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Tohorot (Hebrew: טָהֳרוֹת, literally "Purities") is the sixth and last order of the Mishnah (also of the Tosefta and Talmud). This order deals with the clean/unclean distinction and family purity. This is the longest of the orders in the Mishnah. There are 12 tractates: [1]


  1. Keilim: (כלים "Vessels"); deals with a large array of various utensils and how they fare in terms of purity. 30 chapters, the longest in the Mishnah.
  2. Oholot: (אוהלות "Tents"); deals with the uncleanness from a corpse and its peculiar property of defiling people or objects either by the latter "tenting" over the corpse, or by the corpse "tenting" over them, or by the presence of both corpse and person or object under the same roof or tent.
  3. Nega'im: (נגעים "Plagues"); deals with the laws of the tzaraath .
  4. Parah: (פרה "Cow"); deals largely with the laws of the Red Heifer (Para Adumah).
  5. Tohorot: (טהרות "Purities"); deals with miscellaneous laws of purity, especially the actual mechanics of contracting impurity and the laws of the impurity of food.
  6. Mikva'ot: (מקואות "Ritual Baths"); deals with the laws of the mikveh.
  7. Niddah: (נידה "Separation"); deals with the Niddah, a woman either during her menstrual cycle or shortly after having given birth.
  8. Makhshirin: (מכשירין "Preliminary acts of preparation"), the liquids that make food susceptible to tumah (ritual impurity).
  9. Zavim: (זבים "Flows"); deals with the laws of a person who has had abnormal genital discharge.
  10. Tevul Yom: (טבול יום "Immersed [on that] day") deals with a special kind of impurity where the person immerses in a mikveh but is still unclean for the rest of the day.
  11. Yadayim: (ידיים "Hands"); deals with a Rabbinic impurity related to the hands.
  12. Uktzim: (עוקצים "Stalks"); deals with the impurity of the stalks of fruit.

Order of tractates

According to Maimonides, the traditional reasoning for the order of the tractates is as follows:

The Jewish Encyclopedia , on the other hand, observed that the tractates are arranged in order of decreasing length.

There is a Babylonian Gemara only on Niddah. This is because most of the other laws of purity do not apply when the Temple in Jerusalem is not in existence. The Jerusalem Talmud only covers four chapters of Niddah.

See also

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Niddah is a masekhet or tractate of the Mishnah and the Talmud, and is part of the order of Tohorot. The content of the tractate primarily deals with the legal provisions related to Halakha of Niddah.

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Tohorot is a tractate in the Mishnah and Tosefta, treating especially of the lesser degrees of uncleanness the effects of which last until sunset only. In most editions of the Mishnah it is the fifth tractate in the order Tohorot. It is divided into ten chapters, comprising ninety-six paragraphs in all.

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Corpse uncleanness is a state of ritual uncleanness described in Jewish halachic law. It is the highest grade of uncleanness, or defilement, and is contracted by having either directly or indirectly touched, carried or shifted a dead human body, or after having entered a roofed house or chamber where the corpse of a Jew is lying.


  1. PD-icon.svg One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain :  Singer, Isidore; et al., eds. (1901–1906). "ṬOHOROT". The Jewish Encyclopedia . New York: Funk & Wagnalls. Retrieved 2013-08-16.