Tobías Zúñiga Castro (February 10, 1854 – June 24, 1918) was a Costa Rican politician. He served as a diplomat and was Secretary of State. He was a member of the People's Party.
He was born in San Jose, Costa Rica, on February 10, 1854. He was the son of Pedro Zúñiga y Meléndez. He married Rosario Montúfar, the daughter of Lorenzo Montúfar, on November 7, 1875. He was Secretary of the Interior, police and promotions from April 30 to July 20, 1889.
In the election of 1905, he ran for President against Máximo Fernández Alvarado, Bernardo Soto Alfaro, Cleto González Víquez, and Ezequiel Gutiérrez Iglesias. For the run-off election scheduled to occur in April 1906, Fernández and Soto threw their support behind him. It seemed likely that he would win, but in March 1906, President Esquivel suspended civil libertiesand had him expelled from the country. He, Fernandez, and Soto fled to New York City. Cleto González Víquez became president.
After a time, he returned from exile, but had no further involvement in politics. He died in San José on June 24, 1918.
Cleto de Jesús González Víquez was, on two occasions, the President of Costa Rica, firstly as the 18th president in 1906 and lastly as the 26th president in 1928. Don Cleto was born in Barva, Heredia on October 13, 1858, as the son of Cleto González Pérez and Aurora Víquez Murillo. He was a renowned Costa Rican politician, lawyer, and historian.
José Bruno Carranza Ramírez was briefly President of Costa Rica in 1870. Bruno Carranza came to power in the coup d'état of 27 April 1870 that deposed President Jesús Jiménez. He resigned three months later.
The following is an alphabetical list of topics related to the Republic of Costa Rica.
Costa Rican literature has roots in colonization and is marked by European influences. Because Costa Rica is a young country, its literary tradition is also young. The history of Costa Rican literature dates to the end of the 19th century.
General elections were held in Costa Rica on 7 December 1913, the first direct elections since 1844. They were also the first elections to have universal male suffrage, after economic and educational requirements were eliminated. Máximo Fernández Alvarado of the Republican Party won the presidential election, but both he and runner-up Carlos Durán Cartín later resigned and Alfredo González Flores was appointed president by Congress on 8 May 1914. The Republican Party also won the parliamentary election. Voter turnout was 78.0% in the presidential election and 78.6% in the parliamentary election.
General elections were held in Costa Rica on 12 February 1928. Cleto González Víquez of the National Union won the presidential election, whilst the party also won the parliamentary election, in which they received 53.3% of the vote. Voter turnout was 62.5% in the presidential election and 72.85% in the parliamentary election.
General elections were held in Costa Rica on 14 February 1932. Ricardo Jiménez Oreamuno of the Independent National Republican Party won the presidential election, whilst the party also won the parliamentary election, in which they received 46.7% of the vote. Voter turnout was 64.2%.
Elizabeth Bernardita Fonseca Corrales was a deputy in the Costa Rican Legislative Assembly from 2006 to 2010, representing San José. Fonseca holds a doctorate in History and American Society from the University of Paris. She was president of the Citizens' Action Party in 2010.
This is a list of foreign ministers of Costa Rica.
María Fernández de Tinoco was a Costa Rican writer and amateur archaeologist who became the First Lady of Costa Rica in 1917. Educated in England, Fernández studied archaeology, art and music before returning to Costa Rica. Involved in amateur archaeological digs and charitable works, she wrote articles for publication in local newspapers and magazines and published two novels. When her husband staged a coup d'état and was later elected President of Costa Rica, she served as First Lady from 8 June 1917 to 20 August 1919. When he resigned from his post due to mismanagement, the couple moved to Paris, where she participated in archeological and artistic works until his death in 1931. From 1932 to 1934, she resided in Norway before returning to Costa Rica, where she resumed her archeological studies and publishing, while working for the National Museum of Costa Rica. Involved with the Red Cross, she was awarded the Florence Nightingale Medal in 1949 and in 2012, the Ministry of Culture of Costa Rica produced a documentary about her life.
The 1906 Costa Rican general election was held during the presidency of Ascensión Esquivel Ibarra. Ibarra openly supported candidate Cleto González Víquez. Other candidates were former president Bernardo Soto Alfaro, former State and Police Secretary Tobías Zúñiga Castro, the also former State Secretary Máximo Fernández Alvarado and former justice and Foreign Secretary Ezequiel Gutiérrez Iglesias. Difference were more personal than ideological as all candidates except Gutiérrez were liberals, and the election had a strong "anti-cletista" component. This "anti-cletismo" was what united the opposition and talks about a common joint front occurred but it was not applied. Gutiérrez was candidate of the conservative "Democratic Union", the party that emerged from the now outlawed Catholic Union.
The National Party of Costa Rica was a political party formed by liberal groups for the mid-term legislative elections of 1892, which allied with the supporters of the government of President José Rodríguez Zeledón to defeat the Catholic Union; however, a few months later the governor dissolved the Congress. It was an eminently personalist group, with a diffuse liberal ideology.
Liberalism in Costa Rica is a political philosophy with a long and complex history. Liberals were the hegemonic political group for most of Costa Rica's history especially during the periods of the Free State and the First Republic, however, as the liberal model exhausted itself and new more left-wing reformist movements clashed during the Costa Rican Civil War liberalism was relegated to a secondary role after the Second Costa Rican Republic with the development of Costa Rica's Welfare State and its two-party system controlled by social-democratic and Christian democratic parties.
The Olympus Generation, also called the 900 Generation, is the name given in Costa Rica to a group of intellectuals, teachers, historians, politicians and writers of liberal and positivist thought, whose ideas and philosophical, political, academic and cultural contributions were reflected in the sciences, arts, literature and politics between 1890 and 1920, this was the historical stage of Costa Rica where the liberal state is consolidated. Traditionally, they're known as the Olympus generation in reference to the Olympian gods of classical mythology, because most of them belonged to an oligarchic elite with political and economic power obtained from the international coffee trade during the second half of the 19th century. This was the nickname given by their detractors due to the arrogance of many of its members. The Olimpo generation played a leading role in the gestation of culture, national identity and the consolidation of the Costa Rican State.
The Liberal State is the historical period in Costa Rica that occurred approximately between 1870 and 1940. It responded to the hegemonic dominion in the political, ideological and economic aspects of liberal philosophy. It is considered a period of transcendental importance in Costa Rican history, as it's when the consolidation of the National State and its institutions finally takes place.
Freemasonry begins in Costa Rica at the same time as in Central America during the course of the 19th century. Regular masonry begins when it was founded by Costa Rican Catholic priest Francisco Calvo, ex-Chaplain General of the Army of Costa Rica during the Filibuster War of 1856, who introduced regular masonry in Central America in 1865. However, there is evidence of the existence of "non-regular" Lodges active after the Independence and before. Prominent Costa Rican figures of politics, literature, art and science, including several presidents of the Republic, were Freemasons.
The Political Constitution of Costa Rica of 1917 was a constitution that was in force for two years; from 1917 to 1919. It was promulgated by then dictator Federico Tinoco Granados after the coup d'état that overthrew Alfredo González Flores in 1917. It was drafted by the ex-presidents Bernardo Soto Alfaro, Rafael Iglesias Castro, Ascensión Esquivel Ibarra, Cleto González Víquez and Carlos Durán Cartín. The presidents José Joaquín Rodríguez Zeledón and Ricardo Jiménez Oreamuno were invited to participate in the process as others of their status, but they refused to do so with various excuses.
The Dictatorship of the Tinoco brothers, also Tinochist or Peliquist Dictatorship, or Tinoco regime is the period of Costa Rica in which the military dictatorship led by Federico Tinoco Granados as de facto president and his brother José Joaquín Tinoco Granados as Minister of War was in place. It began after the 1917 Costa Rican coup d'état on January 27, 1917 and culminated with the departure of Tinoco from Costa Rica to France on August 13, 1919 three days after the murder of his brother and after a series of armed insurrections and massive civil protests known as the Sapoá Revolution and the 1919 student civic movement.
Spiritism in Costa Rica refers to the spiritual trend that emerged in Costa Rica at the beginning of the 20th century and of which renowned figures of the intellectual and political elite were followers.