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Example of toenailing in stud framing Toenailing example with hammer and nail.jpg
Example of toenailing in stud framing

Toenailing or skew-nailing is a viable, structurally sound method [1] of the driving of a nail at a roughly 30° [2] angle to fasten two pieces of wood together, typically with their grains perpendicular. The term comes colloquially from fastening wood at the bottom, or toe, of the board. A variation of toenailing is to use screws, casually known as "toe-screwing". Toenails are typically driven in opposing pairs when possible, or pairs of pairs when appropriate. The angled nailing makes later dismantling difficult or destructive.



The word toenailing has been used in carpentry since at least 1949. [3]

Common applications

Alternatives to toenailing include the use of joist hangers, hurricane ties, and other engineered steel connectors designed to drive nails on a perpendicular to a wood surface.

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  1. "TABLE 2304.10.2 FASTENING SCHEDULE". International Code Council. INTERNATIONAL CODE COUNCIL, INC. 2021. Retrieved 13 July 2023.
  2. "Strength of Wood Joints Made with Nails, Staples, or Screws" (PDF). United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved 13 July 2023.
  3. Sholten, J. A.; Heyer, Otto C. (1949). The Strength of Frame Joints Assembled by Toenailing, End-nailing, and Three Types of Metal Fastening. U.S. Forest Service, Forest Products Laboratory.