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Toda Shinryuken Masamitsu (戸田真竜軒正光) (1824–1909) is mentioned in the Bugei Ryuha Daijiten as being the head master of several styles of Japanese martial arts, including:
During the later part of the Tokugawa period, the government ordered the building of a national military academy (kobusho). According to Bujinkan sources, in 1855 Toda was appointed as chief budo instructor by Matsudaira Noriyasu. [ non-primary source needed ] The Bujinkan founder, Masaaki Hatsumi, indicates that Toda Shinryuken Masamitsu taught his skills to Toshitsugu Takamatsu, who later passed them on to him.
Massaki Hatsumi have noted that the true names in the lineage have been obfuscated by Toshitsugu Takamatsu. The real historical figure has been skeptically identified as Toda Hisajiro, although to this date no accurate proof identifying his actual existence has been found (戸田久次郎).
Bujinkan sources indicate that Toda taught the following "five precepts for ninpo" :
He is also quoted by the Bujinkan as saying "Even when you are faced with certain death, die laughing." [ non-primary source needed ]
Ninjutsu (忍術), sometimes used interchangeably with the modern term ninpō (忍法), is the martial art strategy and tactics of unconventional warfare, guerrilla warfare and espionage purportedly practised by the ninja. Ninjutsu was a separate discipline in some traditional Japanese schools, which integrated study of more conventional martial arts (taijutsu) along with shurikenjutsu, kenjutsu, sōjutsu, bōjutsu and others.
The Bujinkan is an international martial arts organization based in Japan and headed by Masaaki Hatsumi. The combat system taught by this organization comprises nine separate ryūha, or schools, which are collectively referred to as Bujinkan Budō Taijutsu. The Bujinkan is most commonly associated with ninjutsu. However, Masaaki Hatsumi uses the term Budo as he says the ryūha are descended from historical samurai schools that teach samurai martial tactics and ninjutsu schools that teach ninja tactics.
Daitō-ryū Aiki-jūjutsu, originally called Daitō-ryū Jujutsu, is a Japanese martial art that first became widely known in the early 20th century under the headmastership of Takeda Sōkaku. Takeda had extensive training in several martial arts and referred to the style he taught as "Daitō-ryū". Although the school's traditions claim to extend back centuries in Japanese history there are no known extant records regarding the ryū before Takeda. Whether Takeda is regarded as either the restorer or the founder of the art, the known history of Daitō-ryū begins with him. Takeda's best-known student was Morihei Ueshiba, the founder of Aikido.
Masaaki Hatsumi, formerly Yoshiaki Hatsumi, is the founder of the Bujinkan Organization and is the former Togakure-ryū soke (grandmaster). He no longer teaches, but currently resides in Noda, Chiba, Japan.
Kukishin-ryū (九鬼神流), originally "Nine Gods Divine School" is a Japanese martial art allegedly founded in the 14th century CE by Kuki Yakushimaru Ryūshin. It is a sōgō bujutsu, meaning that it teaches several different weapons/arts such as taijutsu, bōjutsu, naginatajutsu, kenpō, hanbōjutsu, sōjutsu and heiho. Kukishin-ryū and its founder are listed in the Bugei Ryūha Daijiten or "The Encyclopedia of Martial Art Schools", a record of modern (gendai) and old lineage (koryū) Japanese martial schools.
Battōjutsu is an old term for iaijutsu (居合術). Battōjutsu is often used interchangeably with the terms iaijutsu and battō (抜刀).
Stephen K. Hayes is an American martial artist and writer.
Musō Shinden-ryū (夢想神伝流) is a style of sword-drawing art (iaido) founded by Nakayama Hakudō (中山博道) in 1932. Nakayama Hakudō studied under Hosokawa Yoshimasa, a master of the Shimomura branch (下村派) of Hasegawa Eishin-ryū, and Morimoto Tokumi, a fellow student of Ōe Masaji of the Tanimura branch (谷村派). The name Musō Shinden-ryū most likely comes from the name given to the Shimomura branch by Hosokawa, Musō Shinden Eishin-ryū (無雙神傳英信流).
Musō Jikiden Eishin-ryū is a Japanese sword art school and one of the most widely practiced schools of iai in the world. Often referred to simply as "Eishin-ryū," it claims an unbroken lineage dating back from the sixteenth century to the early 20th century. 17th undisputed headmaster, Oe Masaji, awarded at least 16 licenses of full transmission, resulting in the school fracturing into multiple legitimate branches.
Toshitsugu Takamatsu was a Japanese martial artist and teacher of Bujinkan founder Masaaki Hatsumi. He has been called "The Last Shinobi" by Bujinkan instructor Wolfgang Ettig.
Tenjin Shinyo-ryu, meaning "Divine True Willow School", can be classified as a traditional school (koryū) of jujutsu. It was founded by Iso Mataemon Ryūkansai Minamoto no Masatari (磯又右衛門柳関斎源正足) in the 1830s. Its syllabus comprises atemi-waza, nage-waza, torae-waza and shime-waza. Once a very popular jujutsu system in Japan, among the famous students who studied the art were Kanō Jigorō, whose modern art of judo was greatly inspired by the Tenjin Shin'yō-ryū and Kitō-ryū.
Mugai-ryū or "Outer Nothingness School" is a Japanese koryū martial art school founded by Tsuji Gettan Sukemochi (辻月丹資茂) on 23 June 1680. Its formal name is Mugai Shinden Kenpō (無外真伝剣法).
Modern schools of ninjutsu are schools which offer instruction in martial arts. To a larger or smaller degree, the curriculum is derived from the practice of ninjutsu, the arts of the ninja; covert agents or assassins of feudal Japan.
Jujutsu, also known as jiu-jitsu and ju-jitsu, is a family of Japanese martial arts and a system of close combat that can be used in a defensive or offensive manner to kill or subdue one or more weaponless or armed and armored opponents. This form of martial arts uses few or no weapons at all and includes throws, holds, and paralyzing attacks against the enemy. Jujutsu developed from the warrior class around the 17th century in Japan. It was designed to supplement the swordsmanship of a warrior during combat. A subset of techniques from certain styles of jujutsu were used to develop many modern martial arts and combat sports, such as judo, aikido, sambo, ARB, Brazilian jiu-jitsu, and mixed martial arts.
Togakure-ryū (戸隠流) is a historical tradition of ninjutsu known as the "School of the Hidden Door", allegedly founded during the Oho period (1161–1162) by Daisuke Nishina (仁科大助), who learned his original fighting techniques from a Chinese monk named Kain Dōshi. However, the history and early lineage of Togakure-ryū may be impossible to verify due to the antiquity of the time period and its claimed historicity has been disputed by Watatani Kiyoshi, writer for the Bugei Ryūha Daijiten. After Togakure, the title of Sōke was recorded by Toda Shinryuken Masamitsu to have been passed down through other practitioners that kept the style secret from the outside world.
To-Shin Do is a martial art founded by Black Belt Hall of Fame instructor Stephen K. Hayes in 1997. It is a modernized version of ninjutsu, and differs from the traditional form taught by Masaaki Hatsumi’s Bujinkan organization. Instruction focuses on threats found in contemporary western society. In addition to hand-to-hand combat skills, students are exposed to: methods for survival in hostile environments, security protection for dignitaries, how to instruct classes and run a school, classical Japanese weapons, meditation mind science, and health restoration yoga. The headquarters school (hombu) is located in Dayton, Ohio, USA.
Gyokko-ryū (玉虎流) is a school of Japanese martial arts that specialises in kosshijutsu (骨指術), shitōjutsu (指頭術) and ninjutsu (忍法). Gyokko-ryū was founded by Tozawa Hakuunsai Hogen in the Heian period (794–1192). The sōke title is claimed to be passed down to Tetsuji Ishizuka from Masaaki Hatsumi (1931-) who in turn received it from Toshitsugu Takamatsu (1889-1972).
Kotō-ryū (虎倒流) is a school of Japanese martial arts that specialises in koppōjutsu (骨法術). Kotō-ryū was founded by Sakagami Tarō Kunishige (坂上太郎国重) in the Muromachi period (1392–1573), originating from Gyokko-ryū. The sōke title was claimed to be passed down to Yukio Noguchi from Masaaki Hatsumi (1931-) who received it from Toshitsugu Takamatsu (1889-1972).
Bugō are nicknames used in the Japanese martial arts. The word is composed of the symbols 武 and 号. In English, the term is sometimes translated as "martial name" or "warrior name" with similar equivalents in other languages.
Jikishinkage-ryū naginatajutsu (直心影流薙刀術) is a naginatajutsu koryū which claims to have descended from Kashima Shinden Jikishinkage-ryū. Despite this claim, Jikishinkage-ryū naginatajutsu does not appear to have any of the original rituals, esoteric teachings, body and weapon movements of Kashima Shinden Jikishinkage-ryū.