Toilers Organisation of Afghanistan (Persian : سازمان زحمتکشان افغانستان, abbreviated سزا, transliterated Sazman-e Zahmatkashan-e Afghanistan, 'SeZA') was a leftwing group in Afghanistan. It was formed by PDPA dissidents, which had broken away from the PDPA in the late 1970s. The leader of the organisation was Hamdullah Gran. The party was mainly based amongst Pashtuns.
In November 1987 SeZA was able to assume overground activities and joined the PDPA-led Union of Left-Democratic Parties. However, a dissident SeZA faction, led by Zaman Gul Dehati, remained underground. This grouping later became the Alliance of Peace and Progress Fighters of Afghanistan.
Babrak Karmal was an Afghan revolutionary and politician who was the leader of Afghanistan, serving in the post of General Secretary of the People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan for seven years.
Hafizullah Amin was an Afghan communist revolutionary, politician and teacher. He organized the Saur Revolution of 1978 and co-founded the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan (DRA), ruling Afghanistan as General Secretary of the People's Democratic Party from September 1979 until his assassination in December 1979.
Khadamat-e Aetla'at-e Dawlati (Pashto/Dari: خدمات اطلاعات دولتی literally "State Intelligence Agency", also known as "State Information Services" or "Committee of State Security". Usually referred to by the acronym KHAD, it was the main security agency and intelligence agency of Afghanistan. It functioned as the secret police when Afghanistan was occupied by the Soviet Union during the Soviet–Afghan War.
Mohammad Najibullah Ahmadzai, commonly known as Dr. Najib, was an Afghan politician who served as the General Secretary of the People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan, the leader of the one-party ruling Democratic Republic of Afghanistan from 1986 to 1992 and as well as the President of Afghanistan from 1987 until his resignation in April 1992, shortly after which the mujahideen took over Kabul. After a failed attempt to flee to India, Najibullah remained in Kabul. He lived in the United Nations headquarters until his assassination by the Taliban after their capture of the city.
The Democratic Republic of Afghanistan (DRA), renamed the Republic of Afghanistan in 1987, was the Afghan state during the one-party rule of the People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan (PDPA) from 1978 to 1992.
The People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan (PDPA) was a Marxist–Leninist political party in Afghanistan established on 1 January 1965. Four members of the party won seats in the 1965 Afghan parliamentary election, reduced to two seats in 1969, albeit both before parties were fully legal. For most of its existence, the party was split between the hardline Khalq and moderate Parcham factions, each of which claimed to represent the "true" PDPA.
Nur Muhammad Taraki was an Afghan revolutionary communist politician, journalist and writer. He was a founding member of the People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan (PDPA) who served as its General Secretary from 1965 to 1979 and Chairman of the Revolutionary Council from 1978 to 1979.
The Democratic Youth Organisation of Afghanistan, also known as the People's Youth Organisation of Afghanistan, was the main youth organisation in the former Democratic Republic of Afghanistan. It was the youth wing of the ruling People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan (PDPA). Upon turning seventeen years of age, members of the DYOA would become eligible for membership in the PDPA. By June 1978 the organisation had around 4,000 members.
The Communist (Maoist) Party of Afghanistan, previously known as the Communist Party of Afghanistan, is an underground communist party in Afghanistan oriented around Marxism–Leninism–Maoism (MLM). The party was founded in 2004 through the merger of five MLM parties. It was a member of the Revolutionary Internationalist Movement (RIM).
The Watan Party of Afghanistan is a social democratic political party in Afghanistan. The party describes itself as "national and democratic, progressive and reformist".
The Islamic Dawah Organization of Afghanistan is a political party in Afghanistan led by Abdul Rasul Sayyaf. Founded in the early 1980s as the Islamic Union for the Liberation of Afghanistan, it was originally an attempt to bring unity amongst Islamist opposition forces in Afghanistan. However, the creation of the new umbrella organization effectively created a split and the organization became a political party of its own. The organization was part of the 'Peshawar Seven', the coalition of mujahedin forces supported by the United States, Pakistan and various Arab states of the Persian Gulf in the war against the PDPA government, Soviet forces and Ba'athist Iraq. Through the financial aid received from Saudi sources, the organization was able to attract a considerable military following. Arab volunteers fought in the militia forces of the organisation.
Islamic Movement of Afghanistan is a political party and former faction of the Afghan Northern Alliance in Afghanistan. The movement is registered as a political party with the Ministry of Justice. From its foundation to 2005, the movement was led by Asif Mohseni. The movement emerged in 1978. Initially the movement was inspired by the Islamic revolutionary ideas of Ali Shari'ati, but over time this influence waned.
Khalq was a faction of the People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan (PDPA). Its historical de facto leaders were Nur Muhammad Taraki (1967–1979), Hafizullah Amin (1979) and Sayed Mohammad Gulabzoy (1979–1990). It was also the name of the leftist newspaper produced by the same movement. The Khalq wing was formed in 1967 after the split of the party due to bitter resentment with the rival Parcham faction which had a differing revolutionary strategy.
The Saur Revolution or Sowr Revolution, also known as the April Revolution or the April Coup, was staged on 27–28 April 1978 by the People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan (PDPA) and overthrew Afghan president Mohammed Daoud Khan, who had himself taken power in the 1973 Afghan coup d'état and established an autocratic one-party system in the country. Daoud and most of his family were executed at the Arg in the capital city of Kabul by PDPA-affiliated military officers, after which his supporters were also purged and killed. The successful PDPA uprising resulted in the creation of a socialist Afghan government that was closely aligned with the Soviet Union, with Nur Muhammad Taraki serving as the PDPA's General Secretary of the Revolutionary Council. Saur or Sowr is the Dari-language name for the second month of the Solar Hijri calendar, during which the events took place.
Organisation of Toilers' Fedayan of Afghanistan was a left-wing group in Afghanistan. It was formed after a section of youth cadres had broken away from the Setam-e-Milli group. Like the Settam-e-Milli grouping and its later incarnation SAZA, SAFZA was part of the 'ethnic left' based amongst the peoples from Greater Khorasan, Southern Turkestan to Badakhshan, opposed to Pashtun political dominance.
Alliance of Peace and Progress Fighters of Afghanistan, a political faction in Afghanistan led by Zaman Gul Dehati, which emerged from a dissident faction within the Toilers Organisation of Afghanistan. The group joined the Union of Left-Democratic Parties sometime around 1988–1989.
The final and complete withdrawal of Soviet combatant forces from Afghanistan began on 15 May 1988 and ended on 15 February 1989 under the leadership of Colonel-General Boris Gromov.
Revolutionary Toilers Society of Afghanistan was a political organization in Afghanistan, a dissident faction of the People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan. JAZA was led by Kandahari Zaher Ufoq. The group criticized the PDPA from a leftist position, for example for not having declared dictatorship of the proletariat following the Saur Revolution.
Anahita Ratebzad was an Afghan socialist and Marxist-Leninist politician and a member of the People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan (PDPA) and the Revolutionary Council under the leadership of Babrak Karmal. One of the first women elected to the Afghan parliament, Ratebzad was deputy head of state from 1980 to 1986.
The National United Party of Afghanistan is a political party in Afghanistan.