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Toho Scope (東宝スコープ) is an anamorphic lens system developed in the late 1950s by Toho Studios in response to the popularity of CinemaScope. Its technical specifications are identical to those of CinemaScope. This widescreen format was first used for the black-and-white films The Men of Tohoku , [1] and On Wings of Love , made use of color in The Last Pursuit , [2] and debuted in full-color (and tokusatsu) with The Mysterians (all 1957). The label fell out of use in 1965 to be replaced by Panavision lenses of similar specifications.

In contemporary popular culture, the recognizable Toho Scope logo prefaced Godzilla: Final Wars , one of many homages to older science fiction productions made throughout the film.

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Widescreen Aspect ratio of a displayed image

Widescreen images are images that are displayed within a set of aspect ratios used in film, television and computer screens. In film, a widescreen film is any film image with a width-to-height aspect ratio greater than the standard 1.37:1 Academy aspect ratio provided by 35 mm film.

35 mm movie film Motion picture film gauge, the standard

35 mm film is a film gauge used in filmmaking, and the film standard. In motion pictures that record on film, 35 mm is the most commonly used gauge. The name of the gauge is not a direct measurement, and refers to the nominal width of the 35 mm format photographic film, which consists of strips 1.377 ± 0.001 inches (34.976 ± 0.025 mm) wide. The standard image exposure length on 35 mm for movies is four perforations per frame along both edges, which results in 16 frames per foot of film.


A monocular is a modified refracting telescope used to magnify the images of distant objects by passing light through a series of lenses and usually also prisms. Most modern monoculars use prisms instead of relay lenses to ensure an erect image, resulting in a lightweight, compact telescope. The typical volume and weight of a monocular are less than half of a pair of binoculars having similar optical properties, making a monocular easier to carry and also proportionally less expensive. This is due to the fact that binoculars are essentially two sets of monoculars packed together — one for each eye. Monoculars only produce one 2-dimensional image, while binoculars produce two parallaxed images to allow stereopsis and depth perception.

CinemaScope Early widescreen filming system

CinemaScope is an anamorphic lens series used, from 1953 to 1967, and less often later, for shooting widescreen films that, crucially, could be screened in theatres using existing equipment, albeit with a lens adapter. Its creation in 1953 by Spyros P. Skouras, the president of 20th Century Fox, marked the beginning of the modern anamorphic format in both principal 2.55:1, almost twice as wide as the previously common Academy format's 1.37:1 ratio. Although the technology behind the CinemaScope lens system was made obsolete by later developments, primarily advanced by Panavision, CinemaScope's anamorphic format has continued to this day. In film-industry jargon, the shortened form, 'Scope, is still widely used by both filmmakers and projectionists, although today it generally refers to any 2.35:1, 2.39:1, 2.40:1, or 2.55:1 presentation or, sometimes, the use of anamorphic lensing or projection in general. Bausch & Lomb won a 1954 Oscar for its development of the CinemaScope lens.

Panavision American motion picture equipment company

Panavision is an American motion picture equipment company founded in 1953 specializing in cameras and lenses, based in Woodland Hills, California. Formed by Robert Gottschalk as a small partnership to create anamorphic projection lenses during the widescreen boom in the 1950s, Panavision expanded its product lines to meet the demands of modern filmmakers. The company introduced its first products in 1954. Originally a provider of CinemaScope accessories, the company's line of anamorphic widescreen lenses soon became the industry leader. In 1972, Panavision helped revolutionize filmmaking with the lightweight Panaflex 35 mm movie camera. The company has introduced other cameras such as the Millennium XL (1999) and the digital video Genesis (2004).

Techniscope Motion picture camera film format

Techniscope or 2-perf is a 35 mm motion picture camera film format introduced by Technicolor Italia in 1960. The Techniscope format uses a two film-perforation negative pulldown per frame, instead of the standard four-perforation frame usually exposed in 35 mm film photography. Techniscope's 2.33:1 aspect ratio is easily cropped to the 2.39:1 widescreen ratio, because it uses half the amount of 35 mm film stock and standard spherical lenses. Thus, Techniscope release prints are made by anamorphosizing and enlarging each frame by a factor of two.


Technirama is a screen process that has been used by some film production houses as an alternative to CinemaScope. It was first used in 1957 but fell into disuse in the mid-1960s. The process was invented by Technicolor and is an anamorphic process with a screen ratio the same as revised CinemaScope (2.35:1), but it is actually 2.25:1 on the negative.


Univisium is a proposed universal film format created by cinematographer Vittorio Storaro, ASC, AIC and his son, Fabrizio, to unify all future theatrical and television films into one respective aspect ratio of 2:1 (18:9).

R. Parthiban Indian film director and actor

Parthiban is an Indian film actor, director, producer and writer who works mainly in Tamil cinema. He has directed 14 films, produced 12 films and acted in more than 60 films. He started his career as assistant director for K. Bhagyaraj in 1984 and the duo worked in over 20 films from 1984 to 1991.

<i>Cane Toads: An Unnatural History</i> 1988 Australian film

Cane Toads: An Unnatural History (1988) is a 47-minute documentary film about the introduction of cane toads to Australia. Cane toads were introduced to Australia with the aim of controlling a sugar cane pest, the cane beetle, but they over-multiplied and became a serious problem in the Australian ecosystem. It is often humorous, and is used in high schools and colleges as a complement to curricula in biology, ecology, environmental science, anthropology, geography, and communication. It was filmed in Cairns and Gordonvale in Queensland.

Arriflex 35

The Arriflex 35, released by Arri in 1937, was the first reflex 35mm production motion picture camera.

A digital movie camera for digital cinematography is a video camera that captures footage digitally rather than the historically used movie camera, which shoots on film stock. Different digital movie cameras output a variety of different acquisition formats. Cameras designed for domestic use have also been used for some low-budget independent productions.

Arriflex 16SR

The Arriflex 16SR is a motion picture camera product line created by Arri, introduced in 1975. This 16SR camera series is designed for 16 mm filmmaking in Standard 16 format. 'SR' Stands for Silent Reflex.

Arriflex 416 35 mm movie camera line

Arriflex 416 is a motion picture camera product line created by Arri in 2006. This camera line was introduced in large part to accommodate new lenses of larger diameter that physically interfered with the Arri 16 SR3 viewfinder. The 416 camera series is designed for 16mm filmmaking in the Super 16 format. The 416 series has some features that are derived from Arri's 35mm cameras. The 416 series is compatible with some 35mm camera accessories, such as PL-mount lenses, base plates, matte boxes, follow focus units, and more.

<i>Flame in the Streets</i> 1961 British film

Flame in the Streets is a 1961 film directed by Roy Ward Baker and based on the 1958 play Hot Summer Night by Ted Willis. It opened at the Odeon Leicester Square in London's West End on 22 June 1961.

Jacques Doniol-Valcroze

Jacques Doniol-Valcroze was a French actor, critic, screenwriter, and director. In 1951, Doniol-Valcroze was a co-founder of the renowned film magazine Cahiers du cinéma, along with André Bazin and Joseph-Marie Lo Duca. The magazine was initially edited by Doniol-Valcroze between 1951-1957. As critic, he championed numerous filmmakers including Orson Welles, Howard Hawks, and Nicholas Ray. In 1955, then 23-year-old François Truffaut made a short film in Doniol-Valcroze's apartment, Une Visite. Jacques's daughter Florence played a minor part in it.

<i>My Friend Ivan Lapshin</i> 1985 film

My Friend Ivan Lapshin is a 1985 Soviet crime drama directed by Aleksei German and produced by Lenfilm, based on a novel by Yuri German adapted by Eduard Volodarsky. Music was composed by Arkadi Gagulashvili, sound by Nikolai Astakhov, cinematography by Valeri Fedosov, film editing by Leda Semyonova. It was narrated by Valeri Kuzin.

Arjun Sarja filmography Filmography of Indian film actor Arjun Sarja

Arjun Sarja is an Indian actor, producer and director who works predominantly in Tamil cinema and he also established his career in Telugu and Kannada cinema. He debuted as a child actor in the film Simhada Mari Sainya in the year 1981. As of 2017, Sarja had acted in more than 150 movies with Nibunan being his 150th. He has directed 11 films and also produced and distributed a number of films. After starring in numerous Kannada films with minor roles, he starred in his first movie as an independent actor in Male Bantu Male. In 1984, Sarja made his Tamil Debut in Rama Narayanan's film Nandri.

Sue Maslin is an Australian screen producer. She is known both for her feature films Road to Nhill (1997) Japanese Story (2003) and The Dressmaker (2015) and for documentaries, such as Mr Neal is Entitled to be an Agitator (1991), The Edge of the Possible (1998), Hunt Angels (2006), Michael Kirby – Don't Forget The Justice Bit (2010) and The Show Must Go On (2019). She is also a distributor of independent documentary films through her company Film Art Media established in 2008 with Daryl Dellora. Titles include Paper Trails (2017), Jill Bilcock - Dancing The Invisible (2017) and Brazen Hussies (2020).