Tocoma Dam

Last updated
Tocoma Dam
Venezuela relief location map (+claimed).jpg
Red pog.svg
Location of Tocoma Dam in Venezuela
Official nameManuel Piar Hydroelectric Power Plant
Country Venezuela
Coordinates 7°54′25″N63°01′35″W / 7.90694°N 63.02639°W / 7.90694; -63.02639 Coordinates: 7°54′25″N63°01′35″W / 7.90694°N 63.02639°W / 7.90694; -63.02639
Construction began2006
Opening dateunknown [1]
Dam and spillways
Type of dam Composite, rock-fill/gravity
Impounds Caroní River
Height65 m (213 ft)
LengthGravity section: 360 m (1,180 ft)
Rock-fill section: 1,800 m (5,906 ft)
Concrete-face rock-fill section: 3,800 m (12,500 ft)
Spillway capacity28,750 m3/s (1,015,000 cu ft/s)
Total capacity1,770,000,000 m3 (1,430,000 acre⋅ft)
Surface area87 km2 (34 sq mi)
Normal elevation127 m (417 ft)
Power Station
Commission date?
Hydraulic head 34.65 m (113.7 ft)
Turbines 10 x 232 MW (311,000 hp) Kaplan-type
Installed capacity 2,320 MW (3,110,000 hp)
Annual generation 12,100 GWh (44,000 TJ)

The Manuel Piar Hydroelectric Power Plant (Tocoma Dam) is a stalled hydroelectric development project in the Lower Caroní River Basin of Venezuela. The project, started in 2006, includes the installation of 2,320 megawatts (3,110,000 hp) MW to generate annual average energy of 12,100 gigawatt-hours (44,000 TJ). As of 2019, the project is unfinished. [3]

The project was awarded to OIV consortium, consisting of Odebrecht (50%), Salini Impregilo (40%) and Vinccler (10%), [4] with an initial budget US$3,061 mil. [5] Ten Kaplan generator units, of 230 megawatts (310,000 hp), manufactured by an Argentinian company IMPSA  [ es ], were predicted to begin operations between 2012 and 2014. [6] These units had the world record as of 2012 in power generation at nominal head for Kaplan turbines. The diameter of the runner is 8.6 metres (28 ft) and nominal head is 34.65 metres (113.7 ft) with claimed output up to 232 megawatts (311,000 hp). [7]

The first generator was installed but not yet commissioned in April 2012. [8] Behind schedule, the dam began to impound its reservoir on 16 November 2015. [9] The budget tripled to $9,4 billion in 2017, as of 2019 the project is still unfinished. [3] Odebrecht spent between 2007 and 2015 at least $118 million on bribes related to the project. [10] [11]

Related Research Articles

Capanda Dam Dam in Malanje, Angola

The Capanda Dam is a hydroelectric dam on the Kwanza River in Malanje Province, Angola. Built in 1987–2007 by the Russian company Tekhnopromexport, general designer - the institute Hydroproject The facility generates power by utilizing four turbines and 130 megawatts (170,000 hp) each, totalling the installed capacity to 520 megawatts (700,000 hp). Total cost of US$4 billion. An additional cost of more than US$400 million was spent in repairing the damage caused during UNITA's occupation of the area at the time of the Angolan Civil War in 1992 and 1999.

York Haven Dam is a low head, run-of-the river, dam and hydroelectric plant on the Susquehanna River, United States. The dam is 12 miles (19 km) south of Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, at the Conewago Falls impounding about 8,000 feet (2,400 m) of the river to the west side of Three Mile Island, where the river drops 19 feet (5.8 m) in 14 mile (0.40 km). When the dam was completed in 1904, it was the third largest in the world.

Run-of-the-river hydroelectricity

Run-of-river hydroelectricity (ROR) or run-of-the-river hydroelectricity is a type of hydroelectric generation plant whereby little or no water storage is provided. Run-of-the-river power plants may have no water storage at all or a limited amount of storage, in which case the storage reservoir is referred to as pondage. A plant without pondage is subject to seasonal river flows, thus the plant will operate as an intermittent energy source. Conventional hydro uses reservoirs, which regulate water for flood control, dispatchable electrical power, and the provision of fresh water for agriculture.

Kaptai Dam Dam in Kaptai, Rangamati District

Kaptai Dam is on the Karnaphuli River at Kaptai, 65 kilometres (40 mi) upstream from Chittagong in Rangamati District, Bangladesh. It is an earth-fill embankment dam with a reservoir water storage capacity of 6,477 million cubic metres (5,251,000 acre⋅ft). The primary purpose of the dam and reservoir was to generate hydroelectric power. Construction was completed in 1962. The generators in the 230 megawatts (310,000 hp) Karnafuli Hydroelectric Power Station were commissioned between 1962 and 1988. It is the only hydroelectric power station in Bangladesh.

Webuild SpA is an Italian industrial group specialised in the construction and civil engineering business headquartered in Milan. The company was formally founded in 2014 as the result of the merger by incorporation of Salini into Impregilo. Salini Impregilo is the largest Italian engineering and general contractor group and a global player in the construction sector.

Caruachi Dam Dam in Bolívar, Venezuela

The Caruachi Dam is a concrete gravity dam on the Caroní River in Bolivar state, Venezuela. The dam supports a hydroelectric power facility with a 2,160 megawatts (2,900,000 hp) capacity. The facility is located about 59 kilometres (37 mi) downstream from the Guri Dam belonging to the "Central Hidroeléctrica Simón Bolívar" and about 35 kilometres (22 mi) from where the Caroni and Orinoco rivers meet at Ciudad Guayana.

Bujagali Hydroelectric Power Station Power station in Uganda

The Bujagali Power Station is a hydroelectric power station across the Victoria Nile that harnesses the energy of its namesake; the Bujagali Falls, in Uganda. Construction began in 2007 and concluded in 2012. It was officially inaugurated on 8 October 2012 by Ugandan President Yoweri Museveni and Aga Khan IV in the presence of African politicians and investors.

Cambambe Hydroelectric Power Station Power station in Angola

The Cambambe Hydroelectric Power Station is a hydroelectric power plant across the Kwanza River at the border between Cuanza Norte Province and Bengo Province in Angola. Following rehabilitation and expansion, the generation capacity of this installation is 960 megawatts (1,290,000 hp).

Paulo Afonso Hydroelectric Complex Brazilian hydroelectric project

The Paulo Afonso Hydroelectric Complex, also known as the Paulo Afonso Complex, is a system of three dams and five hydroelectric power plants on the São Francisco River near the city of Paulo Afonso in Bahia, Brazil. The complex exploits an 80-metre (260 ft) natural gap on the river, known as the Paulo Afonso Falls. Constructed in succession between 1948 and 1979, the dams support the Paulo Afonso I, II, III, IV and Apollonius Sales (Moxotó) power plants which contain a total of 23 generators with an installed capacity of 4,279.6 megawatts (5,739,000 hp).

Três Marias Dam Dam in Três Marias, Minas Gerais, Brazil

The Três Marias Dam, also known as Bernardo Mascarenhas, is an embankment dam on the São Francisco River near Três Marias in Minas Gerais, Brazil. It was constructed for hydroelectric power production and flood control. The dam was completed in 1961 and its first generator was operational in 1962. The dam's power plant is named after Bernard Mascarenhas who in 1889, built South America's first major hydroelectric power plant in Brazil, the Marmelos Zero Power Plant.

The Simplício Hydroelectric Complex is located on the Paraíba do Sul river on the border of Rio de Janeiro and Minas Gerais states in Brazil. Supported by the Anta Dam, it transfers water through a 26 kilometres (16 mi) circuit to a downstream power plant. After years of delay and a cost of US$2 billion, the power complex became operational in June 2013.

Baishan Dam Dam in Huadian, Jilin Province

The Baishan Dam is an arch-gravity dam on the Second Songhua River near the town of Baishanzhen, Huadian, Jilin Province, China. The purpose of the dam is hydroelectric power generation and flood control. The dam supplies water to five turbine-generators in two different powerhouses for an installed capacity of 1,500 megawatts (2,000,000 hp) while it can also control a design 19,100 cubic metres per second (670,000 cu ft/s) flood. Additionally, it has a 300 megawatts (400,000 hp) pumped-storage hydroelectric generation capacity. It is named after Baekdu Mountain, near the city of Baishan.

Macagua Dam Dam in Ciudad Guayana in Bolívar State

The Macagua Dam, officially known as Antonio José de Sucre, is an embankment dam with concrete gravity sections on the Caroní River in Ciudad Guayana, Bolívar State, Venezuela. It is 10 kilometres (6.2 mi) upstream from the confluence of the Caroni and Orinoco Rivers, 81 km (50 mi) downstream of the Guri Dam and 22 kilometres (14 mi) downstream of the Caruachi Dam. The dam's main purpose is hydroelectric power generation and it was later named after Antonio José de Sucre.

Okutadami Dam Dam in Uonuma

The Okutadami Dam (奥只見ダム) is a concrete gravity dam on the Tadami River, 26 km (16 mi) east of Uonuma on the border of Niigata and Fukushima Prefectures, Japan. The primary purpose of the dam is hydroelectric power generation and it supports a 560 MW power station which is the largest conventional hydroelectric power station in Japan. The dam also forms the second largest reservoir in Japan, next to that of the Tokuyama Dam.

Kindaruma Hydroelectric Power Station Dam in Embu County/Kitui County

The Kindaruma Hydroelectric Power Station, also Kindaruma Dam is an embankment dam with two gravity dam sections on the Tana River in Kenya. It straddles the border of Embu and Machakos counties in Kenya. The primary purpose of the dam is hydroelectric power generation and it supports a 72 megawatts (97,000 hp) power station. It is Kenya's first post-independence hydroelectric power plant. It was commissioned in 1968 as part of the Seven Forks Scheme. The power station is operated by Kenya Electricity Generating Company.

Andekaleka Dam Dam in Andekaleka, Analamanga Region

The Andekaleka Dam is a gravity dam on the Vohitra river near Andekaleka in eastern Madagascar. The primary purpose of the dam is hydroelectric power generation and it diverts water from the Vohitra east into a 4 kilometres (2.5 mi) headrace tunnel where it reaches a 91 megawatts (122,000 hp) underground power station. After water charges the turbine-generators, it travels down a 500 metres (1,600 ft) tailrace tunnel before it reenters the Vohitra River. The drop in elevation between the dam and power station affords a hydraulic head of 235 metres (771 ft). The dam and power station were funded by the World Bank at a cost of US$142.1 million. It was constructed between 1978 and 1982. The power station can house up to four generators. The first two were operational in 1982 and a third in 2012. Generator one and two host Vevey and Jeumont turbines while the third is made by HEC. They all use Francis reaction turbines which typically range from 10 to 700MW and with water head operating from 10 to 600 meters

Grand Poubara Dam Dam in Franceville, Haut-Ogooué Province

The Grand Poubara Dam is a gravity dam on the Ogooué River, about 15 kilometres (9.3 mi) south of Franceville in Gabon. The primary purpose of the dam is hydroelectric power generation and it supports a 160 megawatts (210,000 hp) power station.

Bumbuna Dam Dam in Bumbuna

The Bumbuna Dam is a concrete-face rock-fill dam on the Seli River near Bumbuna in Tonkolili District, Sierra Leone, and 350 kilometres (220 mi) from the capital of Freetown, the main consumer. The country's first hydroelectric dam, it supports a 50-megawatt (67,000 hp) power station.

Afulilo Dam Dam in Taelefaga, Vaa-o-Fonoti

The Afulilo Dam is a gravity dam on the Afulilo River about 3 km (1.9 mi) south of Ta'elefaga in the district of Va'a-o-Fonoti on Upolu island of Samoa. The primary purpose of the dam is hydroelectric power generation and it supports a 4 megawatts (5,400 hp) power station. It is the largest hydroelectric power station by installed capacity in Samoa. First studied in 1980, construction on the project began in 1990 and the power station was commissioned in 1993. Funding for the US$26.6 million project was provided by the World Bank, Asian Development Bank, International Development Association, European Investment Bank, and European Economic Community loans and grants.

Laúca Hydroelectric Power Station Power station in Angola

The Lauca Hydroelectric Power Station is a 2,070 MW (2,775,916 hp) hydroelectric power plant, under construction in Angola. When completed, as expected in 2020, it will be the largest power station in the country.


  1. "Bloomberg: Corpoelec sostuvo reuniones con empresa argentina para reactivar Tocoma". 28 March 2019.
  2. "Tocoma Dam and Hydroelectric Power Project". Tractebel. Archived from the original on 11 November 2013. Retrieved 14 May 2012.
  3. 1 2 "The Rise and Fall of Venezuela's Hydro System". Caracas Chronicles. 2019-04-04. Retrieved 2020-05-20.
  4. "New Power Plant in Venezuela". Odebrecht. 2014-07-02. Retrieved 2020-05-20.
  5. "US$ 600 millones para la Central Hidroeléctrica Manuel Piar (Tocoma) | CAF". (in Spanish). Retrieved 2020-05-20.
  6. VE-L1026: Manuel Piar (Tocoma) Dam Supplemental Financing. Inter-American Development Bank (Report).
  7. hydropower project Tocoma (PDF). IMPSA (Report).
  8. "IMPSA installed the first 232 MW Kaplan turbine at the Tocoma Hydropower Plant". IMPSA. 23 April 2012. Retrieved 30 January 2014.
  9. "Venezuela president Maduro oversees filling of Tocoma dam reservoir". Salini Impregilo. Retrieved 15 February 2016.
  10. "Odebrecht Reaches Settlement Agreement with IDB Group Resulting in Sanctions | IADB". Retrieved 2020-05-20.
  11. Ljubas, Zdravko. "Odebrecht Ordered to Pay Charity Because it Paid Bribes". Retrieved 2020-05-20.