jpg
Tlumach flag.jpg
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Tlumach
Location of Tlumach within Ukraine
Ukraine under russian occupation grey.svg
Red pog.svg
Tlumach
Tlumach (Ukraine)
Coordinates: 48°52′0″N25°0′0″E / 48.86667°N 25.00000°E / 48.86667; 25.00000
Country Flag of Ukraine.svg  Ukraine
Oblast Flag of Ivano-Frankivsk Oblast.svg  Ivano-Frankivsk Oblast
Raion Ivano-Frankivsk Raion
Population
 (2022)
  Total8,689

Tlumach (Ukrainian : Тлумач; Polish : Tłumacz; Yiddish : טאַלמיטש, romanized: Talmitsh), also referred to as Tovmach (Ukrainian : Товмач), is a small city in Ivano-Frankivsk Raion, Ivano-Frankivsk Oblast, western Ukraine. It hosts the administration of Tlumach urban hromada, one of the hromadas of Ukraine. [1] Population: 8,689 (2022 estimate). [2] In 2001, its population was around 8,800.

Contents

Name

In Polish and Ukrainian the word means interpreter of the one who explains the meaning of words. Possibly it was named by the White Croats that once inhibited the area.[ citation needed ]

History

Tlumacz in 1903 03723-Tlumacz-1903-Kirche und Mickiewicz-Platz-Bruck & Sohn Kunstverlag.jpg
Tłumacz in 1903

From the First Partition of Poland in 1772 until 1918, the town (named Tłumacz) was part of the Austrian monarchy (Austria side after the compromise of 1867), head of the district with the same name, one of the 78 Bezirkshauptmannschaften in Austrian Galicia province (Crown land) in 1900. [3] A post-office was opened in 1858. [4]

Historical population
YearPop.±%
19215,788    
19316,836+18.1%
20228,689+27.1%
Source: [5]

After the collapse of Austria-Hungary the town briefly became part of the Western Ukrainian Republic before returning to Poland when Poland repulsed the invading Red Army. The Peace of Riga in 1921, confirmed the Polish possession of Galicia. Tłumacz was the seat of a Powiat (district) in the Second Polish Republic. In 1921, its population was around 5,000, consisting 3,319 Poles, 1,395 Jews, 999 Ukrainians. [6] The Ukrainians dominated in the villages around the town.

Following the joint German-Soviet invasion of Poland, which started World War II in September 1939, the village was occupied by the Soviet Union until 1941, then by Germany until 1944, and re-occupied by the Soviet Union, which annexed it from Poland in 1945. The Germans, with the assistance of local Ukrainians, murdered the Jews. [6] [7] Only about 30 Jews survived. [8] Poles who survived the war were forced by the Soviets to leave Tlumacz after 1945. Most of them settled in Lower Silesia; they organized themselves into the Association of Inhabitants of Tlumacz, which is located in Wrocław.

Until 18 July 2020, Tlumach was the administrative center of Tlumach Raion. The raion was abolished in July 2020 as part of the administrative reform of Ukraine, which reduced the number of raions of Ivano-Frankivsk Oblast to six. The area of Tlumach Raion was merged into Ivano-Frankivsk Raion. [9] [10]

Local orientation
Regional orientation

Notable people

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References

  1. "Тлумацкая громада" (in Russian). Портал об'єднаних громад України.
  2. Чисельність наявного населення України на 1 січня 2022 [Number of Present Population of Ukraine, as of January 1, 2022](PDF) (in Ukrainian and English). Kyiv: State Statistics Service of Ukraine. Archived (PDF) from the original on 4 July 2022.
  3. Die postalischen Abstempelungen auf den österreichischen Postwertzeichen-Ausgaben 1867, 1883 und 1890, Wilhelm KLEIN, 1967
  4. Handbook of Austria and Lombardy-Venetia Cancellations on the Postage Stamp Issues 1850–1864, by Edwin MUELLER, 1961.
  5. Wiadomości Statystyczne Głównego Urzędu Statystycznego (in Polish). Vol. X. Warszawa: Główny Urząd Statystyczny. 1932. p. 195.
  6. 1 2 "ShtetLinks Page – Tlumach". shtetlinks.jewishgen.org. Retrieved 2017-07-15.
  7. "Ukraine trip 34: October 25 to November 10, 2012". yahadmap.org. Retrieved 2017-07-15.[ permanent dead link ]
  8. Megargee, Geoffrey (2012). Encyclopedia of Camps and Ghettos. Bloomington, Indiana: University of Indiana Press. pp. 839–841. ISBN   978-0-253-35599-7.
  9. "Про утворення та ліквідацію районів. Постанова Верховної Ради України № 807-ІХ". Голос України (in Ukrainian). 2020-07-18. Retrieved 2020-10-03.
  10. "Нові райони: карти + склад" (in Ukrainian). Міністерство розвитку громад та територій України.