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Olam HaTohu (Hebrew : עוֹלָם הַתֹּ֫הוּ "The World of Tohu-Chaos/Confusion") and Olam HaTikun (עוֹלָם הַתִקוּן "The World of Tikkun-Order/Rectification") are two general stages in Jewish Kabbalah, in the order of descending spiritual worlds ( Olamot ). In subsequent creation they also represent two archetypal spiritual states of being and consciousness. Their concepts derive from the new scheme of Lurianic Kabbalah by Isaac Luria (1534–1572), the father of modern Kabbalah, based on his interpretation of classic references in the Zohar.
The implications of tohu and tikkun underlie the origin of free will and the evil realm of the qliphoth caused by the "Shattering of the Vessels" (שבירת הכלים), the processes of spiritual and physical exile and redemption, the meaning of the 613 commandments or mitzvot, and the messianic rectification of existence. Through this, Tikkun also has an active meaning, the esoteric sifting or clarification (בירור) of concealed divine sparks (ניצוצות) exiled in physical creation. This new paradigm in Kabbalah replaced the previous linear description of descent by Moses ben Jacob Cordovero with a dynamic process of spiritual enclothement, where higher "souls" invest inwardly in lower "vessels". Related to the primordial cosmic realms of Tohu-Tikkun are two associated spiritual states for interpreting existence, psychological temperaments, or stages in the spiritual development of the individual.
The cosmic drama of tikkun in Lurianic Kabbalah inspired the 16th-18th century popular Jewish imagination, explaining contemporary oppression and supporting messiah claimants, but the most important tikkun is to have peace and order in Creation. The revivalist Hasidic Judaism from the 18th century onwards, internalised esoteric Lurianism through its own concern with experiencing divine omnipresence amidst daily material life. The terminology of the modern Jewish ideal of tikkun olam or "fixing the world" is taken from the Lurianic concept, but applied more widely to ethical activism in contemporary society.
Isaac Luria reinterpreted the whole scheme of Kabbalah in the 16th century, essentially making the second of two different versions of theoretical Kabbalah: the Medieval/Classic/Zoharic (later systemised by Moses ben Jacob Cordovero directly prior to Isaac Luria in Safed), and the Lurianic . However, he understood his new doctrinal revelation as no more than the true meaning and deeper systemisation of the Zohar. Lurianic Kabbalah became the dominant system in Jewish mysticism, displacing Cordovero's, and afterwards the Zohar was read by Jewish Kabbalists in its light.
Medieval Kabbalah depicts a linear descending hierarchy of Divine vitality, the 10 sefirot (Divine attributes) emerging from concealment in the Ein Sof (unknowable simple Divine Infinity) to enact Creation, with the Four Worlds unfolding sequentially until physical creation. Lurianic Kabbalah, in contrast, describes a dynamic enclothing processes of exile and redemption in the Divine flow, where higher levels descend into lower states, as souls to spiritual bodies. This process introduces or interprets new Kabbalistic doctrines and concepts.
In the Lurianic scheme, Creation is initiated by a primordial radical Divine "self-withdrawal" ( Tzimtzum ), forming a figurative "empty space/vacuum" (Khalal) in which only an "imprint" (Reshimu) remains of the withdrawn Ein Sof. Subsequent to this, a thin, diminished new emanation "ray/line" (Kav), able to create finitude, extends from the withdrawn infinite light into the vacuum. This represents the latently finite potentials in the Ein Sof. The new emanation is the fountainhead for all subsequent creation, but instead leads to a catastrophe in the emerging spiritual Worlds. Because the sefirot are pure and unrelated to each other at this stage, each attribute alone is unable to contain the enormity of the Divine light as it descends into them, and the "vessels" (Keilim) of the sefirot undergo a "shattering" (Shevirah), creating the World of "Chaos" (tohu). Their Divine light is released and reascends, while the broken vessel fragments descend, still animated by "sparks" (Nitzotz) of light. The fragments become the absorbed, animating source of the subsequent Four Worlds in stable Creation (called the realms of "rectification", Tikun). As the fragments are animated by exiled Divine sparks, a consciousness unaware of its Divine dependence, so resulting Creation is able to exist independently, rather than being nullified by its source. This process, however, overspills into the realms of evil (qliphoth "shells"). Tikun is supremely embodied in the highest of the Four Worlds, the Divine Unity perfected world of Atziluth ("emanation"), through the sefirot reconfiguring as Partzufim (harmonised Divine "configurations"). Rectification of the independent lower three worlds of Beri'ah ("creation"), Yetzirah ("formation") and Assiah ("action") is the task of man. Biblical Adam incorporated the collective souls of humanity before eating from the tree of the knowledge of good and evil (a manifestation in Kabbalah of the sefirot). His sin introduced new Shevirah dispersal of Divine vitality into exile in Creation, as well as shedding soul sparks from his being. The election of Israel through receiving the Torah at Sinai, recollected the 600,000 root souls from Adam. The 613 commandments Jewish observances redeem ("sift"-Birur) the exiled sparks of holiness from Tohu, embedded below in physical creation. The messianic era for all peoples is inaugurated when the collective souls of Israel complete the esoteric cosmic Tikun. National and individual spiritual failures in Jewish history delay redemption, by introducing further exile of Divine vitality to the realms of impurity. Each root soul subdivides into soul sparks that reincarnate (gilgule neshamoth) to complete cosmic and personal Tikun, as in Lurianism higher levels return dynamically in lower vessels. The messianic redemption combines both advantages of the supreme Divine lights of Tohu, in mature rectified vessels of Tikun, the unity of God and Creation.
Cordovero, in his comprehensive systemisation of Medieval Kabbalah, had reconciled previous Kabbalists' opinions of the sephirot by describing each as Divine ohr ("light") invested in 10 spiritual keilim ("vessels"). This overcame the philosophical difficulty of Divine attributes, as in the Infinite Ein Sof prior to Creation, the sephirot were entirely nullified into non-existence in the simple unity of endless Divinity. They emerge as Divine attributes only from the perspective of creation, by combining two aspects of lights and vessels. The spiritual vitality, denoted as "light", similarly manifests in two levels of Ohr Sovev (transcendent) and Ohr Mimalei (immanent). First the light creates the vessels, then animates (fills) them. Only the vessels differ in each of their natures, while the light remains unified.
Isaac Luria accepted this, but adapted it to his new scheme. As the Kav ("ray") of Divine illumination shines into the Khalal (primordial "vacuum"), beginning Creation, it first forms the pristine realm of Adam Kadmon ("Primordial Man"), described in previous Kabbalah, the first of the comprehensive Five spiritual Worlds. Adam Kadmon is the realm of Keter ("crown"), supra-conscious Divine Will. Due to its supreme transcendence, it is often excluded from listing with the other Four Worlds. Medieval Kabbalists listed Keter as the first Sephirah, but debated its relationship with the Ein Sof Limitless Divine. Luria described Keter as an intermediary to the sephirot, not identified with the Ein Sof, but transcending the sephirot. He excludes it from their usual listing, substituting Daat ("knowledge") instead. If the sephirot are listed in relation to their vessels, Chokhmah ("wisdom") becomes the first principle. Adam Kadmon is all light with no vessels, before the emergence of the sephirot; its expanse within the Khalal is limited by the power of the Reshima ("impression" left in the empty vacuum), and by its own future potential to create vessels.Adam Kadmon is the specific Divine "will" (Keter) and "plan" (the latent Chokhmah within Keter) for all subsequent detailed creation in potential. Its anthropomorphic name figuratively denotes that man is both the purpose of creation below, as well as the embodiment on high of the sephirot Divine attributes, not yet manifest.
The sephirot manifest in two general metaphorical-figurative schemes, as Igulim (concentric "circles" within the "circular" Khalal) and Yosher/Yashar (the three-column "upright" diagram, related to the "line" beamed into the Khalal). Igul-Circle denotes potential creation encompassed within, the female principle. Yashar-Line denotes manifest creation, the male principle, where creation proceeds as a hierarchical progression.As Igulim, 10 concentric "circles", the sephirot act sequentially and independently from each other, from Keter in closest proximity to the Ein Sof, to Malkhut at the centre. As Yosher, "upright" 3-column linear scheme, the sephirot act as a harmonised configuration of related powers in the scheme of man. As in the soul of man, and represented in his bodily form, each sephirah fulfils its particular function, while co-relating and sharing with the other powers as a whole arrangement. As Adam Kadmon is before the emergence of the sephirot, it relates to both schemes only in latent ("transcendent") potential. As the Kav shines into the vacuum, it first emanates the 10 sequential Igulim, then is "enclothed" by the Yosher scheme as Adam Kadmon.
From Adam Kadmon emanate five lights. As the Yosher scheme relates to the figure of man, and Adam Kadmon embodies Keter (Will-"crown") and its latent Chokhmah (intellectual plan-"wisdom"), so these five lights figuratively emanate from the "head" of Adam Kadmon: from the "eyes, ears, nose, mouth and forehead". These interact with each other to form three specific olamot (worlds) after Adam Kadmon, three evolving stages in the first manifestation of the sephirot systemised by Luria:
The terms are learned from the esoteric meaning of the story of Jacob's breeding of Laban's flocks in Genesis 30:27-43, where the terms Akudim, Nekudim and Teluim (Patched") are used. Akudim is yuli ("potential" creation), Nekudim is the sephirot acting as independent Iggulim (concentric "circles") absolute principles, Berudim is the sephirot acting as a harmonised Yosher ("upright" three-column configuration) where all principles work together: each sephirah is able to inter-relate with the other 9, by each latently incorporating each of the other principles. For example, Chesed (Kindness) and Gevurah (Severity) no longer oppose as absolute principles, but there is Kindness within Severity and Severity within Kindness. In the same way, all 10 sephirot subdivide into 10 x 10 = 100 latent principles, allowing the sephirot to harmonise as one system (as Yosher-Man).
The potency of Lurianic scheme, with its new doctrines and paradigm, arises from its power to systemise and unify previously unexplained and unrelated Kabbalistic notions.In this case, previously Iggulim and Yosher were alternative and complementary descriptions of the sephirot in Medieval Kabbalah. In Lurianic Kabbalah their difference becomes the root cause of the new process of dynamic crisis-catharsis in the Divine unfolding of Creation. Akudim is the initial stable stage of Olam HaTohu (the "World of Chaos"), the first emergence of the sephirot in undifferentiated unity, 10 lights encompassed in one vessel. In this supreme abundance of Divinity, there is no distinction between each sephirah, all Creation being included in potential. Luria read this as Genesis 1:1 "In the beginning God created the Heavens and the Earth", the initial vital source from which all would unfold. Nekudim is the secondary unstable form of chaos, referred to in general by "Olam HaTohu" (the "World of Chaos"), which precipitates the catastrophe of Shevirat HaKeilim ("shattering" of the sephirot "vessels"). Berudim is the initial incomplete stage of Olam HaTikun (the "World of Rectification"), beginning rectification of the sephirot, as it is reconstituted enough to exist stabily. However, supernal rectification is only completed subsequently in Atzilut (the world of "Emanation"), first of the comprehensive Four spiritual Worlds after the Shevirah, through the secondary transformation of the sephirot into Partzufim (Divine "Personas"). Atzilut, therefore, is generally referred to by "Olam HaTikun" (the "World of Rectification"). All three stages Akudim, Nekudim, Berudim are also described sometimes as three initial stages in the emergence of the World of Atzilut. However, in general, unqualified reference to "Atzilut" denotes its complete recified form after Berudim, the first of the comprehensive Four Worlds.
In Kabbalah generally, the sephirot comprise the inner "life of God", their unification being the task of man. When the sephirot unite above in Atzilut (the perfected realm of Divinity), the Shekhinah (Divine Presence) unites with God below, and Divine blessing is channeled to physical creation. The classic section of the Zohar, "Patach Eliyahu", relates that the sephirot only exist from the perspective of Creation. From the Divine perspective only absolute Unity exists. The sephirot are the channels through which creation is enacted. In relation to creation, they become the revealed Divine "attributes", manifestated from concealment and nullification in the Ein Sof.
As the Lurianic scheme continues, in Nekudim (world of "Points"), the sephirot exist in separation and differentiation from each other, 10 distinct point principles, through 10 vessels without harmony. This state, Olam HaTohu (the "World of Chaos") was read by Luria in Genesis 1:2 "And the earth was Tohu and Bohu (Chaos and Void), with darkness over the surface of the deep..." Each sephirah emerges as an independent principle, so that intellect does not mediate the absolute emotional expressions; kindness, severity and so forth become opposing forces. This "flaw" in the Divine realm emerges because the sephirot are in the mode of Igulim ("Circles"), like discreet, sequential concentric circles. They become a "domain of pluralism" (the esoteric meaning of the Talmudic Sabbath Public Domain) rather than "domain of unity". The World of Tohu is characterised by very high Divine light, but weak vessels. Vessels paradoxically allow revelation of Divinity to Creation by restricting and containing the Divine abundance in stable limitations. In Tohu the lack of sharing between the vessels makes them immature, undeveloped and weak, while the Divine illumination overflows their capacity to contain. This causes the cosmic catastrophe of Shevirat HaKeilim ("Shattering" of the sephirot "Vessels"), introducing disharmony and exile throughout Divinity.
The light created each sephirah sequentially, first vessel, then the illumination within. Each sephirah's light contained also the subsequent diminishing lights to form the following lower sephirot. As the light of the Ein Sof radiated to form Keter, the vessel of Keter could absorb the life force. In turn, the vessels of Chochmah and Binah could absorb most of their flow, as their proximity to Keter made them strong enough, Keter extending enough relationship to them, as their motivating Will. Their excesses of light were able to encompass each as an Ohr Makif ("Surrounding light"). However, as the light proceeded to Daat, the root of the emotional sephirot, its vessel could not absorb the abundant radiance for the totality of the emotions, and shattered. This caused the total light to proceed downwards, shattering each vessel in turn. The succession was altered in Yesod, the channel of connection to Malchut-purpose. Initially, it received only the light for Malchut, which it projected on. It then also shattered under its own light. However, this enabled Malchut to partially absorb its light before collapsing; the lower, external aspects of Malchut were strengthened, so the collapse in Malchut was only partial.
This doctrine is the Lurianic esoteric meaning of Genesis 36:31 and I Chronicles 1:43:
"These are the kings who reigned in the land of Edom before there reigned any king over the children of Israel..."
Edom is described in Genesis as the descendants of Esau. In the Kabbalistic scheme, the Patriarchs Abraham, Isaac and Jacob embodied respectively Chesed, Gevurah and Tiferet. Chesed and Gevurah are imbalanced, while Tiferet is harmony between the two. Consequently, while Jacob fathered the 12 tribes of Israel, Abraham gave birth to Ishmael, while Isaac gave birth to Esau. Esau and Ishmael are seen as the two spiritual roots for the Nations of the World. They are identified with unrectified Chesed and unrectified Gevurah respectively, Kindness and Severity of the World of Tohu-Chaos. In the Kabbalistic scheme they are rectified in the universal Messianic era, when all peoples will "go up to the mountain of the Lord"to follow the 7 Laws of Noah. The eight kings listed who reigned in Edom before any king of Israel, embodied the eight sephirot of Daat to Malchut in the World of Tohu, the vessels that shattered. Of each it says they lived and died, death connoting the soul-light of the sephirot ascending back to its source, while the body-vessel descends-shatters. Attached to the broken vessels are residues of the light, Nitzutzot-"Sparks" of holiness, as all Creation only continues to exist from non-existence by the Divine flow of Will. The sparks are the creative force of the Sephirot down the Four Worlds, giving life to the broken vessels, that become the descending beings of each realm. As they descend, they subdivide innumerable times. As the fragments contain only sparks of holiness, this allows them to become self-aware creations, rather than being nullified in Divine light. The unabsorbed residue of the broken vessels in our physical, lowest World Assiah becomes the realm of impurity and evil. To Kabbalah, as Creation is enacted through Divine "speech" as in Genesis 1, so gematria (numerical value of Hebrew letters) has spiritual meaning. In the supernal World of Atziluth-Emanation, the origin of our spiritual Order of Worlds, the sparks of holiness are said to subdivide into 288 general-root sparks, read out from the rest of Genesis 1:2, "...And the Spirit of God hovered over the waters." Merachepet-"hovered" splits into the number "288 died", the divided Divine sparks within the broken fragments.
The comprehensive Four Worlds of our created existence are together collectively the realms of Tikun ("Fixing"). Atzilut, the highest, is called specifically Olam HaTikun (the "World of Rectification"). In Atzilut, the Sephirot evolve into new partzufim arrangements, where they can unite. The different realms of Tikun are characterised in comparison to Tohu as lower lights and stronger vessels.
Subsequent to the interinclusion of the 10 Sephirot within each other, in Lurianic Kabbalah they then develop into "Partsufim" ("Personas"). Wide discussion of the Partsufim is found in the Medieval Kabbalah of the Zohar, before Isaac Luria. In the Zohar, Shimon bar Yochai expounds upon the spiritual roles of the Parsufim, by talking about them as independent spiritual manifestations. "The Holy Ancient of Days", or "The Long Visage", two of the different Parsufim, are not just alternative adjectives for God, but are particular spiritual manifestations, levels and natures. Lurianic Kabbalah focused on the role of the Parsufim as the fully evolved stage of the primordial evolution of the Sephirot, in the beginning of Creation. Instead of each of the 10 Sephirot merely including a full subset of 10 Sephirot as latent potential forces, the first stage of their evolution, in the Parsufim the Sephirot become fully autonomous and interrelated. The name of each Partsuf denotes that the Sephirah from which it derived, has now become an independent scheme of 10 fully functioning Sephirot in the "Upright" (Yosher) form of "Man". This reconfiguration is essential in Lurianic Kabbalah to enable the opposing spiritual forces of the Sephirot to work together in harmony. Each Parsuf now operates independently, and unites with the other Parsufim. So, for example, "The Long Visage" is said to descend, and become enclothed within the lower Parsufim. The Sephirot now harmonise, to enable the Lurianic scheme of Tikkun (Rectification) to begin.
Supernal Tikun is completed in Atzilut through the sephirot evolving into the further stage of Partzufim (Divine "Configurations"). In the partzufim, rather than each sephirah partially inter-relating by latently incorporating the other powers, as in Berudim, instead all harmonise fully around one of their number, as complete autonomous Yosher schemes. The partzufim then interact and enclothe within each other through anthropomorphic relationships in Atzilut, channeling Divine vitality to lower worlds.
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Psychologically, a Tohu state is one of fragmentation. The various elements of one's personality are in conflict with each other and unable to work together in a cohesive fashion. A Tikkun state is one of harmony and integration.
Kabbalah is an esoteric method, discipline and school of thought in Jewish mysticism. A traditional Kabbalist is called a Mekubbal. The definition of Kabbalah varies according to the tradition and aims of those following it, from its origin in medieval Judaism to its later adaptations in Western esotericism. Jewish Kabbalah is a set of esoteric teachings meant to explain the relationship between the unchanging, eternal God—the mysterious Ein Sof —and the mortal, finite universe. It forms the foundation of mystical religious interpretations within Judaism.
Tikkun olam is a concept in Judaism, which refers to various forms of action intended to repair and improve the world.
In the Zohar, Lurianic Kabbalah, and Hermetic Qabalah, the qlippoth, are the representation of evil or impure spiritual forces in Jewish mysticism, the polar opposites of the holy Sefirot.
The tzimtzum or tsimtsum is a term used in the Lurianic Kabbalah to explain Isaac Luria's doctrine that God began the process of creation by "contracting" his Ohr Ein Sof in order to allow for a "conceptual space" in which finite and seemingly independent realms could exist. This primordial initial contraction, forming a ḥalal hapanuy "vacant space" into which new creative light could beam, is denoted by general reference to the tzimtzum. In Kabbalistic interpretation, tzimtzum gives rise to the paradox of simultaneous divine presence and absence within the vacuum and resultant Creation. Various approaches exist then, within Orthodoxy, as to how the paradox may be resolved, and as to the nature of tzimtzum itself.
Sefirot, meaning emanations, are the 10 attributes/emanations in Kabbalah, through which Ein Sof reveals itself and continuously creates both the physical realm and the chain of higher metaphysical realms. The term is alternatively transliterated into English as sephirot/sephiroth, singular sefirah/sephirah, etc.
Ein Sof, or Eyn Sof, in Kabbalah, is understood as God prior to any self-manifestation in the production of any spiritual realm, probably derived from Solomon ibn Gabirol's term, "the Endless One". Ein Sof may be translated as "unending", "(there is) no end", or infinity. It was first used by Azriel, who, sharing the Neoplatonic belief that God can have no desire, thought, word, or action, emphasized by it the negation of any attribute. Of the Ein Sof, nothing ("Ein") can be grasped ("Sof"-limitation). It is the origin of the Ohr Ein Sof, the "Infinite Light" of paradoxical divine self-knowledge, nullified within the Ein Sof prior to creation. In Lurianic Kabbalah, the first act of creation, the Tzimtzum self "withdrawal" of God to create an "empty space", takes place from there. In Hasidic Judaism, the Tzimtzum is only the illusionary concealment of the Ohr Ein Sof, giving rise to monistic panentheism. Consequently, Hasidism focuses on the Atzmus divine essence, rooted higher within the Godhead than the Ein Sof, which is limited to infinitude, and reflected in the essence (etzem) of the Torah and the soul.
In Kabbalistic and Hasidic philosophy, seder hishtalshelut or hishtalshelus refers to the chain-like descent of spiritual worlds (Olam/Olamot) between God and Creation. Each spiritual world denotes a complete realm of existence, resulting from its general proximity or distance to divine revelation. Each realm is also a form of consciousness reflected in this world through the psychology of the soul.
Ze`ir Anpin is a revealed aspect of God in Kabbalah, comprising the emotional sephirot attributes: Chesed, Gevurah, Tiphereth, Netzach, Hod and Yesod.
Lurianic Kabbalah is a school of kabbalah named after Isaac Luria (1534–1572), the Jewish rabbi who developed it. Lurianic Kabbalah gave a seminal new account of Kabbalistic thought that its followers synthesised with, and read into, the earlier Kabbalah of the Zohar that had disseminated in Medieval circles.
The Four Worlds, sometimes counted with a prior stage to make Five Worlds, are the comprehensive categories of spiritual realms in Kabbalah in the descending chain of Existence.
The realm known as Akudim/Olam Ha'Akudim is one of the many spiritual worlds described by Kabbalah as being part of the order of development that God utilized to create the physical world. Its significance emerges in Lurianic Kabbalah, as a stage in the process of Tohu and Tikun.
The realm known as Nekudim/Olam HaNekudim is one of the many spiritual worlds (Olamot) described by Kabbalah, as part of the order of development in Creation. Its significance emerges in Lurianic Kabbalah as part of the process of Tohu and Tikun.
Ohr is a central Kabbalistic term in Jewish mysticism. The analogy of physical light is used as a way of describing metaphysical divine emanations. Shefa is sometimes alternatively used in Kabbalah, a term also used in Medieval Jewish philosophy to mean divine influence, while the Kabbalists favour Ohr because its numerical value equals Raz ("mystery"). It is one of the two main metaphors in Kabbalah for understanding God, along with the other metaphor of the human soul-body relationship for the sefirot.
Ayin is an important concept in Kabbalah and Hasidic philosophy. It is contrasted with the term Yesh. According to kabbalistic teachings, before the universe was created there was only Ayin, and the first manifest Sephirah, Chochmah (Wisdom), "comes into being out of Ayin." In this context, the sephirah Keter, the Divine will, is the intermediary between the Divine Infinity and Chochmah. Because Keter is a supreme revelation of the Ohr Ein Sof, transcending the manifest sephirot, it is sometimes excluded from them.
Kochos/Kochot haNefesh, meaning "Powers of the Soul", are the innate constituent character-aspects within the soul, in Hasidic thought's psychological internalisation of Kabbalah. They derive from the 10 Sephirot Heavenly emanations of Kabbalah, by relating each quality to its parallel internal motivation in man. The Hasidic discussion of the sephirot, particularly in the Kabbalistically oriented system of Habad thought, focuses principally on the Soul Powers, the experience of the sephirot in Jewish worship.
Daas/Daat Elyon and Daas/Daat Tachton are two alternative levels of perception of reality in Hasidic thought. Their terms derive from the Kabbalistic sephirot: Keter and Da'at, considered two levels of the same unifying principle; the first encompassing, the second internalised within the person. In Kabbalah either Keter or Da'at are listed in the 10 sephirot, but not both. While the significance of this duality is limited in Kabbalah to its discussion of the Heavenly realms, the significance, and the terminology of "Higher" and "Lower Knowledge" emerges in the Hasidic internalisation of Kabbalah to describe alternative, paradoxical conscious perceptions of Divine Panentheism in this material World. Upper Knowledge refers to the Divine view "from Above", Lower Knowledge to the Created view "from Below".
Partzufim/Partsufim, meaning "Divine Personas", are particular reconfigured arrangements of the ten sefirot, divine attributes/emanations of Kabbalah. Each partzuf is thus a configuration of disparate entities into a harmonious unit. The names of the partzufim are derived from the Zohar, the foundational text of Kabbalah. There, they are synonymous terms for the sefirot. Their full doctrinal significance emerged in 16th century Lurianic Kabbalah with reference to the cosmic processes of Tohu and Tikun, "Chaos and Rectification."
Arich Anpin or Arikh Anpin (Aramaic: אריך אנפין meaning "Long Face/Extended Countenance" is an aspect of Divine emanation in Kabbalah, identified with the sephirah attribute of Keter, the Divine Will.
Yichudim is a specific form of Jewish meditation in Kabbalistic Jewish mysticism, especially denoting the complete meditative method developed by Isaac Luria (1534–1572). The term Yichud is found in Halakha, denoting male-female "seclusion". In the esoteric anthropomorphism in Kabbalah, Yichudim denote unifications between male and female Divine aspects in the supernal sephirot.
The realm known as Berudim/Verudim/Olam HaBerudim is one of the many spiritual worlds (Olamot) described by Kabbalah, as part of the order of development in Creation. Its significance emerges in Lurianic Kabbalah as a part of the process of Tohu and Tikun.