Tohitapu also known as Tohi or Toi-Tapu (? - 14 July 1833) was a Rangatira (chief) of the Te Roroa iwi (tribe) of Northland, New Zealand, and a Tohunga and Māori warrior. An account told by a Ngāpuhi informant to British ethnographer John White of the visit of Marion du Fresne to the Bay of Islands in 1772 describes Tohitapu as participating in the massacre when du Fresne and 26 men of his crew were killed and cannibalised.
As a Tohunga o Tumatauenga (expert in weapons or war party chaplain) he was acknowledged by the Ngāpuhi of the Bay of Islands as a spiritual leader who possessed the ability of communicating between the spiritual and temporal realms through karakia (prayers), pātere (chants) or performing waiata (songs). On 28 November 1832, the Revd. Alfred Brown witnessed Tohitapu practicing as a Tohunga to foresee the success of Tītore’s second muru (war expedition)to Tauranga, which followed the Girls' War in the Bay of Islands.
Tohitapu lived at Te Haumiand was a frequent visitor to the Revd. Henry Williams at Paihia. Although there occurred miss-understandings and several confrontations between them. One of the most severe was the confrontation on 12 January 1824, which was witnessed by other chiefs. The incident began when Tohitapu visited the mission. As the gate was shut, Tohitapu jumped over the fence. Williams demanded that Tohitapu enter the mission using the gate. Tohitapu was a chief and a tohunga, skilled in the magic known as makutu. Tohitapu was offended by William's demand and began a threatening haka flourishing his mere and taiaha. Williams faced down this challenge. Tohitapu then seized a pot, which he claimed as compensation for hurting his foot in jumping over the fence, whereupon Williams seized the pot from Tohitapu. The incidence continued through the night during which Tohitapu began a karakia or incantation of bewitchment. Williams had no fear of the karakia. The next morning Tohitapu and Williams reconciled their differences, although the failure of the karakia to have any effect on Henry Williams reinforced his mana and created doubt among the Ngāpuhi as to the powers of a Tohunga.
Tohitapu remained a supporter of Williams and the mission at Paihia.In 1829, Tohitapu came to the assistance of the CMS missionaries when the action of one of the Māori assistants of the mission damaged part of one of Te Koki’s houses, which was an serious offence against Māori custom. Te Koki was the principal chief of the Ngāpuhi at Paihia, uncle of Hongi Hika, brother to Tuhikura, of Ngāti Rehua, and husband of Ana Hamu.
Tohitapu accepted changes that followed from the work of the CMS missionaries. In March 1828, Tohitapu, Henry Williams and George Clarke were present at fighting occurring between the Ngāpuhi and Te Mahurehure hapu (subtribe). Tohitapu addressed the Ngāpuhi and ordered that no fighting would take place the next day as it was a Sunday.The Revd A. N. Brown reported in his journal of August 1831 that Tohitapu choose to apply a less severe punishment to a slave, when the penalty under Māori custom was usually death.
Tohitapu also engaged in mediation of conflicts between Ngāpuhi chiefs. The death of Tiki, a son of Pōmare I (also called Whetoi)and the subsequent death of Te Whareumu in 1828 threw the Hokianga into a state of uncertainty as the Ngāpuhi chiefs debated whether revenge was necessary following the death of a chief. Henry Williams, Richard Davis and Tohitapu mediated between the combatants. As the chiefs did not want to escalate the fighting, a peaceful resolution was achieved. During the Girls' War in March 1830, Tohitapu sought the assistance of the CMS missionaries to mediated between the combatants. In December 1831, Tohitapu requested that the CMS missionaries intervene to stop the fighting at Kororāreka between the warriors of Tītore and Tareha.
The journals of the Church Missionary Society (CMS) missionaries describe Tohitapu as a person of high intelligence and considerable mana among the Te Roroa and Ngāpuhi. The Revd. Henry Williams said “he is a very important person in his way, though our good folks generally cannot manage him”.Tohitapu did not renounce his status as a Tohunga and warrior or become a Christian. From January 1832 until late July 1832 Tohitapu was part of the muru, or war expedition, that Tītore and Ngāpuhi warriors made to Tauranga, which followed the Girls' War. In February 1833, Tohitapu joined the second muru led by Tītore with Te Rarawa warriors, allies of the Ngāpuhi, from the North Cape back to Tauranga to continue the war expedition. Henry Williams accompanied both expeditions in an attempt to bring them to a peaceful conclusion.
Tohitapu died in the Bay of Islands on 14 July 1833.On 17 January 1834, CMS missionaries went to Wangai, a settlement south-east of Paihia, to attend the funeral feast held at the hahunga (disinterment and bone cleansing ceremony) of the bones of Tohitapu.
Hōne Wiremu Heke Pōkai, born Heke Pōkai and later often referred to as Hōne Heke, was a highly influential Māori rangatira (chief) of the Ngāpuhi iwi (tribe) and a war leader in northern New Zealand; he was affiliated with the Ngati Rahiri, Ngai Tawake, Ngati Tautahi, Te Matarahurahu and Te Uri-o-Hua hapū (subtribes) of Ngāpuhi. Hōne Heke fought with Hongi Hika, an earlier war leader of the Ngāpuhi, in the Musket Wars. Hōne Heke is considered the principal instigator of the Flagstaff War in 1845–46.
Ngāpuhi is a Māori iwi associated with the Northland region of New Zealand and centred in the Hokianga, the Bay of Islands, and Whangarei.
Paihia is the main tourist town in the Bay of Islands in the far north of the North Island of New Zealand. It is 60 kilometres north of Whangārei, located close to the historic towns of Russell and Kerikeri. Missionary Henry Williams named the mission station Marsden's Vale. Paihia eventually became the accepted name of the settlement.
Henry Williams was the leader of the Church Missionary Society (CMS) mission in New Zealand in the first half of the 19th century.
Te Waimate Mission was the fourth mission station established in New Zealand and the first settlement inland from the Bay of Islands. The members of the Church Missionary Society (CMS) appointed to establish Te (the) Waimate Mission at Waimate North were the Rev. William Yate and lay members Richard Davis, George Clarke and James Hamlin.
Herald was a 55-ton schooner that was launched on 24 January 1826 at Paihia in the Bay of Islands, New Zealand. While Herald was the first sailing ship built in New Zealand, a small vessel named Providence was constructed in Dusky Sound in 1792–93 by the crew of a sealing ship and it was completed in January 1796 by the crew of another sealing ship that had been wrecked at Dusky Sound in the previous year. In October 1827, the 40-ton schooner Enterprise was completed in the Horeke shipyard in the Hokianga Harbour. Enterprise was wrecked in a storm north of Hokianga Heads on 4 May 1828 with the loss of all hands. Two days later the Herald was wrecked on the Hokianga bar.
A taua is a war party in the tradition of the Maori, the indigenous people of New Zealand. Contemporary knowledge of taua is gleaned from missionary observations and writings during the Musket Wars of the early 19th century and the later New Zealand wars. The reason to gather a taua may be for reasons of seeking revenge (utu) or seeking compensation for an offence against an individual, community or society (muru).
Alfred Nesbit Brown was a member of the Church Missionary Society (CMS) and one of a number of missionaries who travelled to New Zealand in the early 19th century to bring Christianity to the Māori people.
William Williams was consecrated as the first Anglican Bishop of Waiapu, New Zealand, on 3 April 1859 by the General Synod at Wellington. His son, Leonard Williams became the third Bishop of Waiapu and his grandson, Herbert Williams, the sixth. His brother, the Rev. Henry Williams, led the Church Missionary Society (CMS) mission in New Zealand. William Williams led the CMS missionaries in translating the Bible into Māori and published an early dictionary and grammar of the Māori language.
Marianne Williams, together with her sister-in-law Jane Williams, was a pioneering educator in New Zealand. They established schools for Māori children and adults as well as educating the children of the Church Missionary Society (CMS) in the Bay of Islands, New Zealand. The Māori women called her Mata Wiremu.
Jane Williams, born Jane Nelson, was a pioneering educator in New Zealand. Together with her sister-in-law Marianne Williams she established schools for Māori children and adults. She also educated the children of the Church Missionary Society in the Bay of Islands, New Zealand.
Tītore was a Rangatira (chief) of the Ngāpuhi iwi (tribe). He was a war leader of the Ngāpuhi who lead the war expedition against the Māori tribes at East Cape in 1820 and 1821. He also led the war expeditions to Tauranga and Maketu in 1832 and 1833, following the incident in the Bay of Islands that is known as the Girls' War.
The Girls’ War is the name given to fighting on the beach at Russell, New Zealand, then known as Kororāreka in March, 1830 between the northern and southern hapū (subtribe) within the Ngāpuhi iwi (tribe).
Edward Marsh Williams was a missionary, interpreter, and judge who played a significant role in the British colonisation of New Zealand. He was born in Hampstead, London, the eldest son of Archdeacon Henry Williams and Marianne Williams.
The New Zealand Church Missionary Society is a mission society working within the Anglican Communion and Protestant, Evangelical Anglicanism. The parent organisation was founded in England in 1799. The Church Missionary Society (CMS) sent missionaries to settle in New Zealand. The Rev. Samuel Marsden, the Society's Agent and the Senior Chaplain to the New South Wales government, officiated at its first service on Christmas Day in 1814, at Oihi Bay in the Bay of Islands, New Zealand.
Ana Hamu was a Māori woman of the Ngāpuhi iwi (tribe) in northern New Zealand. She was a woman of high rank and the owner of the land occupied by the Church Missionary Society (CMS) at Paihia. Hamu was baptised on 5 October 1834 by the Revd. Henry Williams and adopted the name Ana.
Pōmare I (?–1826), also called Whetoi, was a Māori rangatira (chief) of the Ngāpuhi iwi (tribe) in New Zealand. He was a leader of the Ngāti Manu hapū (subtribe) of the Ngāpuhi. Whetoi adopted the name of Pōmare, which was the name of the king of Tahiti who had converted to Christianity. After his death he was called Pomarenui by the Ngati Manu in order to distinguish him from his nephew Whiria.
Pōmare II (?–1850) was originally called Whiria. He was a Māori rangatira (chief) of the Ngāpuhi iwi (tribe) in New Zealand and the leader of the Ngāti Manu hapu (subtribe) of the Ngāpuhi. He was the nephew of Pōmare I. His mother, Haki, was the elder sister of Pōmare I. When he succeeded his uncle as leader of the Ngāti Manu he took his uncle's names, Whetoi and Pōmare. He is referred to as Pōmare II, so as to distinguish him from his uncle.
William Thomas Fairburn (1795–1859) was a carpenter and a lay preacher or catechist for the Church Missionary Society (C.M.S.) in the early days of European settlement of New Zealand.
James Stack was a Wesleyan Methodist missionary at Kaeo, New Zealand, in the 19th century. He later became an Anglican missionary and a member of the Church Missionary Society (CMS). In 1837 he experienced the Wesleydale Methodist Mission being ransacked by warriors of the Ngāpuhi iwi (tribe). In the late 1830s he worked with other CMS missionaries in Te Papa Mission at Tauranga, after a war party lead by Te Waharoa, the leader of the Ngāti Hauā, attacked neighbouring tribes in Rotorua and Tauranga. He later worked with William Williams in the mission to the Māori of the Gisborne District.