|Tobias and the Angel|
|Type||Oil and tempera on panel|
|Dimensions||32.7 cm× 23.5 cm(12.9 in× 9.3 in)|
|Location||National Gallery of Art, Washington|
Tobias and the Angel is an oil and tempera on poplar panel painting by the Florentine Renaissance painter Filippino Lippi, dating from c. 1475–1480. It is housed in the National Gallery of Art of Washington, DC.
The work, in oil paint and tempera on a poplar panel, measures 32.7 cm × 23.5 cm (12.9 in × 9.3 in). It depicts a biblical scene of Tobias and Raphael. In the Book of Tobit, Tobias, son of the blinded Tobit, was sent from Nineveh to Ecbatana to collect a debt The archangel Raphael, disguised as the human Azariah, was sent to accompany Tobias on his errand. On the journey, the angel will advise Tobias to catch a fish from the River Tigris and then to create remedy for his father's blindness using the fish's gall.
The two main figures are depicted walking through a landscape, accompanied by a white dog, with trees and a river, and a tall tower to the right. They are arm in arm, their blond heads inclined towards each other, with their slightly unstable posture indicating they are walking. The winged Raphael in a blue gown and Tobias in a blue tunic with red cloak. The boy holds the fish in his left hand, and the angel holds a small golden mortar to make the remedy in his right hand.
The subject of Tobias and the Angel was popular with the wealthy merchants of Renaissance Florence, combining themes of the recovery of debts, the healing of the sick, a youth taking good advice from his elders and developing into adulthood, and Christ (the fish) and baptism (the waters of the Tigris). It also had resonances with the common experience of merchants' sons being sent on trading missions to distant locations.
Trained initially by his father Filippo Lippi, after his father's death Filippino Lippi became a pupil of Sandro Botticelli in 1472. This painting is an early work, with a similar composition to earlier works by Antonio del Pollaiuolo and Andrea del Verrocchio. A later painting by Filippino Lippi, his c. 1485 Three Angels and Young Tobias , in the Galleria Sabauda in Turin, depicts a similar scene, with Tobias accompanied by the archangels Raphael, Michael, and Gabriel.
The early history of the painting is not known. It was sold from the collection of Alexander Barker in 1879, and passed through the collections of William Cornwallis-West, and Robert Henry Benson. The Benson Collection was sold to Duveen Brothers in 1927, and the painting was acquired by the Samuel H. Kress Foundation in 1936. It was donated to the National Gallery of Art of Washington, DC in 1939 and where it is held as part of the gallery's Samuel H. Kress Collection.
Alessandro di Mariano di Vanni Filipepi, better known as Sandro Botticelli or simply Botticelli, was an Italian painter of the Early Renaissance. Botticelli's posthumous reputation suffered until the late 19th century, when he was rediscovered by the Pre-Raphaelites who stimulated a reappraisal of his work. Since then, his paintings have been seen to represent the linear grace of late Italian Gothic and some Early Renaissance painting, even though they date from the latter half of the Italian Renaissance period.
The Book of Tobit, also known as the Book of Tobias or the Book of Tobi, is a 3rd or early 2nd century BC Jewish work describing how God tests the faithful, responds to prayers, and protects the covenant community. It tells the story of two Israelite families, that of the blind Tobit in Nineveh and of the abandoned Sarah in Ecbatana. Tobit's son Tobias is sent to retrieve ten silver talents that Tobit once left in Rages, a town in Media; guided and aided by the angel Raphael he arrives in Ecbatana, where he meets Sarah. A demon named Asmodeus has fallen in love with her and kills anyone she intends to marry, but with the aid of Raphael the demon is exorcised and Tobias and Sarah marry, after which they return to Nineveh where Tobit is cured of his blindness.
Filippino Lippi was an Italian painter working in Florence, Italy during the later years of the Early Renaissance and first few years of the High Renaissance.
Andrea del Verrocchio, born Andrea di Michele di Francesco de' Cioni, was a sculptor, Italian painter and goldsmith who was a master of an important workshop in Florence.
Antonio del Pollaiuolo, also known as Antonio di Jacopo Pollaiuolo or Antonio Pollaiuolo, was an Italian Renaissance painter, sculptor, engraver, and goldsmith, who made important works in all these media, as well as designing works in others, for example vestments, metal embroidery being a medium he worked in at the start of his career.
Piero del Pollaiuolo, whose birth name was Piero Benci, was an Italian Renaissance painter from Florence. His older brother, by about ten years, was the artist Antonio del Pollaiuolo and the two frequently worked together. Their work shows both classical influences and an interest in human anatomy; according to Vasari, the brothers carried out dissections to improve their knowledge of the subject.
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Pietro Perugino, born Pietro Vannucci, was an Italian Renaissance painter of the Umbrian school, who developed some of the qualities that found classic expression in the High Renaissance. Raphael was his most famous pupil.
Filippo Lippi, also known as Lippo Lippi, was an Italian painter of the Quattrocento and a Carmelite priest. He was an early Renaissance master of a painting workshop, who taught many painters. Sandro Botticelli and Francesco di Pesello were among his most distinguished pupils. His son, Filippino Lippi, also studied under him and assisted in some late works.
Tobias and the Angel is an altar painting, finished around 1470–1475, attributed to the workshop of the Italian Renaissance painter Andrea del Verrocchio. It is housed in the National Gallery, London. This painting is similar to an earlier painting depicting Tobias and the Angel, by Antonio del Pollaiuolo.
The Galleria Sabauda is an art collection in the Italian city of Turin, which contains the royal art collections amassed by the House of Savoy over the centuries. It is located on Via XX Settembre, 86.
This article about the development of themes in Italian Renaissance painting is an extension to the article Italian Renaissance painting, for which it provides additional pictures with commentary. The works encompassed are from Giotto in the early 14th century to Michelangelo's Last Judgement of the 1530s.
Three Archangels with Young Tobias is a painting by the Italian Renaissance painter Filippino Lippi, dated c. 1485. It is housed in the Galleria Sabauda of Turin.
Tobias and the Angel is the title given to paintings and other artworks depicting a scene from the Book of Tobit in which Tobias, son of Tobit, meets an angel without realising he is an angel (5.5–6) and is then instructed by the angel what to do with a giant fish he catches (6.2–9).
Jacopo del Sellaio (1441/42–1493), was an Italian painter of the early Renaissance, active in his native Florence. His real name was Jacopo di Arcangelo. He worked in an eclectic style based on those of Botticelli, Filippino Lippi, and Domenico Ghirlandaio. The nickname Sellaio derives from the profession of his father, a saddle maker.
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Tobias and the Angel is a theme in art taken from the Book of Tobit. It may refer to a number of works of art and music, including:
Madonna of the Fish, known also as Madonna with the Fish is a painting by the High Renaissance master Raphael, dated to 1512-14. It is now in the Museo del Prado, Madrid. Mary sits enthroned with Jesus on her knee. On one side is St. Jerome kneeling by the Lion; he is holding a book. On the other side the archangel Raphael is presenting at the foot of the throne the young Tobias, whom he formerly guided to the River Tigris, and who bears the miraculous fish whose heart, liver and gall were to restore his father's sight, and drive the demons from his bride.
Profile Portrait of a Young Lady is a 1465 half-length portrait, made with oil-based paint and tempera on a poplar panel, usually attributed to Antonio del Pollaiuolo, although the owning museum, the Gemäldegalerie in Berlin, now describes this work as by his brother Piero del Pollaiuolo, and as one of its most famous paintings, and as one of the most famous portraits of women from the early Italian Renaissance.