To Kau Wan

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To Kau Wan (Chinese :倒扣灣) is a bay on the north shore of northeast Lantau Island, Hong Kong. Contaminated soil from Penny's Bay was transferred here for thermal desorption to separate the Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) and Semi-Volatile Organic Compounds (SVOC) along with cement immobilization of metal contamination from Penny's Bay. The oily residue was transferred to the Chemical Waste Treatment Center (CWTC) in Tsing Yi for incineration (particularly for dioxins and dioxin-like compounds).[ citation needed ]

Traditional Chinese characters

Traditional Chinese characters are Chinese characters in any character set that does not contain newly created characters or character substitutions performed after 1946. They are most commonly the characters in the standardized character sets of Taiwan, of Hong Kong and Macau, and in the Kangxi Dictionary. The modern shapes of traditional Chinese characters first appeared with the emergence of the clerical script during the Han Dynasty, and have been more or less stable since the 5th century.

Lantau Island island in Hong Kong

Lantau Island is the largest island in Hong Kong, located at the mouth of the Pearl River. Administratively, most of Lantau Island is part of the Islands District of Hong Kong. A small northeastern portion of the island is located in the Tsuen Wan District.

Hong Kong East Asian city

Hong Kong, officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China and commonly abbreviated as HK, is a special administrative region on the eastern side of the Pearl River estuary in southern China. With over 7.4 million people of various nationalities in a 1,104-square-kilometre (426 sq mi) territory, Hong Kong is the world's fourth most densely populated region.

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Coordinates: 22°29′39″N114°07′52″E / 22.4942°N 114.1311°E / 22.4942; 114.1311

Geographic coordinate system Coordinate system

A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols. The coordinates are often chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position; alternatively, a geographic position may be expressed in a combined three-dimensional Cartesian vector. A common choice of coordinates is latitude, longitude and elevation. To specify a location on a plane requires a map projection.

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Kwai Chung geographical object

Kwai Chung is an urban area within Tsuen Wan New Town in the New Territories of Hong Kong. Together with Tsing Yi Island, it is part of the Kwai Tsing District District of Hong Kong. Kwai Chung is the site of the container port. It is also part of Tsuen Wan New Town. In 2000, it had a population of 287,000. Its area is 9.93 km². Areas within Kwai Chung include: Kwai Fong, Kwai Hing, Lai King, Tai Wo Hau.

Yam O human settlement in China

Yam O is a bay located on the northeast shore of Lantau Island, in the New Territories of Hong Kong. It is part of the Tsuen Wan Rural West constituency of the Tsuen Wan District Council.

Pennys Bay reclaimed bay in Hong Kong; today the site of the Hong Kong Disneyland Resort

Penny's Bay or Chuk Ko Wan is a bay in north-eastern Lantau Island, and is the site of the Hong Kong Disneyland Resort, which consists of the Hong Kong Disneyland theme park, Disneyland Hotel, and Disney's Hollywood Hotel, and the Inspiration Lake. It had been a trading port since the Ming dynasty. It is connected by a highway and a rail connection on the MTR Disneyland Resort Line to Sunny Bay Station. Most of its area is part of Tsuen Wan District, but a small southern portion falls in Islands District.

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are organic chemicals that have a high vapor pressure at ordinary room temperature. Their high vapor pressure results from a low boiling point, which causes large numbers of molecules to evaporate or sublimate from the liquid or solid form of the compound and enter the surrounding air, a trait known as volatility. For example, formaldehyde, which evaporates from paint and releases from materials like resin, has a boiling point of only –19 °C (–2 °F).

Rambler Channel

Rambler Channel is a body of water in Hong Kong that separates Tsing Yi Island from Tsuen Wan and Kwai Chung in the New Territories. The channel separates the two landmasses by 900 metres at its widest point.

Tsing Chau or Pillar Island was an island in the Kwai Chung area of Hong Kong, sitting at the mouth of Gin Drinker's Bay, by the side of the Rambler Channel, opposite Tsing Yi Island.

Tsing Yi Lagoon, or Tsing Yi Tong, was a lagoon on the east shore of Tsing Yi Island in Hong Kong. Its water came from a stream in the nearby valley of Liu To and its outlet was at Tsing Yi Bay. It acted as the shelter for nearby boat people, especially after large-scale land reclamation in Tsuen Wan and Kwai Chung. Once their boats moved into the lagoon, they never moved out. This was because their boats were too old for fishing far away. The lagoon was unable to escape the fate of development. Both the lagoon and the neighbouring Tsing Yi Bay, were reclaimed for new towns. The boat people were forced to give up their boats and were relocated to public housing estate on the island. After reclamation, the northern portion became Tsing Yi Estate and the remainder became temporary housing areas, which were later demolished.

Tsing Yi Bay

Tsing Yi Bay was a bay on the east side of Hong Kong's Tsing Yi Island, beside the Rambler Channel, approximately on the site of modern-day Tsing Yi Park. The whole bay was reclaimed for the development of new town. Before reclamation, it was surrounded by places known as Tsing Leng Tsui, Sheung Ko Tan (上高灘), Ha Chung Mei, Tai Wong Ha (大王下) and Tsing Yi Town. The names of these places have since changed, and can now be translated, approximately, as Grand Horizon, Green Field Garden, Fung Shue Wo Road, Tsing Yi Estate and Tsing Yi Garden.

Tsing Yi Pier

Tsing Yi Pier or Tsing Yi Ferry Terminus (青衣渡輪碼頭) is a ferry pier on Tsing Yi Island, Hong Kong. It replaced Tsing Yi Town old pier that was buried during land reclamation. There were ferries to Tsuen Wan and Central. The service ceased to exist and the pier freed for public use thereafter.

Villa Esplanada

Villa Esplanada is a private housing estate developed by Sun Hung Kai Properties, China Resources and Cheung Kong on Tsing Yi island in Hong Kong. It locates on the relocated oil depots on the former island Nga Ying Chau. It is close to Ching Wang Court, Tsing Yi Station of MTR and Airport Express. The flats were sold in three phases.

Gin Drinkers Bay or Gin Drinker's Bay, also known as Lap Sap Wan, was a bay in Kwai Chung, Hong Kong.

Tsing Yi Heung Sze Wui Road

Tsing Yi Heung Sze Wui Road is one of the oldest roads on the Tsing Yi Island, Hong Kong. It was built to connect Tsing Yi Town and Tsing Yi Bridge when the bridge was being built. The name "Tsing Yi Heung Sze Wui" derives from the local Cantonese pronunciation of Tsing Yi Rural Committee. After the reclamation of Tsing Yi Lagoon and Tsing Yi Bay, the road ended at Chun Kwan Temple. The office building of the Tsing Yi Rural Committee is very close to the temple, though it is on Fung Shue Wo Road. Tsing Yi Fire Station and Tsing Yi Police Station are also on the road.

Ngau Kok Wan was a bay on the north coast of Tsing Yi Island, Hong Kong. The Hong Kong Cement Plant of the Hong Kong Cement Manufacturing Company Limited at Tsing Leng Tsui is now located in the reclaimed bay. Tsing Yi North Coastal Road and the Ting Kau Bridge join above the location.

Tai Nam Wan, or Nam Wan, was a bay on the south coast of Tsing Yi Island, Hong Kong. The bay was reclaimed for Tsing Yi Power Station operated by China Light and Power. As there is another south bay, Nam Wan (南灣), near Sai Tso Wan to the west of the island, some people refer to this bigger one as big south bay. The Chinese name Nam Wan (南環) is a mistaken form of Nam Wan (南灣). The two characters for Wan in Cantonese are pronounced identically except for the tone.

Kwai Tsing Container Terminals

Kwai Tsing Container Terminals is the main port facilities in the reclamation along Rambler Channel between Kwai Chung and Tsing Yi Island, Hong Kong. It evolved from four berths of Kwai Chung Container Port completed in the 1970s. It later expanded with two berths in the 1980s. Two additional terminals are added adjoining to Stonecutters Island in the 1990s and was renamed Kwai Chung Container Terminals. In the 2000s, when Container Terminal 9 on the Tsing Yi Island and was renamed to Kwai Tsing Container Terminals.

1,2-Dioxin heterocyclic, organic, antiaromatic compound

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Polychlorinated dibenzofurans family of organic compounds

Polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) are a family of organic compounds with one or several of the hydrogens in the dibenzofuran structure replaced by chlorines. For example, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran (TCDF) has chlorine atoms substituted for each of the hydrogens on the number 2, 3, 7, and 8 carbons. Polychlorinated dibenzofurans are much more toxic than the parent compounds, with properties and chemical structures similar to polychlorinated dibenzodioxins. These groups together are often inaccurately called dioxins. They are known teratogens, mutagens, and suspected human carcinogens. PCDFs tend to co-occur with polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs). PCDFs can be formed by pyrolysis or incineration at temperatures below 1200 °C of chlorine containing products, such as PVC, PCBs, and other organochlorides, or of non-chlorine containing products in the presence of chlorine donors. Dibenzofurans are known persistent organic pollutants (POP), classified among the dirty dozen in the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants.

Luk Keng Pier

Luk Keng Pier is a small public pier adjoining Luk Keng Village, Yam O, Lantau Island, Hong Kong. There is only a kai-to ferry route to and from Tsing Lung Tau in Tsuen Wan for villagers to travel to the urban area. This closed transportation relationship between Yam O and Tsing Lung Tau explains why Northeast Lantau is part of the Tsuen Wan District, instead of the Islands District. It was the only public transportation for Luk Keng Village and the whole of Yam O before Sunny Bay Station on the MTR opened.

Dioxins and dioxin-like compounds class of chemical compounds

Dioxins and dioxin-like compounds (DLCs) are compounds that are highly toxic environmental persistent organic pollutants (POPs). They are mostly by-products of various industrial processes - or, in case of dioxin-like PCBs and PBBs, part of intentionally produced mixtures. They include:

American Creosote Works (Pensacola Plant)

The American Creosote Works Superfund site is an inactive wood-treating facility in Pensacola, Florida located about a quarter-mile north of the confluence of Bayou Chico and Pensacola Bay. The Superfund program of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) protects the public and the environment by requiring cleanup of the nation’s worst hazardous waste sites.