Tobia Lionelli

Last updated

Tobia Lionelli (1647  17 October 1714) was a SloveneItalian preacher and writer in the Baroque period. His sermons had a crucial role in the affirmation of Slovene as a language. [1] He is also known by his monastic name John Baptist of Sveti Križ in Vipava (Latin : Joannes Baptista à Sancta Cruce Vippacensi; [2] [3] later Slovenized as Janez (Krstnik) Svetokriški, [4] Janez Krstnik od svetega Križa, [5] or Ivan Krstnik od Križa [6] ).


Sacrum promptuarium, vol. 1 Janez Svetokriski - Sacrum promptiuarium (book 1).pdf
Sacrum promptuarium, vol. 1


Lionelli was born to a Slovene mother and an Italian father in the town of Sveti Križ (now Vipavski Križ) in the Vipava Valley, County of Gorizia. A recent theory conjectures that he was actually born as Ivan Hrobat, the illegitimate son of Katarina Hrobat and a nobleman of the Lanthieri family, and that the surname Lionelli was purchased to avoid embarrassment. [7] [8]

He took the name "Joannes Baptista à Sancta Cruce Vippacensi" upon joining the Order of Friars Minor Capuchin in reference to his native town and probably also to the Spanish mystic St. John of the Cross. He served in various monasteries in the Slovene Lands, including the Capuchin monastery of St. Francis Assisi in his native town, and in Croatia. Lionelli died in Gorizia, where he had spent the last years of his life.


Lionelli wrote over 230 sermons, which he published in a series of five books entitled Sacrum promptuarium (The Holy Handbook). [9] One of his best-known sermons is Na noviga lejta dan (On New Year's Day). The publication of these books was financed by members of the nobility and benefactors from within the Church.

Lionelli's Sacrum promptuarium was published between 1691 and 1707. [1] The first two volumes were published in Venice, the remaining three in Ljubljana. They are written in the Brda dialect of Slovene, with strong influence of the neighbouring Inner Carniolan dialect, with numerous Germanisms and Latin quotations. The syntax presents a typical Baroque style, with references to Classical tradition.

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Triglav</span> Mountain in northwest Slovenia; highest peak of the Julian Alps

Triglav, with an elevation of 2,863.65 metres (9,395.2 ft), is the highest mountain in Slovenia and the highest peak of the Julian Alps. The mountain is the pre-eminent symbol of the Slovene nation. It is the centrepiece of Triglav National Park, Slovenia's only national park. Triglav was also the highest peak in Yugoslavia before Slovenia's independence in 1991.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Karawanks</span> Mountain range along the Austria–Slovenia border

The Karawanks or Karavankas or Karavanks are a mountain range of the Southern Limestone Alps on the border between Slovenia to the south and Austria to the north. With a total length of 120 kilometres (75 mi) in an east–west direction, the Karawanks chain is one of the longest ranges in Europe. It is traversed by important trade routes and has a great tourist significance. Geographically and geologically, it is divided into the higher Western Karawanks and the lower-lying Eastern Karawanks. It is traversed by the Periadriatic Seam, separating the Apulian tectonic plate from the Eurasian Plate.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Idrija</span> Place in Slovene Littoral, Slovenia

Idrija is a town in western Slovenia. It is the seat of the Municipality of Idrija. Located in the traditional region of the Slovene Littoral and in the Gorizia Statistical Region, it is notable for its mercury mine with stores and infrastructure, as well as miners' living quarters, and a miners' theatre. Together with the Spanish mine at Almadén, it has been a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 2012. In 2011, Idrija was given the Alpine Town of the Year award.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Kidričevo</span> Place in Styria, Slovenia

Kidričevo is a town near Ptuj in northeastern Slovenia. It is the seat of the Municipality of Kidričevo. The area is part of the traditional region of Styria. The municipality is now included in the Drava Statistical Region. The town is industrialized and best known for the Talum aluminum-smelting factory. The town developed due to the industry in the area and is an example of urban planning in the late 1940s, 1950s, and 1960s.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Janko Prunk</span> Slovenian historian of modern history (born 1942)

Janko Prunk is a Slovenian historian of modern history. He has published articles and monographs on analytical politology, modern history, the genesis of modern political formations, and the history of social and political philosophy in Slovenia. He has also written on the history of political movements in Europe from the end of the 18th century until today, especially about Slovene Christian socialism and the history of Slovenian national questions.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Inner Carniola</span> Traditional region of Slovenia

Inner Carniola is a traditional region of Slovenia, the southwestern part of the larger Carniola region. It comprises the Hrušica karst plateau up to Postojna Gate, bordering the Slovenian Littoral in the west. Its administrative and economic center of the region is Postojna, and other minor centers include Vrhnika, Logatec, Cerknica, Pivka, and Ilirska Bistrica.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Slovene Littoral</span> Traditional region of Slovenia

The Slovene Littoral or simply Littoral is one of the traditional regions of Slovenia. The littoral in its name – for a coastal-adjacent area – recalls the former Austrian Littoral, the Habsburg possessions on the upper Adriatic coast, of which the Slovene Littoral was part. Today, the Littoral is often associated with the Slovenian ethnic territory that, in the first half of the 20th century, found itself in Italy to the west of the Rapallo Border, which separated a quarter of Slovenes from the rest of the nation, and was strongly influenced by Italian fascism.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Žiri</span> Place in Upper Carniola, Slovenia

Žiri is a town in northwestern Slovenia. It is the administrative seat of the Municipality of Žiri, created in 1994. Prior to this the town belonged administratively to the area of Škofja Loka.

Joannes Baptista Dolar was a composer and contemporary of Heinrich Ignaz Franz von Biber, Johann Heinrich Schmelzer, Andreas Hofer and Pavel Josef Vejvanovský.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Edvard Kocbek</span> Slovenian writer

Edvard Kocbek was a Slovenian poet, writer, essayist, translator, member of Christian Socialists in the Liberation Front of the Slovene Nation and Slovene Partisans. He is considered one of the best authors who have written in Slovene, and one of the best Slovene poets after Prešeren. His political role during and after World War II made him one of the most controversial figures in Slovenia in the 20th century.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Slovene Lands</span> Areas where the Slovene language is spoken

The Slovene lands or Slovenian lands is the historical denomination for the territories in Central and Southern Europe where people primarily spoke Slovene. The Slovene lands were part of the Illyrian provinces, the Austrian Empire and Austria-Hungary. They encompassed Carniola, southern part of Carinthia, southern part of Styria, Istria, Gorizia and Gradisca, Trieste, and Prekmurje. Their territory more or less corresponds to modern Slovenia and the adjacent territories in Italy, Austria, Hungary, and Croatia, where autochthonous Slovene minorities live. In the areas where present-day Slovenia borders to neighboring countries, they were never homogeneously ethnically Slovene.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Zbilje</span> Place in Upper Carniola, Slovenia

Zbilje is a settlement in the Municipality of Medvode in the Upper Carniola region of Slovenia.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Vipavski Križ</span> Place in Littoral, Slovenia

Vipavski Križ is a settlement on a small hill in the Vipava Valley in the Municipality of Ajdovščina in the Littoral region of Slovenia. There is evidence of habitation on the hill in the pre-Roman period. The settlement was first mentioned in written documents dating to the 13th century. The houses in the village are clustered inside a defence wall around a castle from the late 15th century. It was built to protect the residents against Ottoman raids. In 1532 Vipavski Križ was declared a town. In 1636 a Capuchin monastery with a rich library was founded in the town and it is now open to visitors.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Dragotin Lončar</span>

Dragotin Lončar was a Slovenian historian, editor, and Social Democratic politician.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Young Slovenes</span>

Young Slovenes were a Slovene national liberal political movement in the 1860s and 1870s, inspired and named after the Young Czechs in Bohemia and Moravia. They were opposed to the national conservative Old Slovenes. They entered a crisis in the 1880s, and disappeared from Slovene politics by the 1890s. They are considered the precursors of Liberalism in Slovenia.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Črni Potok, Šmartno pri Litiji</span> Place in Lower Carniola, Slovenia

Črni Potok is a dispersed settlement in the valley of Black Creek south of Šmartno pri Litiji in central Slovenia. The area is part of the historical region of Lower Carniola. The entire Municipality of Šmartno pri Litiji is now included in the Central Slovenia Statistical Region. It includes the hamlets of Brezje and Sela.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Karst dialect</span> Slovene dialect spoken in northern Karst Plateau and lower Soča Valley

This article uses Logar transcription.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Lambert Ehrlich</span> Carinthian Slovene Roman Catholic priest and ethnologist

Lambert Ehrlich was a Carinthian Slovene Roman Catholic priest, political figure, and ethnologist.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Janko Orožen</span>

Janko Orožen was a Slovene historian and schoolteacher.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Joannes Adamus Gaiger</span>

Joannes Adamus Gaiger was a Slovene philologist, religious writer, lexicographer, translator, and Capuchin.


  1. 1 2 Luthar, Oto (2008). "From Prehistory to the End of the Ancient World". The Land Between: A History of Slovenia. Peter Lang. pp. 224–225. ISBN   978-3-631-57011-1.
  2. Joannes Baptiſta à S. Cruce Vippacenſi. 1696. Sacrum promptuarium. Vol. 3. Ljubljana.
  3. Juvan, Marko. 2008. History and Poetics of Intertextuality. West Lafayette, IN: Purdue University Press, p. 22.
  4. Janez Svetokriški, O. F. M. Cap. Slovenski biografski leksikon. (in Slovene)
  5. Glaser, Karol. 1894. Zgodovina slovenskega slovstva. Vol. 1. Ljubljana: Katoliška tiskarna, p. 223.
  6. Rutar, Simon. 1893. Poknežena grofija Goriška in Gradiščanska: Zgodovinski opis. Ljubljana: Matica Slovenska, p. 128.
  7. Kmecl, Matjaž, Marjan Krušič, & Kazimir Rapoša. 1997. Zakladi Slovenije. Ljubljana: Cankarjeva založba, p. 267.
  8. Kmecl, Matjaž. 2005. A Short Cultural History of the Slovenes. Ljubljana: Slovene PEN.
  9. Simoniti, Vasko (2000). "Deželnoknežja protireformacija in katoliška obnova" [The Provincial Princely Counter-Reformation and the Catholic Restoration]. In Vidic, Marko (ed.). Ilustrirana zgodovina Slovencev[The Illustrated History of the Slovenes] (in Slovenian). Mladinska knjiga. p. 171. ISBN   86-11-15664-1.