|Location||Deschutes National Forest, Oregon|
|Primary inflows||Snow melt and Bare Lake drainage|
|Primary outflows||Todd Creek|
|Catchment area||0.9 square miles (2.3 km2)|
|Max. length||0.5 mi (0.80 km)|
|Max. width||0.15 mi (0.24 km)|
|Surface area||45 acres (0.18 km2)|
|Average depth||21 ft (6.4 m)|
|Max. depth||60 ft (18 m)|
|Shore length1||1.2 mi (1.9 km)|
|Surface elevation||6,150 ft (1,870 m)|
|1 Shore length is not a well-defined measure.|
Todd Lake is a natural lake near the crest of the Cascade Range in central Oregon in the United States. The lake covers 45 acres (18 ha). It is named in honor of John Y. Todd, an early settler in Central Oregon. Today, the lake and surrounding forest is managed by the United States Forest Service as part of the Deschutes National Forest. The Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife regularly stocks the lake with brook trout. There is a day-use area and a rustic campground located on the west shore of the lake. In the summer, Todd Lake is a popular outdoor recreation site for picnicking, fishing, hiking, and nature viewing. In the winter, trails in the Todd Lake area are used for cross-country skiing and snowshoeing.
Originally, Todd Lake was called "Lost Lake" because it was difficult for people to find. In the early 20th century, citizens of Bend, Oregon, asked that the name of the lake be changed to avoid confusion with several other Oregon lakes with the same name. In 1922, the name of the lake was officially changed to Todd Lake. The name honors John Y. Todd, an early pioneer in central Oregon. Todd immigrated to Oregon in 1852. In 1860, he built the first bridge across the Deschutes River. Later, he became a successful cattle rancher. Todd founded of the Farewell Bend Ranch, which gave the city of Bend its name.
Todd Lake and the surrounding forest are part of the Bend-Fort Rock Ranger District, an administrative sub-division of the Deschutes National Forest. In 1964, the United States Congress created the Three Sisters Wilderness surrounding the Three Sisters mountains in Oregon's Cascade Range. Todd Lake is just outside the southern boundary of the wilderness. As a result, Todd Lake is a major wilderness access point for hikers.
Road access to Todd Lake has always been via Forest Road 46 (also known as the Cascade Lakes Highway). In 1989, the Forest Service designated the road as a National Forest Scenic Byway. In 1997, the State of Oregon made the road an Oregon state scenic byway. A year later, the federal government officially designated the highway as a national scenic byway, calling it the Cascade Lakes Scenic Byway.Many travel guides for the Cascade Lakes Scenic Byway mention Todd Lake, highlighting its location as the first Cascade lake along the byway.
Todd Lake is located on the east side of the Cascade Range in central Oregon, 24 miles (39 km) southwest of Bend. It is situated in a small glacial valley at the base of Broken Top, south of the peak. The glacier that created the valley melted away about 13,000 years ago, leaving a glacial cirque. As a result, the lake is relatively deep for its size. The lake's elevation is 6,150 feet (1,870 m) above sea level.
Most of the lake water comes from snow melt. The only year-round inflow is drainage from Bare Lake, a very small natural lake located 0.5 miles (0.80 km) southwest of Todd Lake. The lake's only outlet is Todd Creek, which begins at the south end of the lake. Todd Creek disappears in a lava field approximately 2 miles (3.2 km) southwest of the lake.
The watershed that drains into Todd Lake, covering only 0.9 square miles (2.3 km2), is covered by a dense conifer forest. Mountain hemlock, lodgepole pine, and various fir species dominate the forest around the lake. However, there is a narrow strip of meadow land along the south and west side of the lake, and a large meadow at the north end.
Todd Lake is a natural lake that covers 45 acres (0.18 km2). It is approximately 0.5 miles (0.80 km) long and 0.15 miles (240 m) wide. The lake has an average depth of 21 feet (6.4 m) with a maximum depth of 60 feet (18 m) near its south end.
Because of its sheltered location, Todd Lake has distinct thermal stratification levels within its water column. As a result, water below 15 feet (4.6 m) in depth remains extremely cold even during the summer. The alkalinity level is typical of other high-elevation lakes in the Cascade Range. The lake's water transparency is good, with a Secchi disk depth of 23 feet (7.0 m). Concentration of chlorophyll in the lake is low. A 1982 study showed that Todd Lake had a high concentration of phosphorus, which is typical of mountain lakes in the central Cascades. Based on available data, the lake's trophic state is classified as oligotrophic.
There is a great diversity of plant life in the areas around Todd Lake. The conifer forest that surrounds the lake is dominated by mountain hemlock, lodgepole pine, and various fir species. Ground cover in the shaded parts of the forest includes bog huckleberry, whortleberry, smooth woodrush, Brewer's mitrewort, and sidebells. In open areas of the forest Jacob's ladder, alpine lake agoseris, and larkspur are common ground cover.
The meadow areas around Todd Lake are well known for their wildflowers.Wildflowers bloom around the lake from late June through mid-August. The peak of the wildflower display is in mid-July. Many wildflowers continue to bloom throughout the summer, making Todd Lake an ideal place for nature viewing. As a result, the Forest Service has designated Todd Lake as a Pacific Northwest Region wildflower viewing area.
The wildflower show begins in late June when the Jeffrey's shooting star and white marsh marigold bloom in the wet meadows and riparian areas. Newberry's knotweed is an early bloomer on the well-drained slopes above the lake. Then, elephanthead and other alpine plants begin to bloom in the meadows and along the lake shore.
Common meadow wildflowers include Jeffrey's shooting star, elephanthead, Gorman's buttercup, alpine asters, American alpine speedwell, Indian paintbrush, small-flowered paintbrush, high mountain cinquefoil, Gray's ligusticum, green false hellebore, swamp laurel, and white bog orchid (Habenaria dilatata). Also, Jeffrey's shooting star and marsh marigold grow close to the lake shore. In the moist riparian area near the lake's outlet, there are Gorman's buttercup, yellow monkeyflower, Lewis monkey flower, arrowleaf groundsel, and false asphodel. Oregon saxifrage lives in some of the boggy areas around the lake.
On the edge of the meadows near the forest and along the Bare Creek drainage, there are high mountain cinquefoil, Gray's ligusticum, Sitka valerian, cobwebby Indian paintbrush, harsh Indian paintbrush, broadleaf lupine, and alpine lake agoseris. On drier slopes above the lake, Newberry's knotweed, larkspur, bracted lousewort, peregrine fleabane, dwarf lupine, sulphur flower, Martindale's lomatium, pussypaws, pink mountain heather, and Brewers mountain heather are common along with alpine lake agoseris.
The Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife regularly stocks Todd Lake with brook trout. These are the only game fish found in the lake. The trout average 8 to 10 inches (20 to 25 cm) in length and some reach 15 inches (380 mm).
There are a number of reptiles and amphibians found in and around Todd Lake. Reptiles include the common garter snake and northern alligator lizard. Amphibians include the western toad, Cascade frog, Oregon spotted frog, Pacific chorus frog, Pacific giant salamander, northwestern salamander, Oregon slender salamander, clouded salamander, Dunn's salamander, long-tailed salamander, and rough-skinned newt.The western toad and the Cascade frog are threatened species. Both species are under the protection of the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife. It is illegal to harm or collect these species.
The Todd Lake area is also home to over 160 bird species. In the general area of the lake, birdwatchers can see a wide variety of waterfowl, songbirds, forest birds, and birds of prey. Waterfowl include mallards, wood duck, American wigeon, northern shoveler, American coot, Barrow's goldeneye, common merganser, hooded mergansers, and Canada geese. Common shore and wetland birds include American dipper, spotted sandpiper, black tern, double-crested cormorant, great blue heron, and sandhill crane.
The meadows and forest around the lake are home to American goldfinch, Cassin's finch, pine siskin, red crossbill, Brewers sparrow, house sparrow, song sparrow, yellow-rumped warbler, olive-sided flycatcher, Cordilleran flycatcher, Hammond's flycatcher, dusky flycatcher, mountain chickadee, black-capped chickadee, evening grosbeak, dark-eyed junco, western tanager, American robin, western bluebird, mountain bluebird, hermit thrush, Townsend's solitaire, sage thrasher, golden-crowned kinglet, ruby-crowned kinglet, warbling vireo, house wren, cedar waxwing, barn swallow, cliff swallow, and tree swallow. Other forest birds found in the area include northern flicker, Clark's nutcracker, red-breasted nuthatch, Brown creeper, brown-headed cowbird, pinyon jay, Steller's jay, Brewer's blackbird, common raven, and California quail. Local woodpecker species include American three-toed woodpecker, downy woodpecker, Pileated woodpecker, and hairy woodpecker. There are also two hummingbird species found in the area, Rufous hummingbirds and Calliope hummingbirds.
The lake also attracts a wide variety of birds of prey. There are seven owl species—northern pygmy owl, flammulated owl, boreal owl, spotted owl, barn owl, great gray owl, and great horned owl. There are also American kestrels, peregrine falcons, northern goshawks, Cooper's hawks, red-tailed hawks, osprey, golden eagles, bald eagles, and turkey vultures.
The mixed conifer forest around Todd Lake is home to numerous mammals. The large mammals include black-tailed deer, Roosevelt elk, coyotes, American black bear, bobcats, and cougars. Some of the small mammals found in the Todd Lake area include American badger, North American beaver, mountain beaver, porcupine, raccoon, striped skunk, western spotted skunk, American marten, mink, long-tailed weasel, western gray squirrel, American pika, least chipmunk, Townsend's chipmunk, bushy-tailed woodrat, and deer mouse, as well as several shrew and vole species. There are also three bat species that live near Todd Lake.
Today, Todd Lake is a very popular recreation site. The Forest Service carefully manages the area in order to provide recreational opportunities for visitors while ensuring that the sensitive lake environment is protected. During the summer, the lake is a favorite place for picnicking, swimming, fishing, hiking, and nature viewing. No motorized boats are allowed on the lake, so watercraft use is limited to canoes, kayaks, rafts, inner tubes, and other non-motorized craft. There is a day-use area and a rustic campground on the west shore of the lake. The day-use facilities include picnic tables, fire pits, and a vault toilet. The campground has three tent-only campsites and a vault toilet. There is no potable water at the lake. From May through September, the Forest Service charges a modest fee for using the Todd Lake recreation area.
There are also a variety of trails near the lake for hiking and horseback riding. Because Todd Lake is located just outside the Three Sisters Wilderness, it is a major access point for hikers and campers heading into the wilderness. The trailhead for Todd Trail #34 is located at the south end of the lake. Todd Trail connects to Soda Creek Trail #11 from Sparks Lake. It then joins Broken Top Trail #10 running along the south side of Broken Top to Green Lakes Trail #17, which leads north to the Green Lakes at the base of the South Sister. During the summer, dogs must be kept on a leash when hiking on trails in the Three Sisters Wilderness, including all the trails mentioned above. The leash rules also apply to the Todd Lake day-use area, campground, and the trail that follows the shore around the lake.
In the winter, the highway to Todd Lake is closed due to snow. However, the trails around Todd Lake are very popular routes for cross-country skiing and snowshoeing. The closest road access is from the Mount Bachelor Nordic Center or Dutchman Sno-park, which are both near Mount Bachelor ski area, approximately 1.8 miles (2.9 km) east of the lake.
The Cascade Lakes are a collection of lakes in central Oregon in the United States. The 12 lakes and two reservoirs are found along the Deschutes river, east side of the Cascade Range in Deschutes County, Oregon. The lakes begin west of Mount Bachelor, just beyond the Mount Bachelor ski area. The first lake in the chain is Todd Lake. Heading west and south, Todd Lake is followed by Sparks Lake, Devils Lake, Elk Lake, Hosmer Lake, Lava Lake, Little Lava Lake, Cultus Lake and Little Cultus Lake. At the south end of the chain are Crane Prairie Reservoir, North and South Twin Lakes, Wickiup Reservoir, and Davis Lake.
The Cascades Lakes Scenic Byway is a National Scenic Byway in central Oregon in the United States. It runs for 66 miles (106 km) in the rugged country of Deschutes and Klamath counties on the east side of the Cascade Range. It offers particularly good views of Mount Bachelor, Broken Top, and the Three Sisters (Oregon) mountains and provides access to many recreational facilities in central Oregon. The route is so named because it weaves past a number of small natural lakes along the Cascades as well as several reservoirs on the upper Deschutes River.
Broken Top is a glacially eroded complex stratovolcano. It lies in the Cascade Volcanic Arc, part of the extensive Cascade Range in the U.S. state of Oregon. Located southeast of the Three Sisters peaks, the volcano, residing within the Three Sisters Wilderness, is 20 miles (32 km) west of Bend, Oregon in Deschutes County. Eruptive activity stopped roughly 100,000 years ago, and currently, erosion by glaciers has reduced the volcano's cone to where its contents are exposed. There are two named glaciers on the peak, Bend and Crook Glacier.
Central Oregon is a geographic region in the U.S. state of Oregon and is traditionally considered to be made up of Deschutes, Jefferson, and Crook counties. Other definitions include larger areas, often encompassing areas to the north towards the Columbia River, eastward towards Burns, or south towards Klamath Falls. These three counties have a combined population of 200,431 as of the 2010 census, with Deschutes the largest of the three counties, having approximately four times the population of the other two counties combined. As of 2015, the most populous city in the region is Bend, with an estimated 87,014 residents. As defined by the three county definition, Central Oregon covers 7,833 square miles (20,290 km2) of land. Central Oregon has had 3 record tourism years beginning in 2012. Over 2.2 million people visited Central Oregon in 2012 and again in 2013.
Black Butte is an extinct stratovolcano in the U.S. state of Oregon. Located in Jefferson County, it is part of Deschutes National Forest. Black Butte forms part of the Cascade volcanic arc. The butte lies just south of the Metolius Springs, which merge to form the headwaters of the Metolius River. The Metolius River's basin sustains a wide array of plant life, large and small mammals, and more than 80 bird species.
Umpqua National Forest, in southern Oregon's Cascade Range, covers an area of 983,129 acres (3,978.58 km2) in Douglas, Lane, and Jackson counties, and borders Crater Lake National Park. The four ranger districts for the forest are the Cottage Grove, Diamond Lake, North Umpqua, and Tiller ranger districts. The forest is managed by the United States Forest Service, headquartered in Roseburg.
The Diamond Peak Wilderness is a wilderness area straddling the Cascade crest and includes the Diamond Peak volcano. It is located within two National Forests - the Willamette National Forest on the west and the Deschutes National Forest on the east.
The Wallowa–Whitman National Forest is a United States National Forest in the U.S. states of Oregon and Idaho. Formed upon the merger of the Wallowa and Whitman national forests in 1954, it is located in the northeastern corner of the state, in Wallowa, Baker, Union, Grant, and Umatilla counties in Oregon, and includes small areas in Nez Perce and Idaho counties in Idaho. The forest is named for the Wallowa band of the Nez Perce people, who originally lived in the area, and Marcus and Narcissa Whitman, Presbyterian missionaries who settled just to the north in 1836. Forest headquarters are located in Baker City, Oregon with ranger districts in La Grande, Joseph and Baker City.
The Deschutes National Forest is a United States National Forest located in parts of Deschutes, Klamath, Lake, and Jefferson counties in central Oregon. It comprises 1.8 million acres (7,300 km2) along the east side of the Cascade Range. In 1908, the Deschutes National Forest was established from parts of the Blue Mountains, Cascade, and Fremont National Forests. In 1911, parts of the Deschutes National Forest were split off to form the Ochoco and Paulina National Forests, and parts of the Cascade and Oregon National Forests were added to the Deschutes. In 1915, the lands of the Paulina National Forest were rejoined to the Deschutes National Forest. A 1993 Forest Service study estimated that the extent of old growth in the forest was 348,100 acres (140,900 ha). Within the boundaries of the Deschutes National Forest is the Newberry National Volcanic Monument, containing cinder cones, lava flows, and lava tubes. The Deschutes National Forest as a whole contains in excess of 250 known caves. The forest also contains five wilderness areas, six National Wild and Scenic Rivers, the Oregon Cascade Recreation Area, and the Metolius Conservation Area. Forest headquarters are located in Bend, Oregon. There are local ranger district offices in Bend, Crescent, and Sisters.
The Mount Washington Wilderness is a wilderness area located on and around Mount Washington in the central Cascade Range of Oregon in the United States. The wilderness was established in 1964 and comprises 54,278 acres (219.66 km2) of the Willamette National Forest and Deschutes National Forest. It is administered by the U.S. Forest Service.
The Mount Thielsen Wilderness is a wilderness area located on and around Mount Thielsen in the southern Cascade Range of Oregon in the United States. It is located within the Deschutes, Umpqua, and Fremont–Winema national forests. It was established by the United States Congress in 1984 and comprises 55,100 acres (22,300 ha).
The Mount Jefferson Wilderness is a wilderness area located on and around Mount Jefferson in the central Cascade Range of Oregon in the United States. The wilderness lies within the Willamette National Forest and Deschutes National Forest. The wilderness area covers 111,177 acres (449.92 km2), with more than 150 lakes. It also has 190 miles (310 km) of trails, including 40 miles (64 km) of the Pacific Crest National Scenic Trail. Three Fingered Jack and Mount Jefferson are both prominent features of the wilderness area. Mount Jefferson Wilderness is the second most visited Oregon wilderness area after the Three Sisters Wilderness.
Sparks Lake is a natural body of water near the crest of the central Cascade Range in Deschutes County in the U.S. state of Oregon. The lake is about 26 miles (42 km) west-southwest of Bend along the Cascade Lakes Scenic Byway in Deschutes National Forest. Named for a 19th-century rancher, "Lige" Sparks, the water body is a remnant of a bigger lake that has partly filled with sediment and vegetation.
Tumalo State Park is a well-developed state park in Deschutes County, Oregon, United States. Established in 1954, the park is located northwest of the city of Bend and along the Deschutes River at a site home to many bird species. The park is popular for picnics, swimming, fishing, hiking, and camping, and is open year-round.
The Ochoco Mountains are a mountain range in central Oregon in the United States, located at the western end of the Blue Mountains. They were formed when Permian, Triassic, and Jurassic rocks were slowly uplifted by volcanic eruptions to form the Clarno Formation. Today, the highest point in the range is Lookout Mountain. The dominant vegetation on the west side of the range is old-growth ponderosa pine; on the east side, western juniper is common. The western area of the mountains is administered by the Ochoco National Forest, while the southeastern section is part of the Malheur National Forest. The Ochoco Mountains are used for hiking, camping, bird watching, rockhounding, and hunting, as well as cross-country skiing in the winter.
Elk Lake is a natural body of water in the central Cascade Range in the U.S. state of Oregon. Nearly 4,900 feet (1,500 m) above sea level, the lake is part of a volcanic landscape about 25 miles (40 km) west-southwest of Bend along the Cascade Lakes Scenic Byway.
Hosmer Lake is a natural body of water in the central Cascade Range in the U.S. state of Oregon. Nearly 5,000 feet (1,500 m) above sea level, the lake is part of a volcanic landscape about 20 miles (32 km) west-southwest of Bend along the Cascade Lakes Scenic Byway. In 1962, the United States Board on Geographic Names changed the name from Mud Lake to Hosmer Lake in honor of Paul Hosmer, a naturalist from Bend.
Doris Lake is a natural body of water in the Three Sisters Wilderness of the central Cascade Range in the U.S. state of Oregon. At 5,300 feet (1,600 m) above sea level, the lake is part of a volcanic landscape 27 miles (43 km) southwest of Bend and about 3 miles (5 km) by trail west of the Cascade Lakes Scenic Byway.
Midway High Lakes Area, also known as High Lakes Area, is a United States Forest Service–designated area located in Washington’s Cascade Mountains. It lies on a high plateau on Mount Adams' northwestern flank. It is between the Goat Rocks on the north and Mount Hood to the south and contains Takhlakh Lake along with several other lakes. The area offers five scenic high elevation lakes all within a seven-mile (11 km) radius. It is administered by the Gifford Pinchot National Forest. While even the most visited areas at Mount Adams pale in comparison to nearby St. Helens or Rainier, it is by its own standards one of the most popular recreational areas around Mount Adams. Some of the lakes offers photogenic views of Mount Adams from across the lake.
Elliott Corbett Memorial State Recreation Site is a state park along the south shore of Blue Lake Crater in Jefferson County, Oregon, United States. The park is named in honor of Elliott R. Corbett II, who was killed while serving in the United States Army during World War II. It includes 63 acres (25 ha) of wilderness land with very few park facilities. Corbett State Park is administered by the Oregon Parks and Recreation Department.