Tofaş Şahin

Last updated
Tofaş Şahin
Tofaş Şahin in Egypt
Manufacturer Tofaş
Also calledTofaş Doğan
Tofaş Kartal (station wagon)
Nasr Sahin
Holland DOCC
Assembly Bursa, Turkey
Cairo, Egypt (Nasr, until 2010)
Addis Ababa, Ethiopia (Holland Car, until 2010)
Body and chassis
Class Family car
Body style 4-door sedan
5-door station wagon (Kartal)
Layout FR layout
Related Fiat 131
SEAT 131
Engine Gasoline:

1,297 cc (79.1 cu in) 131 A0.000 OHV I4
1,585 cc (96.7 cu in) 131 A1.000 OHV I4
1,372 cc (83.7 cu in) 131 F4.016 SOHC I4
1,581 cc (96.5 cu in) 131 D2.016 SOHC I4



 cc (117.7 cu in) 149 A1.016 SOHC I4
Transmission 4-speed manual (Only for 1981-1989 Şahin and Kartal models)
5-speed manual
Wheelbase 2,490 mm (98.0 in)
Length4,316 mm (169.9 in)
Width1,642 mm (64.6 in)
Height1,437 mm (56.6 in)
Curb weight 960 kg (2,116 lb)
Predecessor Tofaş Murat 131 (1977–1986)
Successor Fiat Albea

The Tofaş Murat 131, Şahin, Doğan, and Kartal are Turkish versions of the old Fiat 131 (older models) automobile made in the Türk Otomobil Fabrikası A.Ş. factory in Bursa, Turkey. While doğan means "falcon" in Turkish, kartal means "eagle" and şahin means "hawk". The car was built from 1977 and sold in Turkey until 2002, with Egyptian assembly coming to an end in 2009 and in Ethiopia until 2010.


Original Tofas Murat 131 1300 Tofas Murat 131 1300 front.jpg
Original Tofaş Murat 131 1300
1981-1984 Tofas Murat 131 Sahin 1982-1984 Tofas Murat 131 Dogan 1600 5 Vites.jpg
1981-1984 Tofaş Murat 131 Şahin

In February 1977 the Turkish Tofaş Murat 131 was first introduced, as a near exact replica of the Fiat 131. [1] Originally it was only available with a Solex twin-barrel carbureted 1.3 L pushrod petrol four, producing 70 PS (51 kW) (SAE) at 5,250 rpm. [2] From 1981 the Şahin ("Falcon") and Kartal names were also in use, with the Kartal ("Eagle") being the station wagon. [1] [3] From this point a 1.6-litre OHV engine was also added to the lineup, producing 75 PS (55 kW) DIN at 5,400 rpm. This largely replaced the smaller 1.3 (now with a claimed 65 PS or 48 kW DIN at 5,400 rpm with a Weber twin carburetor), which was only retained as a lower priced option for the more basic Şahin version. The single, rounded rectangular headlights of the earlier Murat 131s were replaced with double units. Announced in September 1981 (on sale by October), the new luxurious Doğan model received a five-speed manual transmission. [4] The Doğan also received a fully fabric upholstered interior, a heated rear window, and had the front door vent windows removed. The luggage compartment was fully carpeted and the suspension was adjusted to minimize understeer at high speeds. [4]

The five-speed remained standard only for the Doğan, although it later became an option in the lesser models. From 1984, the Doğan was also set apart by large rectangular headlights while the lesser Şahin and Kartal made do with round twin headlights. [5]


In 1988 they received a major aesthetic revision resulting in a design very reminiscent of the Fiat Regata. The "Murat" portion of the name was still used in some marketing material, but no longer appeared on the car and gradually vanished. [6] The new headlights were large and square, with triangular corner lights which wrap around. The grille has a number of slim vertical crossbars in black plastic, with higher end models receiving some body colored elements at the top of the grille. After the facelift, the Doğan and Şahin sedan models are almost visually identical barring various upper-class trim options on the slightly more luxurious Doğan variant. The Kartal, the station wagon derivation of the design, has a rear body developed locally, with a higher roof than that of the 131 Estate originating with SEAT in Spain.

In August 1994 (for the 1995 model year), the range received a facelift with a new grille (body colored for all but the lowest specced versions), as well as new side view mirrors from the E30 3 Series. The grille had a prominent frame, with the opening containing a stylized "T" and a slim crossbar. The Doğan SLX also received power steering. [7] For 1996 the cars were provided with new SOHC engines from the Fiat Tempra (an engine that was first designed for the Fiat 128) in two versions: a 1.4 L with 78 hp (58 kW) at 5,500 rpm (only for the Şahin), and a 1.6 L with 86 PS (63 kW) at 5,800 rpm which was available in all models. The Şahin no longer received the 1.4 in Turkey after a while, instead being fitted with an 82 PS (60 kW) version of the 1.6. [8] Later the grille received a circular central motif, containing the "T" logo.

In 1998, the "Kartal Kargo" was introduced. This was a two-seater panel van version of the wagon, akin to Fiat's own Marengo line. The Kartal Kargo can manage a 600 kg (1,300 lb) payload. [9] The rear windows were plated and most trim details were in black plastic, but the Kargo did receive standard power steering.

In 2002 the range received another minor facelift, but this year also heralded the end of Turkish sales as they were now only produced for export, usually in CKD form. [10] Power outputs of catalyzed engines also decreased to 72 hp (54 kW) at 6,000 rpm and 80 hp (60 kW) at 5,750 rpm respectively. [1] By this time the four-speed transmission was no longer available. [11] In 2005 they were introduced with single point electronic fuel injection. Turkish production was gradually shifted to Egypt. In 2006 assembly was also commenced by DOCC in Ethiopia where it continued on a small scale until 2010 (see more below). [12]

Tofaş Şahin, used as standard patrol car by General Directorate of Security, along with Renault 12 Toros in 1990s to mid-2000s. Kartal is used by Gendarmerie General Command. Both cars replaced by Fiat Doblo and Ford Transit Connect in 2000s.

Tofaş Şahin, Doğan and Kartal also exported to Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Libya, Macedonia, Syria, Tunisia, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan as well as China. Right-hand drive models were produced for the Northern Cyprus market.


1995-2003 Tofas Kartal Tofas Kartal in Haskoy.jpg
1995-2003 Tofaş Kartal
A Tofas Dogan SLX with circled "T" logo Tofas Dogan SLX front.jpg
A Tofaş Doğan SLX with circled "T" logo

The Şahin, Doğan, and Kartal all shared the same rear wheel drive platform with longitudinal engine placement, MacPherson design suspension system for the front wheels and a live axle for the rear. Their major selling point was their low price, robust design, and its low-maintenance cost, largely due to its near universal popularity during the 1980s and 1990s. However, this design resulted in a very cramped passenger compartment as the gearbox, fuel tank and shaft tunnel occupied a lot of space. Due to its roots as a mid 1970s Italian passenger vehicle, the design lacked various safety equipment standards including ABS, passenger airbags, and traction control. Its popularity in Turkey started waning in the mid-1990s as modern imported cars flooded the market. More recently, most Tofas have been converted to use LPG fuel as gasoline prices soared and made the cars financially unfeasible in its unmodified state. It was the de facto taxi of Turkey before it was deemed unsuitable for taxi use due to Turkey's ongoing negotiations to enter the EU, and the ensuing regulations implemented. The models have been replaced by the Fiat Siena (later the Fiat Albea/Fiat Palio) series.

Nasr variant

Türk Otomobil Fabrikası A.Ş. produced the Şahin and its siblings under license in Egypt in large quantities from 1991, with assembly carried out by the state-owned Nasr car company. [12] The range underwent the same changes as did Turkish market models, although the Kartal was taken out of production in 2003 and the Doğan was eventually replaced by the Şahin 1600 SL - with the 1400 S beneath it in the lineup. Production was gradually shifted to Egypt, with local parts content reaching 45% by 2006. [13] With the winding down of the Nasr company in 2009, Egyptian production ended. [14]

A 2000 model Tofas Sahin in Turkey Tofas Sahin.jpg
A 2000 model Tofaş Şahin in Turkey


In 2006 the Tofaş Şahin was put into production in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, by the Holland Car Company, a joint venture between a firm from the Netherlands called Trento Engineering and the local firm of Ethio-Holland. Their version of the Şahin is called the DOCC, which comes from the term Dutch Overseas Car Company and comes with the OHC 1.6 L (1,581 cc) powerplant. After the end at El Nasr, Ethiopian production came to a halt in 2010. [12]

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Fiat 128</span> Small family car

The Fiat 128 is a transverse front-engine, front wheel drive small family car manufactured and marketed by Fiat from 1969 to 1985 as a two- or four-door sedan, three- or five-door station wagon as well as two- or three-door coupé. The 128 running gear and engine, reconfigured for a mid-engined layout, were used in the Fiat X1/9 sports car.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Fiat 124</span> Motor vehicle

The Fiat 124 is a small family car manufactured and marketed by Italian company Fiat between 1966 and 1974. The saloon superseded the Fiat 1300 and was the basis for several variants including a station wagon, a four-seater coupé, and a two-seater convertible

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Fiat Tipo (Type 160)</span> Motor vehicle

The Fiat Tipo is a compact car, designed by the I.DE.A Institute design house, and produced by the Italian manufacturer Fiat between 1988 and 1995.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Fiat Siena</span> Compact car produced by Fiat

The Fiat Siena is a subcompact car produced by the Italian manufacturer Fiat from 1996 to 2022. It is the four-door sedan version of the Fiat Palio, a supermini car especially designed for developing countries. It was introduced for the first time in South America, and was produced in various countries worldwide. Later, in 2002, a similar car based on the same platform was developed for the European market, the Fiat Albea. It replaced the Siena in these European markets, such as Poland and Turkey, where the original model was previously sold.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Fiat Tempra</span> Small family car produced by the Italian automaker Fiat from 1990 to 1996

The Fiat Tempra is a small family car produced by the Italian automaker Fiat from 1990 to 1996 in Italy. The Tempra was intended as a replacement for the Fiat Regata. The original project was called Tipo 3, being a mid-size car between the Fiat Tipo and the bigger Fiat Croma. The Tempra shares its Type Three platform with the Lancia Dedra and Alfa Romeo 155.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Fiat Stilo</span> Motor vehicle

The Fiat Stilo is a small family car available as a three- and a five-door hatchback, as well as an estate, produced by Italian automaker Fiat. The Stilo hatchbacks were presented in March 2001, at the Bologna Motor Show and launched in October 2001 to replace the Fiat Bravo/Brava, with the Stilo Multi Wagon following in January 2003.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Fiat 131</span> Family sedan

The Fiat 131 is a family sedan manufactured and marketed by Fiat from 1974 to 1984 after its debut at the 1974 Turin Motor Show. Available as a two-door and four-door saloon and 5-door estate across a single generation, the 131 succeeded the Fiat 124.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Fiat 1100</span> Motor vehicle

The Fiat 1100 is a small family car produced from 1953 until 1969 by the Italian manufacturer Fiat. It was an all-new unibody replacement for the Fiat 1100 E, which descended from the pre-war, body-on-frame Fiat 508 C Balilla 1100. The 1100 was changed steadily and gradually until being replaced by the new Fiat 128 in 1969. There were also a series of light commercial versions of the 1100 built, with later models called the Fiat 1100T, which remained in production until 1971. The Fiat 1100 D also found a long life in India, where Premier Automobiles continued to build the car until the end of 2000.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Fiat Doblò</span> Minivan produced by Fiat since 2000

The Fiat Doblò is a panel van and leisure activity vehicle produced by Italian automaker Fiat since 2000. It was unveiled at the Paris Motor Show in October 2000. A second-generation Doblò succeeded the original vehicle in 2010 for most markets, and it was sold in the United States as the RAM ProMaster City from 2015 to 2022. The third-generation Doblò, a rebadged version of the Citroën Berlingo, was unveiled in June 2022.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Fiat Marea</span> Motor vehicle

The Fiat Marea is a small family car available as a saloon and an estate, produced by the Italian automaker Fiat. Launched in September 1996, the Marea models were essentially different body styles of Fiat's hatchback offerings, the Bravo and Brava. The Marea replaced the earlier Tipo based Fiat Tempra, as well as the larger Croma.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Fiat 147</span> Motor vehicle

The Fiat 147 was a three-door hatchback subcompact car produced by Fiat in the Brazilian state of Minas Gerais from autumn 1976 until 1987, when it was replaced by the Fiat Uno. It was the Brazilian variant of the Fiat 127. Some were also built by Sevel in Argentina until 1996, and assembly also took place in Colombia, Uruguay, and Venezuela.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">FSO Polonez</span> Polish motor vehicle

The FSO Polonez is a motor vehicle that was developed in Poland in collaboration with Fiat and produced by Fabryka Samochodów Osobowych from 1978 to 2002. It was based on the Polski Fiat 125p platform with a new hatchback design by Giorgetto Giugiaro. It was available in a variety of body styles that included two- and four-door compact-sized cars, station wagons, as well as commercial versions that included pickup truck, cargo van, and ambulance versions. Production totaled more than one million units excluding the pickup truck and van variants. The Polonez was marketed in other nations and was popular in its domestic market until Poland joined the European Union in 2004.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Fiat Fiorino</span> Motor vehicle

The Fiat Fiorino is a small commercial vehicle produced by the Italian car manufacturer Fiat since 1977. Its first two generations have been the panel van derivatives of other small models, such as the Fiat 127 and Fiat Uno, while the current third generation was developed jointly with PSA Peugeot Citroën, and is based on the Fiat Small platform.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Tofaş</span> Turkish automaker which was established in 1968 by Vehbi Koç

Tofaş is a Turkish automobile manufacturer which was established in 1968 by Vehbi Koç, who was the founder of Koç Holding, based in Bursa, where the manufacturing plant of the company is located. It is jointly owned by Stellantis and Koç Holding.

Nasr is Egypt's state owned automobile company. It is the first Arab vehicle manufacturer, founded in 1960 in Helwan, Egypt. Since, the company has produced licensed versions of the Fiat 1100 R, Fiat 1300, Fiat 2300, Fiat 128, Fiat 125, Fiat 133, Fiat 126, series 2 Fiat 127, 1983–92 FSO Polonez and in 1991 introduced a further range of Fiat-designed cars licensed via the Turkish company Tofaş. In the early 2000s Nasr began producing the Florida range under license from Serbian manufacturer Zastava.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Fiat 850</span> Motor vehicle

The Fiat 850 is a small rear-engine, rear-wheel-drive car manufactured and marketed by Italian car manufacturer Fiat from 1964 to 1973.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Suzuki Mighty Boy</span> Motor vehicle

The Suzuki Mighty Boy is an automobile which was produced by Japanese automaker Suzuki from 1983 to 1988. It was the only "bonnet type" pick up ever sold in the 550 cc era of the Kei class. It was classified as a commercial vehicle in Japan so as to benefit from lower taxes for such vehicles, but its utilitarian values were certainly restricted. While the Mighty Boy was not a runaway success and was never replaced in the Suzuki lineup, the car still has a dedicated following in Japan.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Fiat Linea</span> Compact car manufactured by Fiat

The Fiat Linea was a compact sedan released on 26 March 2007 at the Tofaş plant in Bursa, Turkey, by the Italian automaker Fiat as a world car in developing countries. It is based on the Fiat Grande Punto platform. The Linea was designed by Fiat Style Centre and co-developed by Tofaş and Fiat do Brasil. Production in Turkey ended in 2016.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Iveco Daily</span> Commercial truck produced by Iveco

The Iveco Daily is a large light commercial van produced by the Italian automaker Iveco since 1978; it was also sold as the Fiat Daily by Fiat until 1983. Unlike the more car-like unibody Fiat Ducato, the Daily uses a separate ladder frame typical of heavier commercial vehicles. The Iveco Daily is produced at the Iveco Suzzara plant, near Mantova in Italy, where Iveco has recently made substantial investments to renew the production lines.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Fiat 1100 (1937)</span> Motor vehicle

The Fiat 1100 is a small family car produced from 1937 to 1953 by the Italian car manufacturer Fiat. It was introduced in 1937 as Fiat 508 C or Balilla 1100, as a replacement for the Fiat 508 Balilla. Under the new body the 508 C had more modern and refined mechanicals compared to the 508, including independent front suspension and an enlarged overhead valve engine. In 1939 it was updated and renamed simply Fiat 1100. The 1100 was produced in three consecutive series—1100, 1100 B and 1100 E—until 1953, when it was replaced by the all-new, unibody Fiat 1100/103.


  1. 1 2 3 World of Cars 2006·2007. Warsaw, Poland: Media Connection Sp. z o.o. 2006. p. 274.
  2. Lösch, Annamaria, ed. (1980). World Cars 1980. Pelham, NY: The Automobile Club of Italy/Herald Books. p. 336. ISBN   978-0-910714-12-9.
  3. Büschi, Hans-Ulrich, ed. (5 March 1987). Automobil Revue 1987 (in German and French). Vol. 82. Berne, Switzerland: Hallwag AG. pp. 534–535. ISBN   978-3-444-00458-2.
  4. 1 2 "Murat 131'in "Doğan" modeli çıktı" [Murat 131'in "Doğan" modeli çıktı]. Hürriyet (in Turkish). Hürriyet Holding. 34: 1, 13. 1981-09-18. Retrieved 2013-03-10.
  5. Åhman, Michael, ed. (1990). BilKatalogen 1991 (Swedish edition of German Auto Katalog) (in Swedish). Stockholm, Sweden: PM Press AB. p. 119.
  6. Mastrostefano, Raffaele, ed. (1990). Quattroruote: Tutte le Auto del Mondo 1990 (in Italian). Milano: Editoriale Domus S.p.A. pp. 999–1000.
  7. "Tofaş'ın 1995 yenilikleri" [Tofaş' 1995 innovations]. Auto Show (in Turkish): 16. 1994-08-30.
  8. Özenen, Hakan, ed. (December 1996). "Türk pazarındaki otomobillerin teknik verileri" [Technical data for Turkish market automobiles]. Auto Capital (in Turkish). Istanbul, Turkey: Hürgüç Gazetecilik A.Ş. (1): 114.
  9. "Tofaş'ın yeni Kartal'ı Kargo piyasada..." [Tofaş' new Kartal Kargo goes on sale...]. Otohaber (in Turkish): 7. 1998.
  10. World of Cars 2006·2007, p. 275
  11. World of Cars 2006·2007, pp. 352-353
  12. 1 2 3 "Tofaş Şahin". Autocade. 2011-04-16.
  13. World of Cars 2006·2007, p. 79
  14. "El Nasr closure spells end to long running assembly of Fiat 128 and 131 in Egypt". Italiaspeed. Interfuture Media. 2009-05-21.