Toi invasion

Last updated
Toi invasion
Date27 March 1019 [1] [2]
Location 33°37′05″N130°19′59″E / 33.618°N 130.333°E / 33.618; 130.333
Result Many Japanese girls kidnapped and enslaved, as well as livestock killed.
Jurchen pirates Japanese Dazaifu Goryeo
Commanders and leaders
Unknown Fujiwara no Masatada  [ ja ] 
Fujiwara no Takaie
Ōkura no Taneki  [ ja ]
3000 ? ?
Casualties and losses
8 ships captured by Goryeo [3] 850+ (killed and abducted) 350 dead, 1300 enslaved. Only 259 or 270 were returned by Koreans from the 8 ships. [4] ?
Japan natural location map with side map of the Ryukyu Islands.jpg
Red pog.svg
Location within Japan

The Toi invasion (Japanese: 刀伊の入寇, Hepburn: toi no nyūkō) was the invasion of northern Kyūshū by Jurchen pirates in 1019. [5]


At the time, Toi (, Doe) meant "barbarian" in the Korean language. The Toi pirates sailed with about 50 ships from direction of Goryeo, then assaulted Tsushima and Iki, starting 27 March 1019. After the Iki Island garrison consisting of 147 soldiers led by Fujiwara Notada was wiped out, the Jurchen pirates slaughtered all the Japanese men while seizing Japanese women as prisoners. Fujiwara Notada, the Japanese governor was killed. [6]

After that, they raided Chikuzen Province's Ido, Shima, and Sawara counties, and on April 9, they raided Hakata. For a week, using Noko Island  [ ja ] in the Hakata Bay as a base, they sacked villages and kidnapped over 1000 Japanese, mostly women and young girls, for use as slaves. The Dazaifu, the administrative center of Kyūshū, then raised an army and successfully drove the pirates away. [7]

After that, they then raided Matsuura County, Hizen Province from April 13 to May 20, and were eventually repelled by Genchi, the founder of the "Matsuura 48 Parties", and after attacking Tsushima again, they retreated towards the Korean Peninsula. [8]

A few months later, the Goryeo delegate Jeong Jaryang (鄭子良) reported that the Goryeo navy had intercepted the pirates off of Weonsan and eliminated them. They rescued around 300 Japanese captives. Under Korean captivity "they were provided white clothes and fed meals with silverware". The Korean government then repatriated them back to Japan where they were thanked by the Dazaifu and given rewards. There remain detailed reports by two captive women, Kura no Iwame and Tajihi no Akomi, with Kura no Iwame's report being copied down. [9]

The Japanese children and women kidnapped by the Jurchens were mostly likely forced to become prostitutes and sex slaves. Only 270 or 259 Japanese on 8 ships were returned when Goryeo managed to intercept them. 1280 Japanese were taken prisoner, 374 Japanese were killed and 380 Japanese owned livestock were killed for food. [10]

These Jurchen pirates lived in what is today Hamgyŏngdo, North Korea. [11]

Traumatic memories of the Jurchen raids on Japan, the Mongol invasions of Japan in addition to Japan viewing the Jurchens as "Tatar" "barbarians" after copying China's barbarian-civilized distinction, may have played a role in Japan's antagonistic views against Manchus and hostility towards them in later centuries such as when the Tokugawa Ieyasu viewed the unification of Manchu tribes as a threat to Japan. The Japanese mistakenly thought that Hokkaido (Ezochi) had a land bridge to Tartary (Orankai) where Manchus lived and thought the Manchus could invade Japan. In 1627, The Tokugawa shogunate sent a message to Joseon via Tsushima offering help to Joseon against the Later Jin invasion of Joseon. Joseon refused it. [12]

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<span class="mw-page-title-main">1019</span> Calendar year

Year 1019 (MXIX) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar.

The Manchus are a Tungusic East Asian ethnic group native to Manchuria in Northeast Asia. They are an officially recognized ethnic minority in China and the people from whom Manchuria derives its name. The Later Jin (1616–1636) and Qing (1636–1912) dynasties of China were established and ruled by the Manchus, who are descended from the Jurchen people who earlier established the Jin dynasty (1115–1234) in northern China. Manchus form the largest branch of the Tungusic peoples and are distributed throughout China, forming the fourth largest ethnic group in the country. They can be found in 31 Chinese provincial regions. Among them, Liaoning has the largest population and Hebei, Heilongjiang, Jilin, Inner Mongolia and Beijing have over 100,000 Manchu residents. About half of the population live in Liaoning and one-fifth in Hebei. There are a number of Manchu autonomous counties in China, such as Xinbin, Xiuyan, Qinglong, Fengning, Yitong, Qingyuan, Weichang, Kuancheng, Benxi, Kuandian, Huanren, Fengcheng, Beizhen and over 300 Manchu towns and townships. Manchus are the largest minority group in China without an autonomous region.

Jurchen is a term used to collectively describe a number of East Asian Tungusic-speaking people, descended from the Donghu people. They lived in northeastern China, also known as Manchuria, before the 18th century. The Jurchens were renamed Manchus in 1635 by Hong Taiji. Different Jurchen groups lived as hunter-gatherers, pastoralist semi-nomads, or sedentary agriculturists. Generally lacking a central authority, and having little communication with each other, many Jurchen groups fell under the influence of neighbouring dynasties, their chiefs paying tribute and holding nominal posts as effectively hereditary commanders of border guards.

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