Togha Temürs coin.
|Predecessor||Abu Sa'id Bahadur|
Togha Temür (died late 1353), also known as Taghaytimur, was a claimant to the throne of the Ilkhanate in the mid-14th century. Of the many individuals who attempted to become Ilkhan after the death of Abu Sa'id, Togha Temür was the only one who hailed from eastern Iran, and was the last major candidate who was of the house of Genghis Khan. His base of power was Gurgan and western Khurasan. His name "Togoy Tomor" means "Bowl/Pot Iron" in the Mongolian language.
Togha Temür descended from Hasar, Genghis Khan's brother. Eventually, his family became the rulers of a nomadic tribe, the Chete. His grandfather Baba Kawun had moved the Chete into the region between Astarabad (modern-day Gurgan) and Kalbush on the east Gurgan River. This region's principal cities were Astarabad and Jurjan. When Togha Temür became the leader of the Chete, they were still in this area.
A few months after the death of Ilkhan Abu Sa'id in 1335, Togha Temür became involved in the succession struggle. The governor of Khurasan, Shaikh 'Ali b. 'Ali Qushji, noting Togha Temür's relation to Chinngis Khan, proposed naming him Ilkhan, and most of the princes of eastern Iran were convinced to accept him as sovereign. After his name was added to the coinage and in the official prayers, an expedition into western Iran was planned. In that part of the country two Ilkhans, Arpa Ke'un and Musa Khan, had already been overthrown, and it was believed that the troops of Khurasan could overcome the instability there.
In the spring of 1337 Togha Temür's forces began the campaign. There was dissension within his ranks, however; several local princes resented the power of Shaikh 'Ali over the would-be Ilkhan, and hated the economic policies that he had been in charge of implementing as governor of Khurasan. As a result, two of his supporters, namely Arghun Shah, who was chief of the Jauni Kurban tribe, and 'Abd-Allah b. Mulai, who held Kuhistan, withdrew from the campaign at Bistam. This was offset by the addition of the former Ilkhan Musa Khan and his troops, who had been in flight since their defeat by the Jalayirid Hasan Buzurg and his puppet khan, Muhammad Khan. Together they occupied the old Ilkhan capital Soltaniyeh, but in June 1337 Hasan Buzurg met and defeated them on the field, forcing Togha Temür and Shaikh 'Ali to evacuate the region.
In July 1337, while returning to Khurasan, Shaikh 'Ali was captured by Arghun Shah, who executed him and sent his head to Hasan Buzurg. From this point on Arghun Shah was Togha Temür's most powerful supporter. He convinced Togha Temür to resist Muhammad-i Mulai, who arrived in Khurasan to act as Hasan Buzurg's governor there. Togha Temür and Arghun Shah defeated and executed him in the fall of that year, making sure that Khurasan remained free of the Jalayirids.
Less than a year later, Togha Temür was again drawn into events in the west. Hasan Buzurg's rule there had been contested by the Chobanid Hasan Kucek, who had defeated the Jalayirids, killed Hasan Buzurg's puppet khan, and taken control of Tabriz in July 1338. In response, Hasan Buzurg requested the assistance of Togha Temür. After consulting Arghun Shah, he accepted, and in 1339 he returned to western Iran. As part of the deal, Hasan Buzurg recognized him as Ilkhan.
Hasan Kucek, however, acted quickly to destroy the alliance. He sent a letter to Togha Temür, offering him the hand of his own Ilkhan puppet, Sati Beg, in marriage with the prospect of an alliance between the Chobanids and Khurasanis. Togha Temür was pleased with the idea, so he sent a response accepting the offer. Hasan Kucek then forwarded the response to Hasan Buzurg with a supplementary letter warning him that Togha Temür was an untrustworthy person and claiming that the Jalayirids and Chobanids believed in many of the same things and could together work towards the reunification of the Ilkhanid state.
Hasan Buzurg, believing his Chobanid rival, decided to turn against the Khurasanis. With both Jalayirid and Chobanid forces opposing him, Togha Temür had little choice but to return to Khurasan. Although in 1340 Togha Temür was again recognized by Hasan Buzurg as Ilkhan, and continued to be recognized as such until 1344, his attempts to unify the Ilkhanate under his rule had effectively failed. The regular Khurasani army had been decimated, leaving Togha Temür dependent on his and his allies' tribal forces, which were insufficient to conquer the west.
In the west the Jalayirids and Chobanids had prevented Togha Temür from extending his rule across much of the Ilkhanate. Another group opposed him much more directly - they threatened his rule in Khurasan itself. The Sarbadars came to power by revolting against one of Togha Temür's subordinates, 'Ala' al-Din Muhammad, as a result of increasingly harsh tax demands. Initially the Sarbadars claimed that their revolt was against 'Ala' al-Din only and not against Togha Temür, and continued to put Togha Temür's name on their coins. When they attacked Arghun Shah's Jauni Kurban, however, Togha Temür was prompted to send his forces against them, but they were defeated and both 'Ala' al-Din and 'Abd-Allah b. Mulai were killed. Following this, the Sarbadars took much of Khurasan and transferred their allegiance to the Chobanids, recognizing Hasan Kucek's puppet khan Suleiman Khan.
Togha Temür and his supporters fled to the Jajrud valley, to the south of Amol (in Mazandaran), whose ruler, the Bavandid Hasan II, was his vassal. In 1344 the Sarbadars decided to wipe out Togha Temür and moved against him, but the Bavandids trapped their army and killed their leader, Mas'ud. This allowed Togha Temür to reclaim much of the territory the Sarbadars had captured, and he even briefly regained their allegiance.
Despite this, the Sarbadars continued to pose a problem. Togha Temür was not helped by the death of Arghun Shah, who died in 1345 or 1346, after which the Jauni Kurban ceased to support him against the Sarbadars. Fighting between the two sides continued until Yahya Karawi took control of the Sarbadars in around 1352. He decided to submit to Togha Temür, minted coins in his name, sent him tribute, and promised to present himself before the khan every year. Togha Temür accepted this proposal, and it seemed like peace had been achieved. However, Yahya did not intend to remain Togha Temür's vassal. In November or December 1353 Yahya and a group of Sarbadars presented themselves before Togha Temür in his camp. They struck him down, then slaughtered his family and his army and killed the nomads' animals.
Much of Togha Temür's territories then passed into the Sarbadars' hands again. The remaining lands were supposed to fall into his son Luqman's hands, but Amir Vali, the son of Togha Temür's governor of Astarabad, set him aside; it was he who continued the struggle with the Sarbadars.
The Ilkhanate, also spelled Il-khanate, known to the Mongols as Hülegü Ulus was a khanate established from the southwestern sector of the Mongol Empire, ruled by the Mongol House of Hulagu. Hulagu Khan, the son of Tolui and grandson of Genghis Khan, inherited the Middle Eastern part of the Mongol Empire after his brother Möngke Khan died in 1260. Its core territory lies in what is now part of the countries of Iran, Azerbaijan, and Turkey. At its greatest extent, the Ilkhanate also included parts of modern Iraq, Syria, Armenia, Georgia, Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Pakistan, part of modern Dagestan, and part of modern Tajikistan. Later Ilkhanate rulers, beginning with Ghazan in 1295, converted to Islam. In the 1330s, the Ilkhanate was ravaged by the Black Death. Its last khan Abu Sa'id died in 1335, after which the khanate disintegrated.
Musa Khan was an Ilkhan for 4 months
The Chobanids or the Chupanids were descendants of a Mongol family of the Suldus clan that came to prominence in 14th century Persia. At first serving under the Ilkhans, they took de facto control of the territory after the fall of the Ilkhanate. The Chobanids ruled over Azerbaijan, Arrān, parts of Asia Minor, Mesopotamia, and west central Persia, while the Jalayirids took control in Baghdad.
Hasan Kuchak or Ḥasan-i Kūchik was a Chupanid prince during the 14th century. He is credited with setting up a nearly independent Chupanid state in northern Persia during the struggles taking place in the aftermath of the Ilkhanate.
Demasq Kaja was a member of the Chobanid family during the middle of the fourteenth century. He was the son of Coban.
The House of Inju was a dynasty of that came to rule over the Iranian cities of Shiraz and Isfahan during the 14th century. Its members became de facto independent rulers following the breakup of the Ilkhanate until their defeat in 1357.
Shaikh Hasan, also known as "Hasan Buzurg", Hassan the Jalair or Hassan-e Uljatâï was the first of several de facto independent Jalayirid rulers of Iraq and central Iran.
Shaykh Uways Jalayir was the Jalayirid ruler of Iraq (1356–1374) and Azerbaijan (1360–1374). He was the son of Hasan Buzurg and the Chobanid princess Dilshad Khatun.
The Kart dynasty, also known as the Kartids, was a Sunni Muslim dynasty of Tajik origin closely related to the Ghurids, that ruled over a large part of Khorasan during the 13th and 14th centuries. Ruling from their capital at Herat and central Khorasan in the Bamyan, they were at first subordinates of Sultan Abul-Fateh Ghiyāṣ-ud-din Muhammad bin Sām, Sultan of the Ghurid Empire, of whom they were related, and then as vassal princes within the Mongol Empire. Upon the fragmentation of the Ilkhanate in 1335, Mu'izz-uddin Husayn ibn Ghiyath-uddin worked to expand his principality. The death of Husayn b. Ghiyath-uddin in 1370 and the invasion of Timur in 1381, ended the Kart dynasty's ambitions.
The Sarbadars were a mixture of religious dervishes and secular rulers that came to rule over part of western Khurasan in the midst of the disintegration of the Mongol Ilkhanate in the mid-14th century. Centered in their capital of Sabzavar, they continued their reign until Khwaja 'Ali-yi Mu'ayyad submitted to Timur in 1381, and were one of the few groups that managed to mostly avoid Timur's famous brutality.
Muhammad Khan was a claimant to the throne of the Ilkhanate.
Sati Beg was an Ilkhanid princess, the sister of Il-Khan Abu Sa'id (r. 1316–1333). She was the consort of amir Chupan (1319–1327), Il-Khan Arpa (r. 1335–36), and Il-Khan Suleiman (r. 1339–1343). In 1338–39, she was briefly the Ilkhanid khatun during internal conflicts, appointed by a Chobanid faction led by Hassan Kuchak.
Suleiman Khan was a Chobanid puppet for the throne of the Ilkhanate during the breakdown of central authority in Persia.
Jahan Temür was a Jalayirid puppet for the throne of the Ilkhanate in the late 1330s.
Malek Ashraf, was a Chupanid ruler of northwestern Iran during the 14th century. He was the last of the Chupanids to possess a significant influence within Persia. He was the son of Timurtash.
Amir Vali was the ruler of Astarabad and parts of Mazandaran from 1356 until 1366, and again from c. 1374 until 1384. His relatively long reign was dominated by conflict with the Sarbadars and the Jalayirids, and ended only upon the arrival of Timur into eastern Persia.
Muhammad Aytimur was the leader of the Sarbadars of Sabzewar from 1343 until his death.
Wajih ad-Din Mas'ud was the leader of the Sarbadars of Sabzewar from 1338-1343 until his death. Under his rule, the Sarbadar state developed its characteristic dual nature as both a secular and radical Shi'i state.
Khwaja Shams al-Din 'Ali was the leader of the Sarbadars of Sabzewar from 1348 until his death.
Nawrūz was a son of governor Arghun Aqa, and was a powerful Oirat emir of the 13th century who played an important role in the politics of the Mongol Ilkhanate.