| Khan of the Golden Horde |
Western Half (Blue Horde)
Tuda Mengu, also known as Tode Mongke and Tudamongke (Mongolian : Тодмөнх, romanized: Todmönkh or Tudamönkh, lit. 'Eternal Brightness'; died 1287), was the khan of the Golden Horde, a division of the Mongol Empire, from 1280 until his death in 1287.
Tode Mongke was the son of Toqoqan (grandson of Batu Khan) and younger full-brother of Mongke Temur. A pious khan, he converted to Islam in 1280. [ citation needed ]Due to his deep religion, Tudamongke was not aggressive to expand his territory. However, he did keep good contact with Mamluk Sultanate in Egypt against Ilkhanate who was faithless enemy of both states. Rashid Ad-din wrote that he was willing to keep good relations with Kublai khan and released his son Nomoghan to Yuan Court. During his government the influence of Nogai Khan greatly increased in the Golden Horde, and there was a second attack against Hungary in 1284/1285, which was a total disaster for his army. He abdicated in favor to his nephew Tole Buqa in 1287.
He had two wives and several concubines:
The Golden Horde, self-designated as Ulug Ulus, lit. 'Great State' in Turkic, was originally a Mongol and later Turkicized khanate established in the 13th century and originating as the northwestern sector of the Mongol Empire. With the disintegration of the Mongol Empire after 1259, it became a functionally separate khanate. It is also known as the Kipchak Khanate or as the Ulus of Jochi, and it replaced the earlier, less organized Cuman–Kipchak confederation.
Hulagu Khan, also known as Hülegü or Hulegu, was a Mongol ruler who conquered much of Western Asia. Son of Tolui and the Keraite princess Sorghaghtani Beki, he was a grandson of Genghis Khan and brother of Ariq Böke, Möngke Khan, and Kublai Khan.
Mongke means "eternal" in Mongolian language and may refer to:
Sultan Giyas al-Din Mohammed Öz Beg Han, better known as Uzbeg, Uzbek or Ozbeg (1282–1341), was the longest-reigning khan of the Golden Horde (1313–1341), under whose rule the state reached its zenith. He was succeeded by his son Tini Beg. He was the son of Toghrilcha and grandson of Mengu-Timur, who had been khan of the Golden Horde from 1267 to 1280. Hence, he was a direct descendant of Genghis Khan.
Abaqa Khan, was the second Mongol ruler (Ilkhan) of the Ilkhanate. The son of Hulagu Khan and Lady Yesünčin and the grandson of Tolui, he reigned from 1265 to 1282 and was succeeded by his brother Ahmed Tekuder. Much of Abaqa's reign was consumed with civil wars in the Mongol Empire, such as those between the Ilkhanate and the northern khanate of the Golden Horde. Abaqa also engaged in unsuccessful attempts at invading Syria, which included the Second Battle of Homs.
Nogai, or Noğay was a general and kingmaker of the Golden Horde and a great-great-grandson of Genghis Khan. His grandfather was Bo'al/Baul/Teval, the seventh son of Jochi. Nogai was also a notable convert to Islam.
Berke Khan was a grandson of Genghis Khan and a Mongol military commander and ruler of the Golden Horde who effectively consolidated the power of the Blue Horde and White Horde from 1257 to 1266. He succeeded his brother Batu Khan of the Blue Horde (West), and was responsible for the first official establishment of Islam in a khanate of the Mongol Empire. Following the Sack of Baghdad by Hulagu Khan, his cousin and head of the Mongol Ilkhanate based in Persia, he allied with the Egyptian Mamluks against Hulagu. Berke also supported Ariq Böke against Kublai in the Toluid Civil War, but did not intervene militarily in the war because he was occupied in his own war against Hulagu and the Ilkhanate.
Amir Chūpān, also spelt Choban or Coban, was a Chupanid noble of the Ilkhanate, and nominal general of the Mongol Empire. He was ennobled by Emperor Taiding of Yuan as Duke of Yi (翊國公).
Munkh Tumur or Möngke Temür (?–1280), son of Toqoqan Khan and Köchu Khatun of Oirat and the grandson of Batu Khan. He was a khan of the Golden Horde, a division of the Mongol Empire in 1266–1280. His name literally means "Eternal Iron" in the Mongolian language.
The family tree of Genghis Khan is listed below. This family tree only lists prominent members of the Borjigin family and does not reach the present. Genghis Khan appears in the middle of the tree, and Kublai Khan appears at the bottom of the tree. The Borjigin family was the imperial house of the Mongol Empire, dating back to the 13th and 14th centuries.
Oghul Qaimish was the principal wife of Güyük Khan and ruled as regent over the Mongol Empire after the death of her husband in 1248. She was a descendant of the Mergid tribe. However, H. H. Howorth believed that she was an Oirat, mistaking her for Oghul Tutmish, wife of Möngke.
Talabuga Khan, also known as Tulabuga, Talubuga and Telubuga, was the Khan of the Golden Horde, a large, independent empire and one of the four successor states of the continent-sized Mongol Empire, from 1287 to 1291. He was the son of Tartu, great-grandson of Batu Khan, and great-great-great-grandson of Genghis Khan.
Toqoqan was a member of the ruling family of the Mongol Empire. He was a son of the khan of the Golden Horde, Batu. Through his father, he was also a great-grandson of the Mongol emperor Genghis Khan. Though Toqoqan never reigned himself, many subsequent khans were descended from him.
Taghachar, also spelled Tajir, Ta'achar was a commander in the army of the Mongol Empire. He was one of the conspirators involved in the overthrow of three Ilkhanate khans, and placed the short-lived Baydu on the throne in 1295.
Arghun Agha, also Arghun Aqa or Arghun the Elder was a Mongol noble of the Oirat clan in the 13th century. He was a governor in the Mongol-controlled area of Persia from 1243 to 1255, before the Ilkhanate was created by Hulagu. Arghun Agha was in control of the four districts of eastern and central Persia, as decreed by the great khan Möngke Khan.
Mengü is a common masculine Turkish given name. In Turkish, "Mengü" means "eternal", "without a beginning", and/or "having no beginning".
Rukn al-Din Mubarak Khwaja was a Qutlugkhanid ruler of Kerman and the son of Buraq Hajib, founder of the dynasty.
Möngke Temür or Tash Möngke was one of the sons of il-khan Hulagu. He ruled over the Ilkhanate in the Mongol Empire.
Qutuqa Beki — was a 13th century chief of the Oirats who played major role on formation of Mongol Empire.