Tobolsk Governorate

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Tobolsk Governorate
Тобольская губерния
Governorate of the Russian Empire (1796–1917), Russian Republic and RSFSR (1917–1920)
1796–1920
Coat of arms of Tobolsk Governorate 1878.svg
Coat of arms
Tobolsk in Russian Empire (1914).svg
Toblosk Governorate within the Russian Empire
CapitalTobolsk (1796–1919)
Tyumen (1919–1920)
Area 
 1916
1,385,000 km2 (535,000 sq mi)
Population 
 1897
1,433,043
History 
 Established
1796
 Disestablished
1920
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Blank.png Tobolsk Viceroyalty
Tyumen Governorate Blank.png
Tomsk Governorate Blank.png
Akmolinsk Oblast (Russian Empire) Blank.png
Today part of Russia

Tobolsk Governorate (Russian : Тобольская губерния, romanized: Tobol'skaya guberniya) was an administrative-territorial unit ( guberniya ) of the Russian Empire, Russian Republic and Russian SFSR located in the Ural Mountains and Siberia. It existed from 1796 to 1920; its seat was in the city of Tobolsk, and from 1919 to 1920, in the city of Tyumen.

Contents

Windmills in the Yalutorovsky uezd of the Tobolsk Governorate (1912). Color photo by Sergei Prokudin-Gorskii.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Photos of Tobolsk Governorate by Sergey Prokudin-Gorsky
. Gorskii 03965u windmills.jpg
Windmills in the Yalutorovsky uezd of the Tobolsk Governorate (1912). Color photo by Sergei Prokudin-Gorskii.

General information

Its total area as of 1913 was 1,300,000 km2 (500,000 sq mi). According to data at the end of the 19th century, the area of the Governorate was divided into 10 uezds (until 1898, okrugs ).

History

18th century

In official documents of the second half of the 18th century, the name Tobolsk Governorate is often used as a designation for Siberia Governorate in the last stage of its existence (1764–1782). [1]

On 19 January (30 January) 1782, Tobolsk Governorate was formed by decree of the Empress of Russia Catherine II as part of the Tobolsk Viceroyalty with two oblasts: Tobolsk Oblast (included ten uezds) and Tomsk Oblast (six uezds), which became part of the Governorate-General.

On 12 December 1796, the Tobolsk Governorate was formed by Emperor Paul I's Decree to the Senate "On the new division of the State into the Governorates". [2] Kolyvan Oblast was annexed to Tobolsk Governorate. [1]

In 1797, Tobolsk Governorate consisted of 16 uezds: Kuznetsk Uezd, Semipalatinsk Uezd, Krasnoyarsk Uezd, Ishimsky Uezd, Yalutorovsky Uezd, Kurgansky Uezd, Beryozovsky Uezd, Tarsky Uezd, Turinsky Uezd, Tyumensky Uezd, Tobolsky Uezd, Surgutsky Uezd, Tomsk Uezd, Narymsky Uezd, Yenisei Uezd, and Turukhansky Uezd. [3]

Tobolsk Governorate (16 uezds), Atlas of Russian Empire (Alexander Wilbrecht Mikhaylovich [ru; ee], 1800). Atlas of Russian Empire (1800). Tobolsk governorate.jpg
Tobolsk Governorate (16 uezds), Atlas of Russian Empire (Alexander Wilbrecht Mikhaylovich  [ ru; ee ], 1800).

19th century

The map of Tobolsk Governorate (16 uezds) from the publication "The Russian Atlas of forty-three maps consisting of forty-one provinces dividing the Empire" (Alexander Wilbrecht  [ ru; et ], 1800) shows the vast Siberian province of Tobol'sk with the borders of the province and its districts, population centers, monasteries, winter encampments, fortresses, mines, salt and fish industries, and the routes of voyages by Malygin Stepan (1734, 1735), Aleksej Ivanovič Skuratov (1734, 1735), Dmitry Ovtsyn (1735), Stepan Voinovich Muravyov (1737), Pavlov Mikhail Stepanovich (1737), Rozmyslov Feodor (1768), and the location where Dutch ships wintered in 1596. The title of this map is in an artistic cartouche with a drawing of a hunting scene, mining symbols, and a maiden with an urn – an allegorical symbol of the Ob' River. [5]

In 1802, the Tobolsk Governorate along with the Irkutsk Governorate, became part of the Siberian General Governorate by decree of Emperor Alexander I.

In 1822, the Siberian General Governorate was divided into the West Siberian General Governorate and East Siberian General Governorate. Tobolsk Governorate became part of the West Siberian General Governorate, which existed until 1882.

On 26 February (9 March) 1804, part of the territory of the Tobolsk Governorate was allocated to the Tomsk Governorate. [6] As part of the Tobolsk Governorate nine uezds remained: Beryozovsky Uezd, Ishimsky Uezd, Kurgansky Uezd, Omsky Uezd, Tarsky Uezd, Tobolsky Uezd, Turinsky Uezd, Tyumensky Uezd and Yalutorovsky Uezd.

In 1822, the Omsk Uezd and other territories were transferred to the Omsk Oblast (until 1838); the uezds of the Tobolsk Governorate were renamed okrugs, and the new Tyukalinsky Okrug was formed (which remained until 1838). [1]

In 1838, the okrug city of Omsk became part of the Tobolsk Governorate.

In 1868 Omsk was transferred to the newly formed the Akmolinsk Oblast. The Surgut Okrug was newly formed by separation from the Berezovsky Okrug.

In 1876, the Omsk District was transformed into the Tyukalinsky District.

Tobolsk Governorate was among the 17 regions recognized as seriously affected during the famine of 1891–1892.

In 1898, the okrugs of the governorate were renamed uyezds.

In 1885, permanent traffic was opened along the railway lines Yekaterinburg–Tura (Tyumen), and in 1896 ChelyabinskOmskNovonikolaevsk of the Trans-Siberian Railway.

20th century

Between 1909 and 1916, Sergey Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorsky, pioneer of color photography, traveled a significant part of the Russian Empire including Tobolsk Governorate, photographing ancient temples, monasteries, factories, types of cities and various household scenes.

In 1917, after the Bolsheviks came to power, the first attempt to organize Kalachinsky Uezd from part of Tyukalinsky Uezd occurred for convenient control of the remote southeastern territories of the governorate. The first member of the food committee from Kalachinsky Uezd was Yakov Martynovich Kalnin, a Latvian poet and teacher. From 1917 to 1919, in the ups and downs of the Civil War, the uezd was liquidated more than once and re-created by different authorities, transferred from the Tobolsk Governorate to the Akmolinsk Oblast (Omsk).

Coat of arms of the Tobolsk Governorate (1878) Tobol'skaia gub MVD Benke.jpg
Coat of arms of the Tobolsk Governorate (1878)

On 1 January (14 January), 1918, according to the decree Article No.158 of administration of the Council of People's Commissars of the USSR, the Troitskaya volost of the Tyukalinsky Uezd was included in the newly formed Tatarsky Uezd of the Akmolinsk Oblast. [7]

On 1 February (10 February), 1918, the First Extraordinary Session of the Tobolsk Governorate Zemstvo Assembly approved the separation of Kalachinsky Uezd from Tyukalinsky Uezd; Tarsky Uezd and Tyukalinsky Uezd moved to the Omsk Oblast. Kurgan Uezd remained an independent governorate, proclaimed Tyumen Governorate[ clarification needed ] with Ishimsky Uezd, Yalutorovsky Uezd, Tyumensky Uezd and Turinsky Uezd.

Soviet power was established by the spring of 1918. [1]

On 3–5 April 1918, the Soviet governorate conference decided to transfer the administrative center from Tobolsk to Tyumen and rename the province to Tyumen. The Tobolsk Soviets opposed this and on 30 April 1918 proclaimed themselves a separate governorate. [1]

In June 1918, the Tobolsk Governorate came under the control of the White Army. [1] The revolt of the Czechoslovak Legion temporarily restored the status quo.

From August to November 1919, as a result of the offensive of the Eastern Front, Tyumen and Tobolsk passed to the Bolsheviks and the governorate institutions moved to Tyumen.

On 27 August 1919, by the decree of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee of the RSFSR, Tobolsk Governorate consisted of the following six uezds: Obdorsky Uezd, Beryozovsky Uezd, Surgutsky Uezd, Tobolsky Uezd, Tyumensky Uezd and Yalutorovsky Uezd. Ishimsky Uezd, Tarsky Uezd and Tyukalinsky Uezd (including the territory of Kalachinsky Uezd, which actually existed since 1918, but was not officially registered) went to the Omsk Governorate. [1] Kurgansky Uezd became part of the Chelyabinsk Governorate. [8]

By a decree of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee dated 6 October 1919, Turin Uezd was returned to the Tobolsk Governorate. [1]

From October 1919 to April 1920 the governorate was called either Tobolsk or Tyumen; the renaming of Tobolsk Governorate to Tyumen Governorate was finally fixed by the decree of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee of 21 April (2 March), 1920.

Coat of arms of the Tobolsk Governorate

The coat of arms of the Tobolsk Governorate was approved on 5 July 1878:

"In the golden shield there is a scarlet ataman's mace, on which is Yermak's black shield, round, decorated with precious stones, between two scarlet banners with black shafts and points from a spear placed obliquely across. The shield is surmounted by the Imperial crown and surrounded by golden oak leaves connected by St. Andrew's ribbon."[ This quote needs a citation ]

Subdivisions

No. Uezd Uezd Town (population)Area sq. verst Population

(1916)

1 Beryozovsky Uezd Beryozovo (1,301)
Berezovo COA (Tobolsk Governorate) (1785).png
604,442.229,190
2 Ishimsky Uezd Ishim (14,226)
Ishim COA (Tobolsk Governorate) (1785).png
37,604.6367,066
3 Kurgansky Uezd Kurgan (39,854)
Gerb Kurgana.svg
20,281.6359,223
4 Surgutsky Uezd Surgut (1,602)
Coat of Arms of Surgut (1785).svg
220,452.411,561
5 Tarsky Uezd Tara (11,229)
Gerb Tara 2.gif
71,542.1268,410
6 Tobolsky Uezd Tobolsk (23,357)
Tobolsk COA (Tobolsk Governorate) (1785).png
108,296.0147,719
7 Turinsky Uezd Turinsk (2,821)
Turinsk COA (Tobolsk Governorate) (1785).png
67,008.696,942
8 Tyukalinsky Uezd Tyukalinsk (2,702)
Gerb Tiukalinskogo uezda.gif
55,049.3344,601
9 Tyumensky Uezd Tyumen (56,668)
Tyumen COA (Tobolsk Governorate) (1785).png
15,608.0171,032
10 Yalutorovsky Uezd Yalutorovsk (3,835)
Yalutorovsk COA (Tobolsk Governorate) (1785).png
18,944.9216,792

Demographics

The Tobolsk area long served the Tsars as a place of exile for dissidents and suspects. [9] From its founding in 1796, the Tobolsk Governorate operated as a destination for convicts, including for the Decembrists. [1] Sending exiled Decembrists to Siberia took two years - from 1826 to 1828.[ clarification needed ] Wives, brides, sisters, and mothers of the Decembrists sentenced to hard labor voluntarily followed their men-folk to Siberia. Some of the exiles settled and remained in the Tobolsk area, even after amnesty. Others moved elsewhere. (The Russian Provisional Government moved the household of the deposed and arrested Imperial family to Tobolsk in August 1917, but the Bolsheviks transferred them to Yekaterinburg in April 1918.)

From the 18th to the early-20th centuries in the southern uyezdy (counties) of the Tobolsk province, peasant colonization continued. [1]

The Governorate's population was 831,100 in 1846, 1,433,043 in 1897, and 2,100,000 in 1916. [1]

At the time of the Russian Empire Census of 1897, the Tobolsk Governorate had a population of 1,433,043, of which 87,351 people lived in cities. Of these, 88.6% spoke Russian, 4.0% Siberian Tatar, 2.6% Ukrainian, 1.3% Khanty, 0.5% Kazakh, 0.5% Komi-Zyrian, 0.4% Polish, 0.3% Mansi, 0.3% Nenets, 0.3% Belarusian, 0.2% Latvian, 0.2% Yiddish, 0.1% Estonian, 0.1% Romani, 0.1% Mordvin, 0.1% German and 0.1% Finnish as their native language. [10]

The religious composition of the population in 1897 was dominated by the Orthodox with 89.0%. 5.1% were Old Believers and "devoids of Orthodoxy;"[ clarification needed ] 4.5% were Muslims. [11]

The percentage of literacy was 11.3% (men 17.7%, women 5.0%)

Economics

In the southern and central regions, agriculture played the main role in the economy. [1]

Animal husbandry developed (including deer breeding in the north of the Tobolsk province), and butter-making was common. [1]

In the northern and central regions of the Tobolsk Governorate, hunting, fishing, collecting pine nuts (predominant among inorodtsy ), woodworking, etc. were important. [1]

Permanent traffic was opened along the Yekaterinburg–Tura (Tyumen) railway line (1885), as well as the Chelyabinsk–Omsk–Novonikolaevsk stretch (1896) of the Trans-Siberian Railway. [1]

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References

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 "ТОБОЛЬСКАЯ ГУБЕРНИЯ • Большая российская энциклопедия - электронная версия" [TOBOLSK Governorate • Great Russian encyclopedia - electronic version]. bigenc.ru. Retrieved 21 September 2022.
  2. "Полное собрание законов Российской империи: Собрание (1649 - 1825) : Том 24 (1796 - 1797) : Законы (17530 - 18301) №17634" [Complete collection of laws of the Russian Empire: Assembly (1649 - 1825) : Volume 24 (1796 - 1797) : Laws (17530 - 18301) №17634]. nlr.ru (in Russian). 1796. p. 229. Retrieved 21 September 2022.
  3. "Полное собрание законов Российской империи:Собрание (1649 - 1825) : Том 24 (1796 - 1797) : Законы (17530 - 18301) №18233" [Complete collection of laws of the Russian Empire: Collection (1649 - 1825): Volume 24 (1796 - 1797): Laws (17530 - 18301) No. 18233]. nlr.ru (in Russian). 1797. p. 789. Retrieved 21 September 2022.
  4. "41. Карта Тобольской губернии из 16 уездов | Геопортал Русского географического общества" [41. Map of the Tobolsk province of 16 counties | Geoportal of the Russian Geographical Society]. geoportal.rgo.ru. Retrieved 12 October 2022.
  5. 1 2 "Karta Tobol'skoĭ gubernii iz 16 uezdov". Library of Congress, Washington, D.C. 20540 USA. Retrieved 12 October 2022.
  6. "Полное собрание законов Российской Империи. Собрание Первое. Том XXVIII. Закон 21.183" [Complete collection of laws of the Russian Empire. Assembly First. Volume XXVIII. Law 21.183.]. runivers.ru (in Russian). 26 February 1804. p. 156. Retrieved 21 September 2022.
  7. "№ 158. О сформировании из 20 волостей Каинского уезда, Томской губ., и Троицкой волости, Тюкалинского уезда, самостоятельного Татарского уезда, с созданием уездного центра в гор. Татарске. | Проект "Исторические Материалы"" [No. 158. On the formation of the 20 volosts of the Kainsky district, the Tomsk province, and the Troitsk volost, the Tyukalinsky district, an independent Tatar district, with the creation of a county center in the mountains. Tatarsk. Project "Historical Materials"]. istmat.org. Retrieved 21 September 2022.
  8. "№ 437. Постановление Всероссийского Центрального Исполнительного Комитета Советов. Об организации гражданского управления Сибири. | Проект "Исторические Материалы"" [No. 437. Decree of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee of Soviets. On the organization of the civil administration of Siberia. Project "Historical Materials"]. istmat.org. 27 August 1919. Retrieved 21 September 2022.
  9. Note the exile of Juraj Križanić to Tobolsk from 1661 to 1676.
  10. "Первая всеобщая перепись населения Российской Империи 1897. Демоскоп Weekly - Приложение. Справочник статистических показателей" [The first general census of the population of the Russian Empire in 1897]. www.demoscope.ru. Retrieved 17 December 2019.
  11. "Первая всеобщая перепись населения Российской Империи 1897. Распределение населения по полу, десятилетним возрастным группам и грамотности. Демоскоп Weekly - Приложение. Справочник статистических показателей" [The first general census of the population of the Russian Empire in 1897. Distribution of the population by sex, ten-year age groups and literacy]. www.demoscope.ru. Retrieved 21 September 2022.

58°11′43″N68°15′29″E / 58.1953°N 68.2581°E / 58.1953; 68.2581