Tohu Kākahi (c. 1828 – 4 February 1907) was a Māori leader, a warrior leader in the anti government Hau Hau Movement 1864-66 and later a prophet at Parihaka,who along with Te Whiti o Rongomai organised passive resistance against the occupation of Taranaki in the 1870s in New Zealand.
Details of Tohu's early life are unclear. According to some descendants he was born at Puketapu on 22 January 1828,although other locations and dates have been claimed. He was regarded as a warrior, teacher and prophet and it is said Tohu confirmed Pōtatau Te Wherowhero's son Tawhiao as the second Māori King, and was his spiritual adviser. In November 1861 Tohu captured Bishop Selwyn during his visit to Taranaki to see Tamihana Te Rauparaha. This and his later repeated attacks against the settlers and government as part of the violent Hau hau movement convinced the government they were dealing with a war like leader.
Along with other members of Te Ati Awa, Tohu fought in the Taranaki Wars in the mid-1860s and was one of the leaders at the 1864 attack at Sentry Hill. He was a Hauhau leader during the June 1865 attack at Te Puru and again later at Waikoukou in February 1866. The final defeat at Waikoukou marked the end of the Hauhau attempts to drive the settlers off the land by military action. Following these defeats, he joined his relative Te Whiti o Rongomai at Parihaka, south Taranaki in leading peaceful reoccupation of confiscation of Maori land.Although Tohu did not have the oratory skills of Te Whiti many Maori consider his mana to be equal to Te Whiti.
When the Waimate Plain was surveyed in 1879. Māori asserted their land rights to the confiscated land by removing survey pegs and by ploughing settlers farms and fencing across roads and settler claimed areas. Many arrests of the Māori ploughmen were made, but the campaign had support by other Maori, although the influential Tamihana Te Rauparaha consistently sided with the government. In 1881 when Te Whiti gave a warlike speech at Parihaka, it was Tohu who restrained him from violence. In November 1881 the village of Parihaka was occupied by government troops and Tohu was arrested along with Te Whiti and hundreds of others.
Tohu and Te Whiti were charged with "wickedly, maliciously, and seditiously contriving and intending to disturb the peace" and tried in Otago 10 June 1882. Tohu was released in 1883 and returned to Parihaka but the arrests and dispersion had reduced the population and importance of Parihaka. Tohu continued to advocate traditional Māori values, and opposed alcohol and European influences at Parihaka until his death in 1907.
The Rātana movement is a church and pan-iwi political movement founded by Tahupōtiki Wiremu Rātana in early 20th-century New Zealand. The Rātana Church has its headquarters at the settlement of Rātana Pā near Whanganui.
Taranaki is a region in the west of New Zealand's North Island. It is named after its main geographical feature, the stratovolcano of Mount Taranaki, also known as Mount Egmont.
The New Zealand Wars took place from 1845 to 1872 between the New Zealand colonial government and allied Māori on one side and Māori and Māori-allied settlers on the other. They were previously commonly referred to as the Land Wars or the Māori Wars, while Māori language names for the conflicts included Ngā pakanga o Aotearoa and Te riri Pākehā. Historian James Belich popularised the name "New Zealand Wars" in the 1980s, although according to Vincent O'Malley, the term was first used by historian James Cowan in the 1920s.
The Dog Tax war was a confrontation in 1898 between the Crown and a group of Northern Māori, led by Hone Riiwi Toia, opposed to the enforcement of a 'dog tax'. It has been described by some authors as the last gasp of the 19th-century wars between the Māori and Pākehā settlers. It was, however, a bloodless "war", with only a few shots being fired. Hone Heke Ngapua, MHR for Northern Māori, was responsible for de-escalating the confrontation.
The Second Taranaki War is a term used by some historians for the period of hostilities between Māori and the New Zealand Government in the Taranaki district of New Zealand between 1863 and 1866. The term is avoided by some historians, who either describe the conflicts as merely a series of West Coast campaigns that took place between the Taranaki War (1860–1861) and Titokowaru's War (1868–69), or an extension of the First Taranaki War.
Parihaka is a community in the Taranaki region of New Zealand, located between Mount Taranaki and the Tasman Sea. In the 1870s and 1880s the settlement, then reputed to be the largest Māori village in New Zealand, became the centre of a major campaign of non-violent resistance to European occupation of confiscated land in the area. Armed soldiers were sent in and arrested the peaceful resistance leaders and many of the Maori residents, often holding them in jail for months without trials.
Sir William Fox was the second premier of New Zealand and held that office on four occasions in the 19th century, while New Zealand was still a colony. He was known for his confiscation of Māori land rights, his contributions to the education system, and his work to increase New Zealand's autonomy from Britain. He has been described as determined and intelligent, but also as bitter and "too fond" of personal attacks. Different aspects of his personality are emphasised by different accounts, changing mainly due to the reviewers' political beliefs.
Te Rauparaha was a Māori rangatira (chief) and war leader of the Ngāti Toa tribe who took a leading part in the Musket Wars, receiving the nickname "the Napoleon of the South". He was influential in the original sale of land to the New Zealand Company and was a participant in the Wairau Affray in Marlborough.
Wiremu Kīngi Te Rangitāke, Māori Chief of the Te Āti Awa Tribe, was leader of the Māori forces in the First Taranaki War.
Te Whiti o Rongomai III was a Māori spiritual leader and founder of the village of Parihaka, in New Zealand's Taranaki region.
The Pai Mārire movement was a syncretic Māori religion founded in Taranaki by the prophet Te Ua Haumēne. It flourished in the North Island from about 1863 to 1874. Pai Mārire incorporated biblical and Māori spiritual elements and promised its followers deliverance from 'pākehā' (British) domination. Although founded with peaceful motives—its name means "Good and Peaceful"—Pai Mārire became known for an extremist form of the religion known to the Europeans as "Hauhau". The rise and spread of the violent expression of Pai Mārire was largely a response to the New Zealand Government's military operations against North Island Māori, which were aimed at exerting European sovereignty and gaining more land for white settlement; historian B.J. Dalton claims that after 1865 Māori in arms were almost invariably termed Hauhau.
John Bryce was a New Zealand politician from 1871 to 1891 and Minister of Native Affairs from 1879 to 1884. In his attitudes to Māori land questions, he favoured strict legal actions against Māori opposed to alienation, and he personally directed the invasion of Parihaka and the arrest of the leaders of the movement.
Te Āti Awa is a Māori iwi with traditional bases in the Taranaki and Wellington regions of New Zealand. Approximately 17,000 people registered their affiliation to Te Āti Awa in 2001, with around 10,000 in Taranaki, 2,000 in Wellington and around 5,000 of unspecified regional location.
The New Zealand land confiscations took place during the 1860s to punish the Kīngitanga movement for attempting to set up an alternative, Māori, form of government that forbade the selling of land to European settlers. The confiscation law targeted Kīngitanga Māori against whom the government had waged war to restore the rule of British law. More than 1,200,000 hectares or 4.4 percent of land were confiscated, mainly in Waikato, Taranaki and the Bay of Plenty, but also in South Auckland, Hauraki, Te Urewera, Hawke's Bay and the East Coast.
Wiremu Tamihana Tarapipipi Te Waharoa, generally known as Wiremu Tamihana, was a leader of the Ngāti Hauā Māori iwi in nineteenth century New Zealand, and is sometimes known as the kingmaker for his role in the Māori King Movement.
Te Ua Haumēne was a New Zealand Māori religious leader during the 1860s. He founded the Pai Mārire movement, which became hostile and engaged in military conflict against the New Zealand government during the Second Taranaki War and the East Cape War.
Edwin "Ned" Davy was a New Zealand rugby union player and soldier. A halfback, he was a member of the first national team that toured New South Wales in 1884.
TāmihanaTe Rauparaha was a notable New Zealand Māori leader, Christian evangelist, assessor, writer and farmer. He was born in Pukearuhe, Taranaki, New Zealand, the son of the great Ngāti Toa leader Te Rauparaha and his fifth and senior wife, Te Ākau of Tūhourangi.
Ngaahina Hohaia is a visual artist and weaver of Te Āti Awa, Ngāti Ruanui, Ngāti Moeahu, Ngāti Haupoto and Greek descent from Parihaka, New Zealand.
Selwyn Frederick Muru, also known as Herewini Murupaenga, is a New Zealand artist of Māori descent. His life's work includes, painting, sculpture, journalism, broadcasting, directing, acting, set design, theatre, poetry and whaikōrero. Muru was awarded the Te Tohu Aroha mō Te Arikinui Dame Te Atairangikaahu | Exemplary/Supreme Award in 1990 at the Creative New Zealand Te Waka Awards.