To Live (novel)

Last updated
To Live
Huo Zhao Jiu Feng Mian .jpg
The book cover of To Live
Author Yu Hua
Original title活着/活著 – huózhe
TranslatorMichael Berry
Country China
Language Chinese
Genre Novel
PublisherAnchor Books & Random House of Canada Limited
Publication date
Published in English
Media typePrint (Hardback & Paperback)
ISBN 1-4000-3186-9

To Live (simplified Chinese :活着; traditional Chinese :活著; pinyin :Huózhe) is a novel written by Chinese novelist Yu Hua in 1993. It describes the struggles endured by the son of a wealthy land-owner, Fugui, while historical events caused and extended by the Chinese Revolution are fundamentally altering the nature of Chinese society. The contrast between his pre-revolutionary status as a selfish rich idler who (literally) travels on the shoulders of the downtrodden and his post-revolutionary status as a persecuted peasant is stark.


To Live is one of the most representative works by Yu Hua, which is also considered as the signal of his creative transformation in literature, from avant-garde fiction to literary realism. The story begins with the narrator traveling through the countryside to collect folk songs and local legends and hears an old peasant's life story, which encompasses many significant historical events in China. Over the course of the story, the main character, Xu Fugui, witnesses the death of his family members and loved ones. [1] The literature techniques Yu Hua applies in the story reveal both the struggles and hope of the ordinaries aroused sympathy and recognition from the public when it was published.

The book was originally published in the Shanghai literary journal Harvest. A film rendition, directed by Zhang Yimou, was released in 1994. The novel has also been adapted into a television series and stage play.

The novel has been translated into traditional Chinese, French, Dutch, Italian, Korean, German, Japanese, English, Swedish, Polish, Romanian, Mongolian, Hungarian, and Malayalam. The novel is translated to English by Michael Berry, a senior at Rutgers University, who had sent a fax to the author expressing his fondness of the book and requesting permission to contribute to the English version of the novel. [2]


Yu Hua was inspired and deeply moved by the American folk song "Old Black Joe". Despite experiencing hardships in life and the passing of his family, the enslaved Black person still looked upon the world with eyes of kindness, offering not the slightest complaint.

This American slave song with the simplest lyrics formed the story of Fugui's life – a life imbued with upheavals and suffering, but also tranquillity and happiness. It was after listening to this song that Yu Hua decided to write his next novel, To Live. [3]


The novel describes a series of tragedies based on the context, including Chinese civil war, the Land Reform, Great Leap Forward, Great Chinese Famine, Three-anti and Five-anti Campaigns, and the Cultural Revolution. It allows the readers to see the cruelty of war, witnesses the deified Chinese political figures, thoughts, and movements. [4] Covered by Mao's government propaganda, the deployed innovative farming techniques encountered failure and led to mass starvation and death, along with various political campaigns and struggles. Ordinary people like Fugui were the greatest casualties. [5]


Xu family

The protagonist of the book. As the son of a landlord, Fugui spends his youth in a luxurious lifestyle and only devotes to gambling and interacting with prostitutes. After Fugui gambles away everything and goes through all the hardships, he becomes an honest and caring peasant. The story also talks about how events such as the Great Leap and Cultural Revolution have affected Fugui's and the Xu's life. At the end of the story, Fugui is alone with the only ox in the field.

Yu Hua commented Fugui as "After going through much pain and hardship, Fugui is inextricably tied to the experience of suffering. So there is really no place for ideas like 'resistance' in Fugui's mind—he lives simply to live. In this world I have never met anyone who has as much respect for life as Fugui. Although he has more reason to die than most people, he keeps on living." [7]

Fugui's wife, Fengxia, and Youqing's mother. Jiazhen is the daughter of the rice merchant Chen Ji. After Fugui loses all family fortunes, Jiazhen leaves at the beginning. But after knowing Fugui quits gambling, she comes back to support Fugui, bears all hardships and hard work with Fugui, no matter what kind of challenge is in front of them. She is a kind-hearted and tenacious woman who has never made a complaint despite all the struggles and hardships, but she dies of soft bone disease under the loss of both her son and daughter.

Fugui and Jiazhen's daughter, Youqing's elder sister. Fengxia becomes deaf and mute because of a fever, but she is just as beautiful and kind-hearted as her mother. This diligent and caring girl later gets happily married to Erxi. However, only after a short period of happiness, she dies while giving birth to their son Kugen.

Fugui and Jiazhen's son. Because of the poor family situation, Youqing learns to take responsibility and help out the family as a child. The long distance between school and home makes him a great runner and makes his gym teacher loves him a lot. This kind boy later dies of donating too much blood to the magistrate's (Chunsheng's) wife.

Fengxia's husband. Erxi is a construction worker who has a crooked head. This quiet and honest man is deeply in love with his wife Fengxia, and after her death, he decides to only live for their son. Erxi later dies in a construction accident.

Fengxia and Erxi's son. After both of his parents' deaths, Kugen starts to live with his grandfather Fugui and still cannot escape from poverty. He dies choking on beans Fugui prepared for him.

Other characters

A gambler who comes after the Japanese surrender. He takes Mr. Shen's place as the top gambler in the town. After Fugui loses all his property to him, he also takes away the Xu family's house. Long Er is finally executed during the Chinese Land Reform Movement as a landlord.

A young boy Fugui meets on the battlefield. Fugui and Chunsheng has good friendship with each other. He later becomes the county Magistrate. In order to save his wife, who is the principal of Youqing, students are forced to donate their blood. Youqing dies because of being taken too much blood. He tries so hard to achieve Fugui and Fengxia's forgiveness. In the later story, Chunsheng is labeled as anti-government. He then commits suicide during the Cultural Revolution.

A veteran soldier Fugui meets in the cannon battalion. He used to be a deserter who ran away seven times. Though once he gets away from one unit, he can be captured by other units sooner than later. Old Quan, Fugui, and Chunsheng support each other when the unit is surrounded by the Liberation Army. He is killed by a straying bullet on the battlefield.

The one who is in charge of the production and management of the village. He is implicated in the Cultural Revolution. He also is the matchmaker of Fengxia and Erxi's marriage.

This old ox Xu Fugui buys after begging for the butcher's mercy. Thus "Fugui" the ox, as a survivor of the butcher's knife, is actually a stand-in for Xu Fugui himself as a survivor of brutal reality and oppressions.


To Live includes 11 chapters in total and one preface from Yu Hua.

Chapter 1

While collecting popular folk songs in the countryside, the narrator "I" meets an old man named Xu Fugui, who talks to a plowing ox. He yells the names of six or seven oxen with only one ox present, so "I" talk to him and start a conversation about his past story. As the son of the landlord, Fu Gui says he is a prodigal son [8] of the Xu family. He spends most of his life in gambling dens and brothels. He also treats his pregnant wife Jia Zhen badly. She kneels and begs Fu Gui to come home, and he chooses to have Jiazhen thrown out.

Chapter 2

Eventually, Fugui loses his entire family fortune to Long Er. In order to pay off the debt, Fugui's father has to exchange their lands and house for copper cash and lets Fugui pick his way to pay off the gambling debt. Long Er became the owner of the lands and the house. Soon after moving out of their family house, Fugui's father, unfortunately, passes away. Jiazhen, with her unborn son, is then picked up by a carriage sent by her father, Fugui's father-in-law. Fengxia, Fugui's elder daughter, is left behind with the Xu's.

Chapter 3

To support his family, Fugui rents five mu of land from Long Er, the new landlord, and becomes a hardworking farmer. Fugui also meets the faithful old servant Changgen, who has become a beggar since the Xu's decline. But he still refuses to stay with Fugui's family. He gives Fengxia a gift once, and Fugui never sees him again after that. Finally, after a few months, Jiazhen comes back with her newborn son, Youqin. However, Fugui's mother then becomes ill, and on Fugui's way to seek medication for her, he is forcibly conscripted into the Nationalist Army.

Chapter 4

In the military, Fugui suffers from hunger, cold, and death threat. He also witnesses the cruelty of Chinese Civil War with Chunsheng and Old Quan. After almost two years of conscription, Fugui was finally sent home by the Liberation Army. Upon returning home years later, Fugui learns that his mother has died months after Fugui entered the army. A high fever has left his daughter Fengxia deaf and mute. During land reform, the five mu of land Fugui rents before the war, is now owned by him. Long Er is executed as a landlord during the reform.

Chapter 5

To send Youqing to school, Fugui and Jiazhen decide to give Fengxia away to the family interest in getting a daughter-in-law. Months later, Fengxia comes back on her own because she misses her family. And Fugui does not want her to go back anymore as he finds out how much he loves his daughter. In 1958, people's communes were established. Most of the family supplies and properties (land, livestock) are confiscated by the village. The Great Leap Forward also starts, villagers' ironwares, including pots, are crackdowns to smelt iron.

Chapter 6

Jiazhen, unfortunately, gets "soft bone" disease, and her condition is gets worse day by day. She can hardly stand up and work. Meanwhile, Fugui's family accidentally manufactures steel and receives praise from the team leader.

Chapter 7

People's commune shuts down the dining hall, leading to starvation in the village and town. Many people cannot even eat a grain of rice for months—Jiazhen's father supports the Xu's with a small bag of rice, along with grassroots and barks, the Xu's manages to survive.

Chapter 8

Things finally get better after the grain harvest. Though, to save the wife of the county magistrate from losing too much blood while giving birth, Youqin dies from the over-blood donation. When Fugui discovers that the magistrate is his old-time friend Chunsheng, he cannot drive himself to get revenge anymore. A grieving Jiazhen also rejects Chunsheng's compensation for Youqing. Years later, the Cultural Revolution starts.

Chapter 9

Fengxia gets married to Erxi, who has a crooked head. However, he is a trustworthy and considerate man. Every one of the Xus is happy with their marriage.

Chapter 10

As the Cultural Revolution grows more intense, the Red Guards punish the team leader and Chunsheng, the magistrate, as "capitalist roaders" accuse them of oppressing and belittling the people and peasants. Chunsheng sneaks to meet the Xus once, and Jiazhen chooses to forgive him and ask him to hang on, saying "You still owe us a life, hold on to your life to repay us." [3] Though after a month of torture, Chunsheng commits suicide. After that, Fengxia and Erxi came back to serve old Fugui and Jiazhen. Fengxia then gives birth to her first son, Kugen.

Chapter 11

Fengxia dies in the delivery room due to hemorrhaging. Soon after that, Jiazhen passes away. Fugui moves into town and lives with Kugen and Erxi. When Kugen is four years old, Erxi is killed by two slabs of cement. [3] Fugui then has to live with his only remaining family—grandson Kugen in the village till Kugen is seven. He chokes to death while eating beans. All by himself, Fugui saves up some money and buys an old ox from the butcher to accompany him, naming it "Fugui".


Philosophy of life

What people in To Live do throughout their lives is not to fight against tragic fate and suffering or die to prove the greatness and value of their lives; on the contrary, they obey and endure in silence and challenge death by staying alive with determination and glimmer of hope. At the end of the story, Fugui ends up with an old ox but still enjoys the rest of his life in peace and calm. Surviving from a catalog of misfortunes, Fugui's persistence, and self-relief after tragedies are valuable attitudes Yu Hua sees among ordinary lives. [9]


From Avant-garde fiction to Literary Realism.

Since the disintegration of the avant-garde novel, Yu Hua's novel writing has undergone significant changes. This change is marked by his three full-length novels, Cries in the Drizzles, To Live, and Chronicle of a Blood Merchant .

In the 1990s, Yu Hua's personal life underwent important changes. One of the most significant changes was the birth of his son. The sense of responsibility of becoming a father not only strengthened and enriched Yu Hua's understanding of "lives" but also became an opportunity for Yu Hua's creative transformation in the 1990s. To Live is a symbol of Yu Hua's transformation. [10] By applying Realism to his work, Yu Hua was able to describe real-life in an observant and revealing form. Realism also enables him to describe realistic tragedies among lower classes during the special historical period in a more detailed and unembellished style. [11]

From short stories to long ones, Yu Hua's stories have become more comprehensive. While dark humor is still a highlighting feature of his work, his focus has switched from blood and death to the reflection on the reality of society and the life of the general public. So his works of this period were well recognized by readers and received high praise. [12]

Writing style

Yu Hua uses a narrative style similar to zero-intervention to present the tragic beauty of To Live. The author can exclude the subject from making explicit value judgments and emotional penetration of the suffering life, as if standing in a "non-earthly position" and objectively and calmly narrating the human suffering. The use of an objective and neutral narrative position with a warm and deep emotional tone in the text makes To Live a symbol of Yu Hua's stylistic transformation. [12]

The novel's use of symbolism is to use death to symbolize living. Few people may encounter the pain of sending away the gray-haired to the black-haired, and the gray-haired sending away the black-haired one by one may only be seen in fiction.The truth of art will make people believe that not only has there been a living Fugui in the world, but there will be many more in the future and invisibly anguishing in the dark side of society. [13] In To Live, Yu Hua incorporates many of his concerns about the society and people, revealing those small but great people who struggle in the midst of it. At this time, Yu Hua's linguistic narrative has departed from objective and indifferent narration. [12]

As Zhang Xuexin comments it, "Yu Hua turned to a serious exploration of survival at that stage, and the novels of this period can be called 'survival novels': they are 'grounded in the breadth and depth of the writer's thinking and imagination about the state of human existence', showing both 'a picture of the human state' and expressing 'the inner voice of the human soul in front of suffering and fate.'" [14] In short, Yu Hua's creative turn at this stage is characterized by a shift from "formal avant-grading" to "ordinaries' survival". [15]




A film adaption ( To Live ) of this book starring well-known actors such as Gong Li and Ge You was released in 1994, premiering at the New York Film Festival, after numerous discussions between film director Zhang Yimou and the novelist author Yu Hua upon the proper film adaptation, keeping the plot within the frame of Yu Hua's artistic vision. [17] Yu Hua has previously stated that he prefers his own novel to the film. [18] The film changes the setting from rural southern China to a small city in northern China and added the element of shadow puppetry. The second narrator and the ox are not present in the film. [19]

Michael Berry, the translator of the English edition of the novel To Live, has said that the novel has a "darker and more existential" message and a "much more brutal" reality and social critique, while the film renders the failure of Communist ideals and capitalist China as a more optimistic future. [19] Berry says that the film "allows more room for the hand of fate to hold sway." [19] When first released, the movie was officially banned by the Chinese government but was still shown in theaters in China. [20]

Television series

On December 16, 2005, the 33-episode television series adaptation, Fugui富贵 was broadcast on Chinese television. Directed by Zhu Zheng, the TV series features lesser-known actors and actresses such as Chen Chuang (陈创) as Fugui and Liu Mintao (刘敏涛) as Jiazhen. [21]

Stage play

Two decades after the novel's release, it was adapted into a stage play titled To Live 活着 directed by influential contemporary drama director, Meng Jinghui (孟京辉) and starring actors Huang Bo (黄渤) as Fugui and Yuan Quan (袁泉) as Jiazhen. The play premiered at the National Centre for the Performing Arts in Beijing between September 4, 2012 to September 9, 2012, and later made its way to cities such as Hangzhou, Shanghai, Guangzhou, Shenzhen, Hong Kong and Taipei. [22]

See also

Related Research Articles

Ge You is a Chinese actor. A native of Beijing, often with a bald shaven pate, he is considered by many to be one of the most recognizable acting personalities in China. He became the first Asian actor to win the Cannes Best Actor Award for his role in the Zhang Yimou movie To Live.

The Lu Xun Literary Prize 鲁迅文学奖 is a literary prize awarded by China Writers Association. It is one of China's top four literary prizes and is named after Lu Xun and has been awarded every three years since 1995. Its predecessor, the National Outstanding Short Story Award and National Outstanding Novella Award, was established since the beginning of the new-era literature in the early 1980s.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Yu Hua</span> Chinese author (born 1960)

Yu Hua is a Chinese author, widely considered the foremost writer of avant-garde fiction and one of the greatest living authors in China.

<i>To Live</i> (1994 film) 1994 film by Zhang Yimou

To Live, also titled Lifetimes in some English versions, is a 1994 Chinese drama film directed by Zhang Yimou and written by Lu Wei, based on the novel of the same name by Yu Hua. It is produced by the Shanghai Film Studio and ERA International, starring Ge You and Gong Li, in her 7th collaboration with director Zhang Yimou.

<i>The Smiling, Proud Wanderer</i> 1967 wuxia novel by Jin Yong

The Smiling, Proud Wanderer is a wuxia novel by Jin Yong. It was first serialised in Hong Kong in the newspaper Ming Pao from 20 April 1967 to 12 October 1969. The Chinese title of the novel, Xiao Ao Jiang Hu, literally means to live a carefree life in a mundane world of strife. Alternate English translations of the title include The Wandering Swordsman, Laughing in the Wind, The Peerless Gallant Errant, and The Proud and Gallant Wanderer. Another alternative title, State of Divinity, is used for some of the novel's adaptations.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Sun Bo (writer)</span>

Sun Bo is a senior editor of newspaper and writer in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. He is a member of Chinese Pen Society of Canada (CPSC). He is also a member of the Toronto Chinese Writers' Association.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Mao Dun Literature Prize</span> Chinese literary award

Mao Dun Literature Prize is a prize for novels, established in the will of prominent Chinese writer Mao Dun and sponsored by the China Writers Association. Awarded every four years, it is one of the most prestigious literature prizes in China. It was first awarded in 1982.

<i>Chronicle of a Blood Merchant</i>

Chronicle of a Blood Merchant is a 1995 novel by Chinese writer Yu Hua. It is his third novel after Cries in the Drizzle and To Live. It is the story of a silk factory worker, Xu Sanguan, who sells his blood over the years, in most cases in an attempt to improve the lives of himself and his family members, and overcome family difficulties. The story is set in the late 1940s until the 1980s, from the early years of the People's Republic of China until after the Cultural Revolution.

<i>Brothers</i> (Yu novel)

Brothers is the longest novel written by the Chinese novelist Yu Hua, in total of 76 chapters, separately published in 2005 for the part 1 and in 2006 for part 2 by Shanghai Literature and Art Publishing House. This was Yu Hua's first novel after a decade of dormancy from writing and publishing works. It has over 180 thousand characters in Chinese, more than the 100 thousand characters that were originally planned for the book. It intertwines tragedy and comedy, and Yu Hua himself admits that the novel is personally his favorite literary work. Brothers was a new realm of literature for Yu Hua, with the novel often being described as extremely crude and expletive. Brothers has experienced great success with nearly 1 million copies sold in China. By 2019, Yu Hua's works had been published in 38 countries and translated into 35 different languages. This success may be contributed to his success publicity tour to gain attraction towards the novel after his hiatus from writing. While reception among Chinese critics was generally negative, the novel was shortlisted for the Man Asian Literary Prize and awarded France's Prix Courrier International in 2008. It was translated into English by Eileen Cheng-yin Chow and Carlos Rojas in 2009, a couple from the Middle Eastern department at Duke University.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Yu Jie</span>

Yu Jie, is a Chinese-American writer and Calvinist democracy activist. The bestselling author of more than 30 books, Yu was described by the New York Review of Books in 2012 as "one of China's most prominent essayists and critics".. In addition, he has a Revisionist tendency towards the Japanese militarism in World War II.

Anna Gustafsson Chen is a Swedish literary translator and sinologist. She is notable for translating the work of Mo Yan into Swedish. Her translations are directly tied to Mo Yan becoming the first Chinese person to win the Nobel Prize for Literature. She has translated over 20 other notable works including the writing of Yu Hua and Su Tong.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Xin Fengxia</span> Chinese pingju opera performer

Xin Fengxia was a Chinese pingju opera performer, known as the "Queen of Pingju". She was also a film actress, writer, and painter. She starred in the highly popular films Liu Qiao'er (1956) and Flowers as Matchmakers (1964), both adapted from her operas.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Wu Zuguang</span> Chinese playwright

Wu Zuguang was a Chinese playwright, film director and social critic who has been called a "legendary figure in Chinese art and literary circles". He authored more than 40 plays and film scripts, including the patriotic drama City of Phoenix, one of the most influential plays during the Second Sino-Japanese War, and Return on a Snowy Night, which is generally considered his masterpiece. He directed The Soul of the Nation, Hong Kong's first colour film, based on his own historical drama Song of Righteousness.

<i>Eternal Love</i> (TV series) 2017 Chinese television series

Eternal Love, also known as Three Lives, Three Worlds, Ten Miles of Peach Blossoms, is a 2017 Chinese television series starring Yang Mi and Mark Chao, directed by Lin Yufen. It is based on the xianxia novel of the same name from 2015 by Tang Qi Gong Zi. The series was broadcast on Zhejiang TV and Dragon TV from 30 January to 1 March 2017.

<i>With You</i> (Chinese TV series) Chinese TV series or program

With You is a 2016 Chinese streaming television series based on the novel The Best of Us (最好的我们) by Ba Yue Chang An (八月长安). It stars Liu Haoran and Tan Songyun in lead. It aired on iQiyi from 8 April to 14 May 2016.

Lord of Shanghai is a 2016 Chinese action film co-written, produced and directed by Sherwood Hu and stars Hu Jun, Yu Nan, Rhydian Vaughan, and Qin Hao. The film is an adaptation of Hong Ying's novel of the same name. It picks up the story of three generations of the Lord of Shanghai and their love story of the legendary woman Xiao Yuegui. The film was first released in China on February 17, 2017.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Liu Jiang (director)</span>

Liu Jiang is a Chinese television director, producer and screenwriter best known for his work Before Dawn, A Beautiful Daughter-in-law Era and Let's get married.

<i>The Seventh Day</i> (novel)

The Seventh Day is a 2013 novel by Yu Hua. It was published in China by New Star Press in June 2013. An English translation by Allan Hepburn Barr was published by Pantheon Books in January 2015.

<i>Joy of Life</i> (TV series) 2019 Chinese television series

Joy of Life, also known as Thankful for the Remaining Years, is a 2019 Chinese television series that is based on the novel Qing Yunian (庆余年) by Mao Ni. It stars Zhang Ruoyun, Li Qin and Chen Daoming. The series premiered on Tencent Video and iQiyi on November 26, 2019. It garnered high viewership and mostly positive reviews, and won two awards at the Shanghai Television Festival, including Best Adapted Screenplay. It is currently (2023) available via Rakuten Viki.

<i>China in Ten Words</i>

China in Ten Words is an essay collection by the contemporary Chinese author Yu Hua, who is known for his novels To Live, Chronicle of a Blood Merchant, and Brothers. China in Ten Words was first published in French, titled La Chine en dix mots, by the publishing house, Actes Sud in 2010 and the Chinese version was later published in Taiwan in 2011; an English translation by Allan H. Barr appeared the same year. The book is banned in China, but Yu Hua reworked some of his essays for publication in the mainland China market in the 2015 essay collection We Live Amidst Vast Disparities.


  1. Doll, Abbie (February 2014). "Analyzing To Live through the Mediums of Literature and Film: Two Vastly Contrasting Presentations of Twentieth Century China's Radical History". International ResearchScape Journal: An Undergraduate Student Journal.
  2. "To Live". Retrieved 2021-11-21.
  3. 1 2 3 Yu, Hua, 1960- (2003). To live: a novel. Berry, Michael, 1974-. New York: Anchor Books. ISBN   1400031869. OCLC   51752247.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link) CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  4. 闫, 顺玲 (2010). 文学名著导读 (in Chinese). Beijing Book Co. Inc. ISBN   978-7542113719.
  5. Shao (2021). "The Rationale of Realism in Yu Hua's To Live (1993)". Journal of Modern Literature. 44 (2): 134–152. doi:10.2979/jmodelite.44.2.11. JSTOR   10.2979/jmodelite.44.2.11. S2CID   240694655.
  6. "像福贵那样《活着》". 豆瓣 (in Chinese (China)). Retrieved 2023-03-27.
  7. Yu, Hua (2003). To Live: a novel . Translated by Michael Berry. New York: Anchor Books, a division of Random House, Inc. p.  244. ISBN   1-4000-3186-9.
  8. Yu, Hua (1992). To Live. New York: Anchor Books. ISBN   1400031869.
  9. Yang, Xianqing (2006). "The Charm of Truly Living— A Study of Artistic Authenticity of "Living" Written by Yu Hua". Journal of Xinxiang Education College. 19: 40–42.
  10. "从愤怒的写作到虚伪的活着——余华创作的后现代叙事策略 - 中国知网". doi:10.13951/j.cnki.issn1002-3194.2005.03.016 . Retrieved 2022-01-21.
  11. Shao (2021). "The Rationale of Realism in Yu Hua's To Live (1993)". Journal of Modern Literature. 44 (2): 134–152. doi:10.2979/jmodelite.44.2.11. JSTOR   10.2979/jmodelite.44.2.11. S2CID   240694655.
  12. 1 2 3 程, 鹏 (2014). "浅析余华小说前后期的转型". 文艺生活 Literature Life. 1: 5.
  13. 一玲, 徐 (2009). "《活着》生存悲剧的艺术表现形式". 剑南文学. 7.
  14. Zhang, Xuexin (2000). "论余华的"生存小说"". 泰安教育学院学报岱宗学刊. 4.
  15. "从"形式先锋""民间生存"到"社会现实" ——余华小说创作转向论". Retrieved 2022-02-12.
  16. "Chinese writers who have won an int'l award -". Retrieved 2022-01-21.
  17. "Zhang Yimou's 'To Live'". The New York Times. 1994-11-18. ISSN   0362-4331 . Retrieved 2019-11-21.
  18. "Introduction to To Live (Film & Novel)". Retrieved 2019-11-21.
  19. 1 2 3 Yu, Hua. Editor: Michael Berry. To Live . Random House Digital, Inc., 2003. 242. ISBN   978-1-4000-3186-3.
  20. Gateward, Francis (2001). Zhang Yimou: interviews. University Press of Mississippi. pp. 63–64. ISBN   1578062616. Though officially banned, the film is widely available on video and some theatres somehow still manage to show it.
  21. "余华对《福贵》赞不绝口:改编是对原著的延伸_影音娱乐_新浪网". Retrieved 2022-02-05.
  22. "话剧《活着》大剧院揭开神秘面纱". Retrieved 2019-11-04.