Toghon Temür

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Ukhaghatu Khan Toghon Temür
Emperor Huizong of Yuan
15th Khagan of the Mongol Empire
(Nominal due to the division of the Mongol Empire)
Emperor of China
(11th Emperor of the Yuan dynasty)
Khan of the Northern Yuan dynasty
Toghon.jpg
Portrait of Toghon Temür
Emperor of the Yuan dynasty
Reign19 July 1333 – 1368
Coronation 19 July 1333
Predecessor Rinchinbal Khan
SuccessorHimself as the Khan of Northern Yuan dynasty
Khan of the Northern Yuan dynasty
Reign1368 – 23 May 1370
PredecessorHimself as the Emperor of the Yuan dynasty
Successor Biligtü Khan Ayushiridara
Emperor of China
Reign1333–1368
(Since 1351 the Yuan dynasty lost control parts of China to Emperors Han Lin'er and Xu Shouhui)
Predecessor Rinchinbal Khan (Yuan dynasty)
Successor Hongwu Emperor (Ming dynasty)
Han Lin'er (w:zh:韓林兒), the Longfeng 龍鳳 Emperor ( Red Turban Song dynasty (w:zh:宋 (韓林兒))) [1]
Xu Shouhui Tianwan dynasty 天完 or Song dynasty w:zh:宋 (徐壽輝)
Born(1320-05-25)25 May 1320
Died23 May 1370(1370-05-23) (aged 49)
Yingchang
Consort Danashiri, Bayan Khutugh, Empress Ki
Full name
Mongolian: ᠲᠤᠭᠬᠣᠣᠨᠲᠥᠮᠥᠷ
Chinese :妥懽帖睦爾
Toghon Temür
Era dates
Zhishun (至順 Zhìshùn) 1333
Yuantong (元統 Yuántǒng) 1333–1335
Zhiyuan (至元 Zhìyuán) 1335–1340
Zhizheng (至正 Zhìzhèng) 1341–1370
Posthumous name
Short: Shundi [note 1]
Full: Emperor Xuanren Pu Xiao (宣仁普孝皇帝)
Temple name
Huizong (惠宗)
Ukhaghatu Khan (ᠤᠬᠠᠭᠠᠲᠤ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ)
House Borjigin
Dynasty Yuan dynasty
Father Khutughtu Khan Kusala
MotherMailaiti of the Karluks
Religion Tibetan Buddhism

Toghon Temür (Mongolian : Тогоонтөмөр, Togoontömör; 25 May 1320 – 23 May 1370), also known by the temple name Huizong (Chinese :惠宗) bestowed by the Northern Yuan dynasty in Mongolia and by the posthumous name Emperor Shun (Chinese :順帝; Wade–Giles :Shun-ti) bestowed by the Hongwu Emperor of the Ming dynasty China, was a son of Khutughtu Khan Kusala who ruled as emperor of the Yuan dynasty. Apart from Emperor of China, he is also considered the last Khagan of the Mongol Empire, although it was only nominal due to the division of the empire at the start of the Yuan dynasty. [2] [3] [4]

Contents

During the last years of his reign, the Yuan dynasty was overthrown by the Red Turban Rebellion, which established the Ming dynasty, although the Mongols remained in control of Mongolia. As such, he was the final monarch of the Yuan dynasty and the first ruler of the Northern Yuan dynasty.

Emperor Huizong was a Buddhist student of the Karmapas (heads of the Karma Kagyu school of Tibetan Buddhism) and is considered a previous incarnation of the Tai Situpas. He also notably invited the Jonang savant Dölpopa Shérab Gyeltsen to teach him, but was rebuffed. [5]

Before succession

Toghon Temür was born to Kuśala, known as Khutughtu Khan or Emperor Mingzong, when he was in exile in Central Asia. Toghon Temür's mother was Mailaiti, descendant of Arslan Khan, the chief of the Karluks. According to a story, the former Chinese Southern Song Emperor Gong of Song, Zhao Xian, had an affair with Yuan Empress Mailaiti. Zhao Xian allegedly fathered Yuan Toghon Temür with Mailaiti as a bastard child. [6] The Mongols circulated a similar story about the Yongle Emperor.

Following the civil war known as the War of the Two Capitals that broke out after the death of Yesün Temür (Emperor Taiding) in 1328, Toghon Temür attended his father and entered Shangdu from Mongolia. However, after Kuśala died and his younger brother was restored to the throne as Jayaatu Khan Tugh Temür (Emperor Wenzong), he was kept from the court and was banished to Goryeo (modern Korea) and later to Guangxi in South China. While he was in exile, his stepmother Babusha was executed.

When Emperor Wenzong died in 1332, his widow, Empress Dowager Budashiri respected his will to make the son of Kuśala's succeed to the throne instead of Wenzong's own son, El Tegüs. However, it was not Toghon Temür but his younger half-brother Rinchinbal, who was enthroned as Rinchinbal Khan (Emperor Ningzong). However, he died only two months into his reign. The de facto ruler, El Temür, attempted to install El Tegüs as emperor but was stopped by Empress Budashiri. As a result, Toghon Temür was summoned back from Guangxi. El Temür feared that Toghon Temür, who was too mature to be a puppet, would take arms against him since he was suspected of the assassination of Toghon Temür's father, Emperor Mingzong. The enthronement was postponed for six months until El Temür died in 1333.

In 1333, Toghon Temür first met Lady Ki, a Korean concubine, with whom he fell deeply in love. [7] Lady Ki had been sent to China sometime in the late 1320s as "human tribute" as the kings of Goryeo were required to send a certain number of beautiful teenage girls to Yuan to serve as concubines after the Mongol invasions. [8]

Reign

Struggles during the early reign

The new emperor appointed his cousin El Tegüs crown prince as he was ward of El Tegüs' mother Empress Dowager Budashiri, but he was controlled by warlords even after El Temür's death. Among them, Bayan became as powerful as El Temür had been. He served as minister of the Secretariat and crushed a rebellion by El Temür's son Tang Ki-se. During his despotic rule, he made several purges and also suspended the imperial examination system. When Toghon Temür tried to promote Lady Ki to secondary wife, which was contrary to the standard practice of only taking secondary wives from Mongol clans, it created such opposition at court to this unheard of promotion for a Korean woman that he was forced to back down. [9] In 1339, when Lady Ki gave birth to a son, whom Toghon Temür decided would be his successor, he was finally able to have Lady Ki named his secondary wife in 1340. [10]

As Toghon Temür matured, he came to disfavor Bayan's autocratic rule. In 1340 he allied with Bayan's nephew Toqto'a, who was in discord with Bayan, and banished Bayan in a coup. He also removed El Tegüs and Empress Budashiri from court. With the help of Toqto'a, he also managed to purge officials that had dominated the administration.

Administrations during the middle reign

Yuan Huizong in Chinese printing. Yuan Huizong.jpg
Yuan Huizong in Chinese printing.

With the dismissal of Bayan, Toqto'a seized the power of the court. His first administration clearly exhibited fresh new spirit. The young leader was quick to distinguish his regime as something wholly different from Bayan's. A new Chinese era name, Zhizheng (Chinese :至正), was decreed to show this. Bayan's purges were called off. Many of the great Chinese literati came back to the capital from voluntary retirement or from administrative exile and the imperial examination system was restored.

Toqto'a also gave a few early signs of a new and positive direction in central government. One of his successful projects was to finish the long-stalled official histories of the Liao, Jin and Song dynasties, which were eventually completed in 1345.

Toqto'a resigned his office with the approval of Toghon Temür in June 1344, which marked the end of his first administration. The several short-lived administrations that followed from 1344 and 1349 would develop an agenda very different from Toqto'a's. In 1347, the emperor forced Toqto'a into Gansu with assistance from former officers of Kuśala and Yesün Temür.

In 1349, Toghon Temür recalled Toqto'a, which began Toqto'a's second and very different administration.

Disorder during the late reign

Rebels and warlords in 1363 during the late reign of Toghon Temur. Red Turban.png
Rebels and warlords in 1363 during the late reign of Toghon Temur.

Since the late 1340s, people in the countryside suffered from frequent natural disasters, droughts, floods, and ensuing famines. The lack of effective government policy led to a loss of support from the people. Illicit salt dealers who were disaffected by the government's salt monopoly raised a rebellion in 1348, triggering many revolts around the empire. Among them was the Red Turban Rebellion, which started in 1351 and grew into a nationwide turmoil.

Hsing-hua, 1362, Yuan dynasty. Much of Putian County was controlled by Chinese rebels. Hsing-hua 1362.jpg
Hsing-hua, 1362, Yuan dynasty. Much of Putian County was controlled by Chinese rebels.

In 1354, when Toqto'a led a large army to crush the Red Turban rebels, Toghon Temür suddenly dismissed him for fear of betrayal. This resulted in the restoration of Toghon Temür's power but also a rapid weakening of the central government. Thus he had no choice but to rely on the forces of local warlords.

Toghon Temür gradually lost interest in politics and ceased to intervene in political struggles. His son Biligtü Khan, who became Crown Prince in 1353, attempted to seize power and came into conflict with Toghon Temür's aides, who dominated politics instead of the khan. During this time power was increasingly exercised by Lady Ki. [11] . [12] . [13] Chief Empress Lady Ki and his minister persuaded Biligtü Khan to overthrow the latter. Toghon Temür was unable to conciliate the dispute but executed the minister. In 1364 the Shangxi-based warlord Bolad Temür occupied Khanbaliq and expelled the Crown Prince from the winter base. In alliance with the Henan-based warlord Köke Temür, Biligtü Khan defeated Bolad Temür in the next year. This internal struggle resulted in further weakening of the political and military power of the central government. In 1365, Toghon Temür finally promoted his much beloved Lady Ki to First Empress and announced that his son by her would be the first in the line of succession. [14]

During the Yuan dynasty, one of Confucius' descendants, who was one of the Duke Yansheng Kong Huan's 孔浣 sons, named Kong Shao 孔紹, moved from China to Goryeo era Korea and established a branch of the family there called the Gong clan of Qufu after marrying a Korean woman (Jo Jin-gyeong's 曹晉慶 daughter) during Toghon Temür's rule. [15] [16] [17] [18] [19] [20] 曲阜孔氏 (朝鲜半岛) 곡부 공씨

Relations with other nations

Avignon papacy

Monument in honor of the rebuilding of the Temple of Yan Hui in Qufu in Year 9 of the Zhizheng era (1349). Yan Miao - northern courtyard - Zhizheng 9 - P1050472.JPG
Monument in honor of the rebuilding of the Temple of Yan Hui in Qufu in Year 9 of the Zhizheng era (1349).

Pope John XXII and Pope Benedict XII successfully extended a network of Catholic churches throughout the Mongol Empire from Crimea to China between 1317 and 1343. The archbishop of Khanbaligh, John of Montecorvino, died in 1328. With the backing of the Toghon Temür, the Alans wrote to Pope Benedict XII in 1336 asking for a new metropolitan. In 1338, the pope sent back the embassy headed by Giovanni de' Marignolli, who stayed at Beijing three or four years. They brought gifts for Toghon Temür that included fine European horses.[ citation needed ]

Japan

When the Koreans captured a Japanese fishing ship they thought was spying, the Goryeo court sent it to their overlord, the Yuan emperor Toghon Temür, who then sent the fishermen back to Japan. In reply, the Ashikaga shogunate sent an embassy led by a monk to express its gratitude.[ citation needed ]

Retreat to the north

A statue of Toghon Temur in Mongol Castle. Ukhagantu Khagan Toghogan-Temur.jpg
A statue of Toghon Temür in Mongol Castle.

Unifying rebel groups in Southern China and establishing the Ming dynasty, Zhu Yuanzhang – crowned as the Hongwu Emperor – conducted military expeditions to North China and defeated the Yuan army in 1368. When Köke Temür lost battles against the Ming general Xu Da and Ming troops approached Hebei, Toghon Temür gave up Khanbaliq and fled to his summer base, Shangdu.


In 1369 when Shangdu also fell under the Ming's occupation, Toghon Temür fled northward to Yingchang, which was located in present-day Inner Mongolia. He died there in 1370; his son succeeded him as Biligtü Khan Ayushiridara and retreated to Karakorum in the same year. The Yuan remnants ruled Mongolia and continued to claim the title of Emperor of China, from which point they are referred to as the Northern Yuan dynasty. He was the longest-lived Mongolian Emperor of Yuan China after Kublai Khan.

At the time of his death, the Mongolia-based empire maintained its influence, stretching the domination from the East Sea to Altai Mountains. There were also pro-Yuan, anti-Ming forces in Yunnan and Guizhou. Even though its control over China had not been stable yet, the Ming considered that the Yuan lost the Mandate of Heaven when it abandoned Khanbaliq, and that the Yuan was overthrown in 1368. The Ming did not treat Toghon Temür after 1368 and his successor Ayushiridar as legitimate emperors.

The Ming gave Toghon Temür the posthumous name Shundi (順帝), which implied that he followed the Mandate of Heaven ceding his empire to the Ming. But the Northern Yuan dynasty gave him their own posthumous name Xuanren Pu Xiao Huangdi (宣仁普孝皇帝) and temple name Huizong (惠宗).

Even after Toghon Temür, there was still Yuan resistance to the Ming in the south. In southwestern China, Basalawarmi, the self-styled "Prince of Liang", established a Yuan resistance movement in Yunnan and Guizhou that was not put down until 1381.

Legacy

Mongolian chronicles such as the Erdeniin Tobchi include a poem known as the Lament of Toghon Temür. It deals with his grieving after the loss of Khanbaliq.

See also

Notes

  1. The posthumous name Shundi was given by the Ming dynasty.

Related Research Articles

Empress Gi, known as Empress Qi in Chinese and Öljei Khutuk in Mongolian, was one of the primary empresses of Toghon Temür of the Yuan dynasty and the mother of Biligtü Khan. She was originally from an aristocratic family of Goryeo, present-day Korea, and came to Yuan as an imperial concubine of Toghon Temür.

Biligtü Khan Ayushiridara Khagan of the Mongols or Great Yuan

Biligtü Khan or The Emperor Zhaozong of Yuan, born Ayushiridara, was a ruler of the Northern Yuan dynasty based in Mongolia. He ascended to the throne after the death of his father who was the last Yuan emperor, defeated an invading Ming army in 1372 and recaptured some Chinese borderlands that were previously lost to the newly founded Ming dynasty.

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Budashiri Mongolian empress consort

Budashiri, or in Sinicized form Putashali was a regent of the Yuan dynasty between 1332 and 1333. She was the wife of Jayaatu Khan Tugh Temür, and came from the Khongirad clan. Her father was Prince Consort Diwabala, Prince of Lu, and her mother was Princess Supreme Sengge Ragi of Lu.

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Rinchinbal, also known by the temple name Ningzong, was a son of Kuśala who was briefly installed to the throne of the Yuan dynasty, but died soon after he seized the throne. Apart from Emperor of China, he is also considered as the 14th Great Khan of the Mongol Empire or Mongols, although it was only nominal due to the division of the empire.

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Jayaatu Khan Tugh Temür 12Th Khagan of the Mongol Empire

Jayaatu Khan, born Tugh Temür, also known by the temple name Wenzong, was an emperor of the Yuan dynasty. Apart from Emperor of China, he is regarded as the 12th Great Khan of the Mongol Empire or Mongols, although it was only nominal due to the division of the empire.

Bayan of the Merkid, or Bayan, was a Mongol general of the Merkid clan and an official in the Yuan dynasty.

Yuan dynasty Mongol-led imperial dynasty of China

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Northern Yuan dynasty Former empire in East Asia

The Northern Yuan was a dynastic regime ruled by the Mongol Borjigin clan based in the Mongolian Plateau. It operated as a rump state after the collapse of the Yuan dynasty of China in 1368 and lasted until its conquest by the Jurchen-led Later Jin dynasty in 1635. The Northern Yuan dynasty began with the end of Yuan rule in China proper and the retreat of the Yuan remnants led by Toghon Temür to the Mongolian steppe. This period featured factional struggles and the often only nominal role of the Great Khan.

Toqto’a, also known as "The Great Historian Tuotuo", was a high-ranking minister and an official historian of the Yuan dynasty of China. With his banishment and later murder, the Mongol Yuan court might have lost its last chance to defeat the Han Chinese Red Turban Rebellion, which started in the early 1350s against their rule. He was Bayan's nephew and Bayan Khutugh's brother.

The Yuan dynasty was the ruling dynasty of China and Mongolia established by Kublai Khan and a khanate of the Mongol Empire.

Bayan Khutugh (1324–1365), also Bayan Qudu, was a Yuan empress consort of the Yuan Dynasty as the second wife of Toghon Temür. Her father's name was Bolod Temür.

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El Temür was a Kipchak officer who was behind the coup d'état that installed Tugh Temür as the Yuan emperor in the capital Khanbaliq in 1328. The restorationists at Khanbaliq won the War of the Two Capitals under the leadership of Tugh Temür and El Temür. After the surrender of Shangdu, Tugh Temür abdicated in favour of his brother Kusala who was backed by Chagatai Khan Eljigidey and announced Khanbaliq's intent to welcome him. However, Kusala suddenly died only four days after a banquet with Tugh Temür, supposedly killed with poison by El Temür, who purged pro-Kusala officials and brought power to warlords, whose despotic rule marked the decline of the Yuan dynasty.

Yuan dynasty in Inner Asia

The Yuan dynasty in Inner Asia was the domination of the Yuan dynasty in Inner Asia in the 13th and the 14th centuries. The Genghisid rulers of the Yuan came from the Mongolian steppe, and the Mongols under Kublai Khan established the Yuan dynasty (1271–1368) based in Khanbaliq, a Chinese-style dynasty that incorporated many aspects of Mongolian and Inner Asian political and military institutions. Actual Yuan rule extended to Manchuria, Mongolia, the Tibetan Plateau and parts of Xinjiang. People from these Inner Asian regions other than the Mongols usually belonged to the Semu class. In addition, the Yuan emperors held nominal suzerainty over the three western Mongol khanates, but they were essentially autonomous and ruled separately due to the division of the Mongol Empire since the Toluid Civil War in the 1260s.

Mongolia under Yuan rule

The Yuan dynasty ruled over the Mongolian steppe, including both Inner and Outer Mongolia as well as part of southern Siberia, for roughly a century between 1271 and 1368. The Mongolian Plateau is where the ruling Mongols of the Yuan dynasty as founded by Kublai Khan came from, thus it enjoyed a somewhat special status during the Mongol Yuan dynasty, division of the Mongol Empire, although the capital of the dynasty had been moved from Karakorum to Khanbaliq since the beginning of Kublai Khan's reign, and Mongolia had been turned into a province by the early 14th century.

The War of the Two Capitals was a civil war that occurred in 1328 under the Yuan dynasty based in China. It was a war of succession fought between the forces based in the Yuan capital Khanbaliq and the forces based in the summer capital Shangdu after the death of Yuan emperor Yesün Temür in Shangdu. The clash between the two groups was the bloodiest and most destructive succession in all Yuan history. The War of the Two Capitals was less about ideology and more a struggle to advance individual family interests through political alliances and military strength. It ended with victory for the Khanbaliq group, but it took a few years for the last remnants of its opponents to give up.

References

  1. Farmer, Edward L., ed. (1995). Zhu Yuanzhang and Early Ming Legislation: The Reordering of Chinese Society Following the Era of Mongol Rule. BRILL. p. 21. ISBN   9004103910.
  2. Michael Prawdin The Mongol Empire and its Legacy
  3. J. J. Saunders The History of Mongol Conquests
  4. René Grousset The Empire of Steppes
  5. Stearns, Cyrus (2010). The Buddha from Dölpo : a study of the life and thought of the Tibetan master Dölpopa Sherab Gyaltsen (Rev. and enl. ed.). Ithaca, NY: Snow Lion Publications. pp. 30–31. ISBN   9781559393430.
  6. 《庚申外史》
  7. Kyung Moon Hwang A History of Korea, London: Palgrave, 2010 p. 56.
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  14. Kyung Moon Hwang A History of Korea, London: Palgrave, 2010 p. 57.
  15. "Descendants of Confucius in South Korea Seek Roots in Quzhou". QUZHOU.CHINA. 2014-05-19. Archived from the original on February 4, 2015. Retrieved February 4, 2015.
  16. http://archive Archived 2013-07-12 at the Wayback Machine . is/Y9cKG
  17. http://en.people.cn/90001/90777/90851/6355971.html
  18. http://www.china.org.cn/china/features/content_16696029_4.htm
  19. http://www.china.org.cn/china/Off_the_Wire/2016-03/11/content_37999541.htm
  20. http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2016-03/11/c_135179011.htm
Toghon Temür
 Died: 1370
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Rinchinbal Khan
Great Khan of the Mongol Empire
(Nominal due to the division of the Mongol Empire)

1333–1368
Due to the collapse of Yuan dynasty in 1368, Mongol Empire also fell at the same time.
Emperor of the Yuan dynasty
1333–1368
Succeeded by
Himself as the Khan of the Northern Yuan dynasty
Emperor of China
1333–1368
(Since 1351 the Yuan dynasty lost control parts of China to Emperors Han Lin'er and Xu Shouhui)
Succeeded by
Hongwu Emperor
(Ming dynasty)
Han Lin'er (w:zh:韓林兒), the Longfeng 龍鳳 Emperor
( Red Turban Song dynasty (w:zh:宋 (韓林兒))) [1]
Xu Shouhui
Tianwan dynasty 天完 or Song dynasty w:zh:宋 (徐壽輝)
Preceded by
Himself as the Emperor of the Yuan dynasty
Khan of the Northern Yuan dynasty
1368–1370
Succeeded by
Biligtü Khan Ayushiridara
  1. Farmer, Edward L., ed. (1995). Zhu Yuanzhang and Early Ming Legislation: The Reordering of Chinese Society Following the Era of Mongol Rule. BRILL. p. 21. ISBN   9004103910.