Tocharian and Indo-European Studies (TIES) is a scholarly journal on Tocharian in the Indo-European context, established in 1987 by the Icelandic linguist Jörundur Garðar Hilmarsson. The journal initially appeared in Reykjavík, Iceland, but after Hilmarsson's death in 1992, the Danish linguist Jens Elmegård Rasmussen became the new executive editor, and the journal is currently based at Museum Tusculanum Press in Copenhagen. Until 2008 it was based at C.A. Reitzel Publishers Ltd., also in Copenhagen. When Rasmussen died in 2013, Birgit Anette Olsen became the new executive editor.
The Tocharianlanguages, also known as Arśi-Kuči, Agnean-Kuchean or Kuchean-Agnean, are an extinct branch of the Indo-European language family spoken by inhabitants of the Tarim Basin, the Tocharians. The languages are known from manuscripts dating from the 5th to the 8th century AD, which were found in oasis cities on the northern edge of the Tarim Basin and the Lop Desert. The discovery of these languages in the early 20th century contradicted the formerly prevalent idea of an east–west division of the Indo-European language family as Centum and satem languages, and prompted reinvigorated study of the Indo-European family. Scholars studying these manuscripts in the early 20th century identified their authors with the Tokharoi, a name used in ancient sources for people of Bactria (Tokharistan). Although this identification is now believed to be mistaken, "Tocharian" remains the usual term for these languages.
The Tocharians, or Tokharians, were speakers of Tocharian languages, Indo-European languages known from around 7600 documents from around 400 to 1200 AD, found on the northern edge of the Tarim Basin . The name "Tocharian" was given to these languages in the early 20th century by scholars who identified their speakers with a people known in ancient Greek sources as the Tókharoi, who inhabited Bactria from the 2nd century BC. This identification is generally considered erroneous, but the name "Tocharian" remains the most common term for the languages and their speakers. Their actual ethnic name is unknown, although they may have referred to themselves as Agni, Kuči and Krorän, or Agniya, Kuchiya as known from Sanskrit texts.
Faroese music is primarily vocal, accompanied by the fiddle and European dances like the minuet and polka. During the twentieth century choirs have played an important role in the musical history of the Faroes, and some of the best known current choirs are Tarira, Havnarkórið, Tórshavnar Manskór, Ljómur, Fuglafjarðar Gentukór, and the choirs situated in Copenhagen: Húsakórið and Mpiri.
Kuchean was a Western member of Tocharian branch of Indo-European languages, extinct from ninth century. Once spoken in the Tarim Basin in Central Asia. Tocharian B shows an internal chronological development; three linguistic stages have been detected. The oldest stage is attested only in Kucha. There are also the middle ('classicalʼ), and the late stage.
Andrew Littleton Sihler is an American linguist and comparative Indo-Europeanist.
In historical linguistics, vowel breaking, vowel fracture, or diphthongization is the sound change of a monophthong into a diphthong or triphthong.
Holger Pedersen was a Danish linguist who made significant contributions to language science and wrote about 30 authoritative works concerning several languages.
Robert Stephen Paul Beekes was a Dutch linguist who was emeritus professor of Comparative Indo-European Linguistics at Leiden University and an author of many monographs on the Proto-Indo-European language.
The numerals and derived numbers of the Proto-Indo-European language (PIE) have been reconstructed by modern linguists based on similarities found across all Indo-European languages. The following article lists and discusses their hypothesized forms.
Vitaly Victorovich Shevoroshkin is an American linguist of Russian origin, specializing in the study of ancient Mediterranean languages. Shevoroshkin was born in 1932 in Georgia (USSR). In the 1960s he tried to decipher Carian inscriptions and proved that their language belonged to the Anatolian languages. In the 1970s he emigrated to the United States. He is now a professor emeritus of Slavic Languages and Literatures and Linguistics at the University of Michigan.
Jens Elmegård Rasmussen was associate professor of Indo-European Studies and head of the Roots of Europe research center at the University of Copenhagen from its initiation in 2008 until his death. He was an expert on Proto-Indo-European and Indo-European languages in general, especially morphophonemics, but he also published articles on the history of Eskimo–Aleut languages and linguistic diachrony. He supported the Indo-Uralic and Eurasiatic hypotheses.
Birgit Anette Olsen (Rasmussen) is a Danish linguist, professor at the University of Copenhagen and leader of the Roots of Europe research center. She is an expert on Proto-Indo-European and Indo-European languages in general, especially derivational morphology and the history of Armenian. She has also published important articles on linguistic reconstruction and the history of Latin, Greek, Anatolian and Germanic languages. She was married to Jens Elmegård Rasmussen, and her official surname is Rasmussen, but as a linguist she uses her maiden name Olsen to avoid confusion in references.
Copenhagen Studies in Indo-European is an academic book series on Indo-European studies and related subjects. The series was founded in 1999 and is published by Museum Tusculanum Press. Its chief editor was Jens Elmegård Rasmussen from its initiation until his death in 2013. The current chief editor is Birgit Anette Olsen.
James Peter Timothy Clackson is a British linguist and Indo-Europeanist. He is a professor of Comparative Philology at the Faculty of Classics, University of Cambridge, and a Fellow and Director of Studies at Jesus College, Cambridge.
Roots of Europe is an interdisciplinary research centre at the University of Copenhagen, focusing on prehistoric Europe. It is headed by Birgit Anette Olsen and involves more than 40 linguists, archaeologists, geneticists and other scholars from universities in Europe and the USA. The centre was initiated in 2008 and is financed through the University of Copenhagen Programmes of Excellence. It has close ties to the local programme in Indo-European studies. It is physically based at the Department of Nordic Studies and Linguistics and hosts the departmental collection of Indo-European linguistics handbooks.
The following is a table of many of the most fundamental Proto-Indo-European language (PIE) words and roots, with their cognates in all of the major families of descendants.
Jörundur Garðar Hilmarsson, was an Icelandic linguist, scholar and grammarian specializing in comparative grammar of Indo-European languages.
Hilmarsson is an Icelandic surname, and means 'son of Hilmar'. In Icelandic names, the name is not strictly a surname, but a patronymic. It may refer to:
Guðrún Ögmundsdóttir was an Icelandic politician for the Social Democratic Party and then the Social Democratic Alliance who was an elected member of the Althing representing the Reykjavík North constituency from 1999 to 2007. She also twice served on Reykjavík City Council and was a board member and later chair of UNICEF Iceland between 2016 and 2018. Guðrún had a biography on her written by Halla Gunnarsdóttir that was published in 2010 and she received the Knight's Cross of the Order of the Falcon nine years later.
Neo-Brittonic, also known as Neo-Brythonic, is a stage of the Insular Celtic Brittonic languages that emerged by the middle of the sixth century CE. Neo-Brittonic languages include Old, Middle and Modern Welsh, Cornish, and Breton, as well as Cumbric