Toilet Revolution in China (simplified Chinese :厕所革命; traditional Chinese :廁所革命; pinyin :Cèsuǒ Gémìng; lit. 'lavatory-place transform - mandate ') is a government campaign aimed at improving the sanitary conditions in Mainland China. In 2015, Xi Jinping, General Secretary of the Chinese Communist Party, announced that China is going to improve the sanitary conditions of public toilets in tourist attractions, about which foreign travelers have long complained. The "Toilet revolution" entry in the State Council Information Office's 2015 "Dictionary of Xi Jinping's new terms" explains the campaign, "Along with agricultural modernization and new rural construction, local governments will ensure that villagers have access to hygienic toilets." Xi has been praised for his leading role in the campaign.
From 2015 to 2017, over 68,000 public toilets were constructed in China. In 2017, construction of an additional 64,000 public toilets was planned.In the same year, the campaign was geographically expanded, and authorities are going to improve the poor sanitary conditions in rural areas of China. State Media reported that the unsanitary conditions in rural toilets can result in spreading diseases like malaria and the campaign aims at solving such problems.
The Chinese Communist Party (CCP), officially the Communist Party of China (CPC), is the founding and sole ruling party of the People's Republic of China (PRC). Under the leadership of Mao Zedong, the CCP emerged victorious in the Chinese Civil War against the Kuomintang, and, in 1949, Mao proclaimed the establishment of the People's Republic of China. Since then, the CCP has governed China with eight smaller parties within its United Front and has sole control over the People's Liberation Army (PLA). Each successive leader of the CCP has added their own theories to the party's constitution, which outlines the ideological beliefs of the party, collectively referred to as socialism with Chinese characteristics. As of 2022, the CCP has more than 96 million members, making it the second largest political party by party membership in the world after India's Bharatiya Janata Party. The Chinese public generally refers to the CCP as simply "the Party".
The Central Military Commission (CMC) is the highest national defense organization in the People's Republic of China. It operates within the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) under the name "Central Military Commission of the Communist Party of China", and as the military branch of the central government under the name "Central Military Commission of the People's Republic of China".
Propaganda in China refers to the use of propaganda by the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) or (historically) the Kuomintang (KMT) to sway domestic and international opinion in favor of its policies. Domestically, this includes censorship of proscribed views and an active promotion of views that favor the government. Propaganda is considered central to the operation of the CCP government. The term xuanchuan can have either a neutral connotation in official government contexts or a pejorative connotation in informal contexts. Some xuanchuan collocations usually refer to "propaganda", others to "publicity", and still others are ambiguous.
Xi Jinping is a Chinese politician who has served as the general secretary of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) and chairman of the Central Military Commission (CMC), and thus as the paramount leader of China, since 2012. Xi has also served as the president of the People's Republic of China (PRC) since 2013.
Wang Qishan is a Chinese politician, and the current Vice President of the People's Republic of China. Wang is one of the leading figures behind China's foreign affairs, along with President Xi Jinping and Premier Li Keqiang. Between 2012 and 2017, Wang had served as the Secretary of the Central Commission for Discipline Inspection, the Chinese Communist Party's internal control and anti-corruption body, and a member of the Politburo Standing Committee of the Chinese Communist Party. He has been instrumental in carrying out General Secretary Xi Jinping's anti-corruption campaign since 2013.
The history of the People's Republic of China details the history of mainland China since 1 October 1949, when CCP chairman Mao Zedong proclaimed the People's Republic of China (PRC) from atop Tiananmen, after a near complete victory (1949) by the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) in the Chinese Civil War. The PRC is the most recent political entity to govern mainland China, preceded by the Republic of China and thousands of years of monarchical dynasties. The paramount leaders have been Mao Zedong (1949-1976); Hua Guofeng (1976-1978); Deng Xiaoping (1978-1989); Jiang Zemin (1989-2002); Hu Jintao (2002-2012); and Xi Jinping.
The United Front is a political strategy of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) involving networks of groups and key individuals that are influenced or controlled by the CCP and used to advance its interests. It has historically been a popular front that has included eight legally-permitted political parties which have nominal representation in the National People's Congress and the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC). Under CCP General Secretary Xi Jinping, the United Front and its targets of influence have expanded in size and scope.
The history of the Chinese Communist Party began with its establishment in July 1921. A study group led by Peking University professors Chen Duxiu and Li Dazhao to discuss Marxism, led to intellectuals officially founding the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) in July 1921. In 1923, Sun Yat-sen invited the CCP to form a United Front, and to join his Nationalist Party (GMD) in Canton for training under representatives of the Comintern, the Soviet Union's international organization. The Soviet representatives reorganized both parties into Leninist parties. Rather than the loose organization that characterized the two parties until then, the Leninist party operated on the principle of democratic centralism, in which the collective leadership set standards for membership and an all powerful Central Committee determined the Party line, which all members must follow.
The Shadian incident was an uprising of Muslim Hui people during the Chinese Cultural Revolution which ended in a military-led massacre. The massacre took place in seven villages of Yunnan Province, especially at the Shadian Town of Gejiu City, in July and August 1975; most sources estimate the number of the deaths around 1,600, including 300 children, in addition to the destruction of 4,400 homes.
In spite of restrictions on freedom of association, particularly in the decades since the death of Mao Zedong in 1976, there have been incidents of protest and dissent in China. Among the most notable of these were the 1959 Tibetan uprising against Chinese Communist Party (CCP) rule, the 1989 Tiananmen Square protests, which were put down with brutal military force, the 25 April 1999 demonstration by 10,000 Falun Gong practitioners at Zhongnanhai, and the 2022 protests against COVID-19 lockdowns. Protesters and dissidents in China espouse a wide variety of grievances, including corruption, forced evictions, unpaid wages, human rights abuses, environmental degradation, ethnic protests, petitioning for religious freedom and civil liberties, protests against one-party rule, as well as nationalist protests against foreign countries.
The Chinese Dream is a term closely associated with Xi Jinping, the General Secretary of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) and China's paramount leader. Xi began promoting the phrase as a slogan during a high-profile tour of an exhibit at the National Museum of China in November 2012, shortly after he became leader of the CCP. The exhibit at that time was called the "Road to National Rejuvenation", and Xi said that the Chinese Dream is the "great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation".
Swachh Bharat Mission (SBM), Swachh Bharat Abhiyan, or Clean India Mission is a country-wide campaign initiated by the Government of India in 2014 to eliminate open defecation and improve solid waste management. It is a restructured version of the Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan launched in 2009 and carried out by predecessor Manmohan Singh that failed to achieve its intended targets.
Rat tribe is a neologism used to describe low income migrant workers who live in underground accommodations within Chinese cities. Official estimates are of 281,000 people living in Beijing's underground, although estimates of up to one million have also been widely reported.
The concept of Targeted Poverty Alleviation was first raised by Xi Jinping, General Secretary of the Chinese Communist Party to combat poverty in China.
Community of common destiny for mankind,人类命运共同体 officially translated as community with a shared future for mankind, is a political slogan used by the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) to describe a stated foreign-policy goal of the People's Republic of China. The phrase was first used by former CCP General Secretary Hu Jintao and has been frequently cited by current General Secretary Xi Jinping. The phrase was included in the preamble of the Constitution of the People's Republic of China when the Constitution was amended in 2018.
The Guangxi Massacre, or Guangxi Cultural Revolution Massacre, was a series of events involving lynching and direct massacre in Guangxi during the Cultural Revolution (1966–1976). The official record shows an estimated death toll from 100,000 to 150,000. Methods of slaughter included beheading, beating, live burial, stoning, drowning, boiling and disemboweling. In certain areas including Wuxuan County and Wuming District, massive human cannibalism occurred even though no famine existed. According to public records available, at least 137 people—perhaps hundreds more—were eaten by others and at least thousands of people participated in the cannibalism. Other researchers have pointed out that 421 victims who could be identified by name were eaten, and there were reports of cannibalism across dozens of counties in Guangxi.
Boluan Fanzheng or Poluan Fancheng, was a period in the history of People's Republic of China during which Deng Xiaoping, then paramount leader of China, led a far-reaching program attempting to correct the mistakes of the Cultural Revolution launched by Mao Zedong. The program gradually dismantled the Maoist policies associated with the Cultural Revolution, rehabilitated millions of victims who were persecuted during the Revolution, initiated various sociopolitical reforms, and brought the country back to order in a systematic way. The Boluan Fanzheng period is regarded as an important transition period in China's history, which served as the bedrock of the historic Reform and Opening-up program starting on December 18, 1978.
The Guangdong Cultural Revolution Massacre was a series of massacres that took place in Guangdong Province of China during the Cultural Revolution. There were 80 counties in Guangdong during the Cultural Revolution, and according to the 57 county annals which became available during the "Boluan Fanzheng" period, massacres occurred in 28 of the counties with six counties recording a death toll of over 1,000—the average death toll among all the 28 counties was 278. The massacre in Yangjiang was the most serious, with over 2,600 deaths in Yangchun County alone. In addition, massacres also occurred in some cities of Guangdong; in the capital city Guangzhou, for example, the massacre targeting the prisoners of Laogai resulted in the deaths of at least 187-197 people within a week of August 1967.
Common prosperity is a Chinese Communist Party (CCP) political slogan and stated policy to bolster social equality. Under the leadership of CCP chairman Mao Zedong, common prosperity meant egalitarianism and collective ownership. This was changed under paramount leader Deng Xiaoping, who redefined the term by saying that common prosperity meant that some could get rich before others. Under the leadership of CCP general secretary Xi Jinping, the term has gained large-scale prominence, with Xi defining common prosperity as more equal distribution of income, but also said that it is not egalitarianism.
A series of protests against COVID-19 lockdowns began in mainland China in November 2022. Colloquially referred to as the White Paper Protests or the A4 Revolution, the demonstrations started in response to measures taken by the Chinese government to prevent the spread of COVID-19 in the country, including implementing a zero-COVID policy. Discontent had grown since the beginning of the pandemic towards the policy, which confined many people to their homes without work and left some unable to purchase or receive daily necessities.