Toby Howard

Last updated

Toby Howard
Toby Howard P1010750 (13870741734).jpg
Alma mater University of Manchester
Scientific career
Institutions University of Manchester
Doctoral students

Toby L. J. Howard is an Honorary Reader in the Department of Computer Science at the University of Manchester in the UK. He was appointed Lecturer in 1985, and was Director of Undergraduate Studies in the Department 2011–2019. He retired from the University in 2020 and was appointed to an Honorary position. [10] [11] [12] [13] [14]



Howard was educated at Birkenhead School, and then the University of Manchester receiving a Bachelor of Science degree in computer science and a Master of Science degree in 1983 for work on the graphics facilities of the MU6 network. [15]


Howard's research interests are computer graphics and virtual environments. [16] [17] [18] [19] as a member of the Advanced Interfaces Group (AIG) [20] and has supervised several doctoral students. [1] [3] [5] [7] [9] [21] Howard's research projects have included:


Howard led the undergraduate courses COMP27112Computer Graphics and Image Processing and COMP37111 Advanced Computer Graphics. At Masters level he taught computer graphics and databases.

Public engagement

Howard was active in public engagement, focusing on projects with schools. He founded and led the annual UK Schools Computer Animation Competition which ran 2008–2018. [23]

Other activities

Howard is active in documenting the history of computers developed at the University of Manchester.

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Augmented reality</span> View of the real world with computer-generated supplementary features

Augmented reality (AR) is an interactive experience that combines the real world and computer-generated content. The content can span multiple sensory modalities, including visual, auditory, haptic, somatosensory and olfactory. AR can be defined as a system that incorporates three basic features: a combination of real and virtual worlds, real-time interaction, and accurate 3D registration of virtual and real objects. The overlaid sensory information can be constructive, or destructive. This experience is seamlessly interwoven with the physical world such that it is perceived as an immersive aspect of the real environment. In this way, augmented reality alters one's ongoing perception of a real-world environment, whereas virtual reality completely replaces the user's real-world environment with a simulated one.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Department of Computer Science, University of Manchester</span>

The Department of Computer Science at the University of Manchester is the longest established department of Computer Science in the United Kingdom and one of the largest. It is located in the Kilburn Building on the Oxford Road and currently has over 800 students taking a wide range of undergraduate and postgraduate courses and 60 full-time academic staff.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Computer-mediated reality</span> Ability to manipulate ones perception of reality through the use of a computer

Computer-mediated reality refers to the ability to add to, subtract information from, or otherwise manipulate one's perception of reality through the use of a wearable computer or hand-held device such as a smartphone.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Mixed reality</span> Merging of real and virtual worlds to produce new environments

Mixed reality (MR) is a term used to describe the merging of a real-world environment and a computer-generated one. Physical and virtual objects may co-exist in mixed reality environments and interact in real time.

Thomas Albert "Tom" DeFanti is an American computer graphics researcher and pioneer. His work has ranged from early computer animation, to scientific visualization, virtual reality, and grid computing. He is a distinguished professor of Computer Science at the University of Illinois at Chicago, and a research scientist at the California Institute for Telecommunications and Information Technology (Calit2).

The Electronic Visualization Laboratory (EVL) is an interdisciplinary research lab and graduate studies program at the University of Illinois at Chicago, bringing together faculty, students and staff primarily from the Art and Computer Science departments of UIC. The primary areas of research are in computer graphics, visualization, virtual and augmented reality, advanced networking, and media art. Graduates of EVL either earn a Masters or Doctoral degree in Computer Science.

A virtual fixture is an overlay of augmented sensory information upon a user's perception of a real environment in order to improve human performance in both direct and remotely manipulated tasks. Developed in the early 1990s by Louis Rosenberg at the U.S. Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), Virtual Fixtures was a pioneering platform in virtual reality and augmented reality technologies.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Immersion (virtual reality)</span> Perception of being physically present in a non-physical world

Immersion into virtual reality (VR) is a perception of being physically present in a non-physical world. The perception is created by surrounding the user of the VR system in images, sound or other stimuli that provide an engrossing total environment.

A projection augmented model is an element sometimes employed in virtual reality systems. It consists of a physical three-dimensional model onto which a computer image is projected to create a realistic looking object. Importantly, the physical model is the same geometric shape as the object that the PA model depicts.

In computing, 3D interaction is a form of human-machine interaction where users are able to move and perform interaction in 3D space. Both human and machine process information where the physical position of elements in the 3D space is relevant.

Carsten Lund is a Danish-born theoretical computer scientist, currently working at AT&T Labs in Bedminster, New Jersey, United States.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Steve Pettifer</span>

Stephen Robert Pettifer is a Professor in the Department of Computer Science at the University of Manchester in England.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Carolina Cruz-Neira</span> American computer scientist and educator

Carolina Cruz-Neira is a Spanish-Venezuelan-American computer engineer, researcher, designer, educator, and a pioneer of virtual reality (VR). She is known for inventing the cave automatic virtual environment (CAVE). She previously worked at Iowa State University (ISU), University of Louisiana at Lafayette, University of Arkansas at Little Rock, and she is currently an Agere Chair Professor at University of Central Florida (UCF).

Dieter Schmalstieg is an Austrian computer scientist, full professor, and head of the Institute of Computer Graphics and Vision (ICG) at Graz University of Technology. In 1993 he received a master of science diploma and in 1997 the degree of doctor of technical sciences. Currently he has over 300 peer-reviewed works which were cited over 20,000 times which brought him an h-index of 70.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Hao Li</span> American computer scientist & university professor

Hao Li is a computer scientist, innovator, and entrepreneur from Germany, working in the fields of computer graphics and computer vision. He is co-founder and CEO of Pinscreen, Inc, as well as associate professor of computer vision at the Mohamed Bin Zayed University of Artificial Intelligence (MBZUAI). He was previously a Distinguished Fellow at the University of California, Berkeley, an associate professor of computer science at the University of Southern California, and former director of the Vision and Graphics Lab at the USC Institute for Creative Technologies. He was also a visiting professor at Weta Digital and a research lead at Industrial Light & Magic / Lucasfilm.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Industrial augmented reality</span>

Industrial augmented reality (IAR) is related to the application of augmented reality (AR) and heads-up displays to support an industrial process. The use of IAR dates back to the 1990s with the work of Thomas Caudell and David Mizell about the application of AR at Boeing. Since then several applications of this technique over the years have been proposed showing its potential in supporting some industrial processes. Although there have been several advances in technology, IAR is still considered to be at an infant developmental stage.

Ronald Azuma is an American computer scientist, widely recognized for contributing to the field of augmented reality (AR). His work A survey of augmented reality became the most cited article in the AR field and is one of the most influential MIT Press papers of all time. Azuma is considered to provide a commonly accepted definition of AR and is often named one of AR’s most recognized experts.

Virtual reality (VR) is a computer application which allows users to experience immersive, three dimensional visual and audio simulations. According to Pinho (2004), virtual reality is characterized by immersion in the 3D world, interaction with virtual objects, and involvement in exploring the virtual environment. The feasibility of the virtual reality in education has been debated due to several obstacles such as affordability of VR software and hardware. The psychological effects of virtual reality are also a negative consideration. However, recent technological progress has made VR more viable and promise new learning models and styles for students. These facets of virtual reality have found applications within the primary education sphere in enhancing student learning, increasing engagement, and creating new opportunities for addressing learning preferences.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Studierfenster</span>

Studierfenster or StudierFenster (SF) is a free, non-commercial open science client/server-based medical imaging processing online framework. It offers capabilities, like viewing medical data (computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), etc.) in two- and three-dimensional space directly in the standard web browsers, like Google Chrome, Mozilla Firefox, Safari, and Microsoft Edge. Other functionalities are the calculation of medical metrics (dice score and Hausdorff distance), manual slice-by-slice outlining of structures in medical images (segmentation), manual placing of (anatomical) landmarks in medical image data, viewing medical data in virtual reality, a facial reconstruction and registration of medical data for augmented reality, one click showcases for COVID-19 and veterinary scans, and a Radiomics module.

Steven Mark Drucker is an American computer scientist who studies how to help people understand data, and communicate their insights to others. He is a Partner at Microsoft Research, where he also serves as the Research Manager of the VIDA group. Drucker is an affiliate professor at the University of Washington Computer Science and Engineering Department.


  1. 1 2 Albin-Clark, Adrian (2012). Simulating characters for observation: Bridging theory and practice (PhD thesis). University of Manchester.
  2. Albin-Clark, A.; Howard, T. L. J.; Anderson, B. (2011). "Real-time computer graphics simulation of blockplay in early childhood". Computers & Education. 57 (4): 2496. doi:10.1016/j.compedu.2011.07.004.
  3. 1 2 Broughton, Russell Alan (2007). Framework for plausible augmentation of virtual environments (PhD thesis). University of Manchester.
  4. Broughton, R. A.; Howard, T. L. J. (2005). "Augmenting existing virtual environments with plausible naturalistic clutter". 2005 International Conference on Cyberworlds (CW'05). p. 8. doi:10.1109/CW.2005.22. ISBN   978-0769523781. S2CID   187981.
  5. 1 2 Caillette, Fabrice (2006). Real-time markerless 3-D human body tracking (PhD thesis). University of Manchester. Archived from the original on 20 July 2013.
  6. Caillette, F.; Galata, A.; Howard, T. (2008). "Real-time 3-D human body tracking using learnt models of behaviour" (PDF). Computer Vision and Image Understanding. 109 (2): 112. doi:10.1016/j.cviu.2007.05.005.
  7. 1 2 Gaborit, Nicholas (2006). Interaction mechanisms in a collaborative large scale virtual environment for public consultation (PhD thesis). University of Manchester.
  8. Gaborit, N.; Howard, T. (2004). "A collaborative virtual environment for public consultation in the urban planning process". Proceedings Theory and Practice of Computer Graphics. p. 104. doi:10.1109/TPCG.2004.1314459. ISBN   978-0769521374. S2CID   14786779.
  9. 1 2 Sayeed, Rezwan (2010). Illustrative non-photorealistic rendering techniques for GPU architectures (PhD thesis). University of Manchester.
  10. Toby Howard publications indexed by Google Scholar OOjs UI icon edit-ltr-progressive.svg
  11. Toby Howard publications indexed by Microsoft Academic
  12. Toby Howard at DBLP Bibliography Server OOjs UI icon edit-ltr-progressive.svg
  13. Howard, Toby L J's publications indexed by the Scopus bibliographic database. (subscription required)
  14. Toby L J Howard author profile page at the ACM Digital Library OOjs UI icon edit-ltr-progressive.svg
  15. Howard, Toby L.J. (1983). Graphics facilities for the MU6 network (MSc thesis). University of Manchester. Archived from the original on 20 July 2013.
  16. Caillette, F.; Howard, T. (2004). "Real-Time Markerless Human Body Tracking Using Colored Voxels and 3-D Blobs" (PDF). Third IEEE and ACM International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality. p. 266. CiteSeerX . doi:10.1109/ISMAR.2004.50. ISBN   978-0769521916. S2CID   10235875.
  17. Howard, T. L. J. (1991). A Practical introduction to PHIGS and PHIGS plus. Boston: Addison-Wesley. ISBN   978-0201416411.
  18. 1 2 Hubbold, R.; Cook, J.; Keates, M.; Gibson, S.; Howard, T.; Murta, A.; West, A.; Pettifer, S. (1999). "GNU/MAVERIK". Proceedings of the ACM symposium on Virtual reality software and technology – VRST '99. p. 66. doi:10.1145/323663.323674. ISBN   978-1581131413. S2CID   9444800.
  19. Gibson, S.; Hubbold, R. J.; Cook, J.; Howard, T. L. J. (2003). "Interactive reconstruction of virtual environments from video sequences". Computers & Graphics. 27 (2): 293. CiteSeerX . doi:10.1016/S0097-8493(02)00285-6.
  20. Archived 2004-07-30 at the Wayback Machine
  21. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 "Toby Howard: research". Archived from the original on 15 April 2014.
  22. Murray, C. D.; Pettifer, S.; Howard, T.; Patchick, E. L.; Caillette, F.; Kulkarni, J.; Bamford, C. (2007). "The treatment of phantom limb pain using immersive virtual reality: Three case studies". Disability & Rehabilitation. 29 (18): 1465–9. doi:10.1080/09638280601107385. PMID   17729094. S2CID   15764265.
  23. "The UK Schools Computer Animation Competition".