|Founded by||Hisayuki Machii|
|Founding location||Ginza, Tokyo, Japan|
|Ethnicity||Zainichi Koreans, Japanese|
The Toa-kai (東亜会, Tōa-kai) is a yakuza syndicate based in Tokyo with a predominantly Zainichi Korean membership. Originally named the Tosei-kai (東声会, Tōsei-kai, "Voice of the East Gang" ), with its historic leader Hisayuki Machii, the Toa-kai was deeply involved in the history of Tokyo's South Korean community and Japan's anti-communist circles in the 20th century.
The group was formed by Hisayuki Machii, a Zainichi Korean mob boss,as the Tosei-kai in 1948. The Tosei-kai was originally a reported far-right organization of anti-communist activism led by Machii as a sympathizer of Kanji Ishiwara, which was in conflict with the North Korea-associated General Association of Korean Residents in Japan.
The Tosei-kai quickly became one of Tokyo's most powerful gangs,and had significantly expanded during the time of the post-war economic growth. Membership reached 1,500 in the 1960s. As the leader of the syndicate, Machii became an essential "fixer" between Japan and South Korea.
Increasing police crackdowns by 1965 forced Machii to disband the Tosei-kai and establish a new gang, the Toa Yuai Jigyo Kumiai (東亜友愛事業組合, Tōa Yūai Jigyō Kumiai), or "East Asia Friendship Enterprise Association". He also formed a "legitimate" company called the Toa Sogo Kigyo (東亜相互企業, Tōa Sōgo Kigyō), or East Asia Enterprises Company, and named power-broker Yoshio Kodama as chairman of the board. Afterwards, the Toa Yuai Jigyo Kumiai changed the name as Toa Yuai (東亜友愛, Tōa Yūai) and Toa-kai.
The founder Machii retired in the 1980s,and died of heart failure on September 14, 2002, in Tokyo. Also known as a successful businessman, he was 79.
The Toa-kai is a member of a bakuto fraternal federation named the Kanto Hatsuka-kai, along with four other Kanto-based yakuza syndicates, the Sumiyoshi-kai, the Inagawa-kai, the Matsuba-kai, and the Soai-kai.The Toa-kai has aligned itself with the largest known Yamaguchi-gumi syndicate since the syndicate's Taoka era in the 20th century, and has been closely supported by Shinobu Tsukasa, the sixth-generation godfather of the Yamaguchi-gumi, since 2005 when the sixth era of the Yamaguchi-gumi officially started.
The Toa-kai has its headquarters in Ginza, Tokyo ever since its formation.The Toa-kai has its five branch organizations in Tokyo, and one branch organization outside of Tokyo.
The Toa-kai's notable branch organizations include the Yoshimi-kogyo (誼興業). The Yoshimi-kogyo is the Toa-kai's only branch organization based outside of Tokyo. Based on the Okinawa island, the Yoshimi-kogyo is one of the three major yakuza groups in the Okinawa region, along with the Kyokuryu-kai and the Okinawa Kyokuryu-kai.
The origin of the Yoshimi-kogyo reportedly traces back to the late 20th century, when Toshio Gibo, an ethnic Okinawan mobster, formed an anti-left nationalist organization named the Makoto-kai in Okinawa under influence of Yoshio Kodama. Gibo met with Machii through Kodama, founding an affiliate of the Tosei-kai in Okinawa.
Okinawa's underworld has been known for its exclusiveness since the 20th century, where the dominating Kyokuryu-kai has persistently attacked and violently expelled any yakuza syndicate attempting to enter the island. The reason why the Toa-kai has been able to be active on the island may be because the group has historically been more oriented to legitimate businesses, and of its gentle stance, in contrast to other yakuza syndicates which have attempted to expand their influences into Okinawa with heavy violence, such as the Yamaguchi-gumi and especially the Dojin-kai. For example, in 2002 in Okinawa, only one Yoshimi member was arrested, while 56 Kyokuryu-kai members and 95 Okinawa Kyokuryu-kai members were arrested.
Yakuza, also known as gokudō, are members of transnational organized crime syndicates originating in Japan. The Japanese police and media, by request of the police, call them bōryokudan, while the yakuza call themselves ninkyō dantai. The English equivalent for the term yakuza is gangster, meaning an individual involved in a Mafia-like criminal organization.
Yoshio Kodama was a Japanese right-wing ultranationalist and a prominent figure in the rise of organized crime in Japan. The most famous kuromaku, or behind-the-scenes power broker, of the 20th century, he was active in Japan's political arena and criminal underworld from the 1930s to the 1970s, and became enormously wealthy through his involvement in smuggling operations.
The Kantō-kai (関東会) was a Japanese underworld organization formed by Yoshio Kodama in 1964, and named for the Kantō region from which it drew most of its membership. Kodama envisioned the Kantō-kai as a secret national police force, with the aim of forwarding the far right-wing views he and other organized criminals often held.
The Inagawa-kai (稲川会) is the third largest of Japan's yakuza groups, with approximately 1,900 members. It is based in the Kantō region, and was one of the first yakuza organizations to begin operating overseas.
Hisayuki Machii, born Jeong Geon-yeong was a Korean Japanese yakuza boss. He was nicknamed the "Ginza Tiger", and was the founder of one of Japan's most notorious yakuza gangs, the Tosei-Kai.
Kenichi Shinoda, also known as Shinobu Tsukasa, is a Japanese Yakuza, the sixth and current kumicho of the Yamaguchi-gumi, Japan's largest yakuza organization.
The Kudo-kai is a yakuza group headquartered in Kitakyushu, Fukuoka on the Kyushu island of Japan, with an estimated 220 active members. The Kudo-kai has been a purely independent syndicate ever since its foundation, and has caused numerous conflicts with the Yamaguchi-gumi.
The Taishu-kai is a yakuza organization based in Fukuoka Prefecture on the Kyushu island of Japan, with an estimated 80 active members.
The Dojin-kai is a yakuza organization headquartered in Kurume, Fukuoka, on the Kyushu island of Japan, a designated yakuza syndicate, with approximately 760 members. As well as being known as a militant yakuza organization, the Dojin-kai has also been known as a de facto drug cartel, as its activities have allegedly included large-scale drug trafficking, specifically methamphetamine trafficking, which is traditionally shunned in the yakuza world.
The Kodo-kai is a yakuza criminal organization based in Nagoya, Japan. It is a secondary organization of the Sixth Yamaguchi-gumi, the largest known yakuza syndicate in Japan. With an estimated membership of 4,000, it is the second-largest Yamaguchi affiliate after the Yamaken-gumi, and operates in at least 18 prefectures.
The Fourth Yamaken-gumi is a yakuza gang based in Kobe, Japan. It was the largest affiliate, followed by the Nagoya-based Kodo-kai, of the largest known yakuza syndicate in Japan, the Yamaguchi-gumi until 2015. From 2015 to 2020, it was under the umbrella of the Kobe Yamaguchi-gumi. In July 2021, the group split from the Yamaguchi-gumi, with a large number of their members opting to stay with the Yamaguchi-gumi.
The Kyosei-kai is a yakuza group based in Hiroshima, Japan.
The Shinwa-kai (親和会) is a yakuza group based in Takamatsu, Kagawa on Shikoku, Japan. It has an estimated 30 active members.
The Kyokuto-SakuraiSoke-Rengokai was a yakuza gang formerly based in Numazu, Shizuoka, Japan. It was an organization of the tekiya.
The Kyokuryu-kai is a yakuza criminal organization based on the Okinawa island of Japan, with an estimated membership of 210–270.
The Okinawa Kyokuryu-kai is a yakuza criminal organization based on the Okinawa island of Japan. A designated yakuza group with an estimated 300 active members, the Okinawa Kyokuryu-kai is the largest yakuza organization in Okinawa Prefecture.
The Kyushu Seido-kai was a yakuza organization based in Fukuoka Prefecture on the Kyushu island of Japan, with an estimated 380 active members. Headquartered in the southern Fukuoka region of Omuta, the Kyushu Seido-kai maintains its offices in five other prefectures including Tokyo.
The Oda-gumi (織田組) is a yakuza organization founded in 1958 by Hideomi "Joji" Oda in Chūō-ku, Osaka, Japan. Oda-gumi would join the powerful Yamaguchi-gumi syndicate as a subsidiary organization under third generation kumicho Kazuo Taoka in 1964, with Oda serving as the Yamaguchi-gumi saiko-komon under Taoka with the right to maintain his own family.